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Although the prevalence rates of preadolescent eating disorders (EDs) are on the rise, considerably less is known about the correlates and treatment of EDs in this age group. Clarifying the epidemiology of EDs in preadolescent children is a necessary first step to understand the nature and scope of this problem in this age group.
Analysis of data collected in the ABCD Study release 2.0.1. The ABCD cohort was a population-based sample that consisted of 11 721 children ages 9–10 years. Measures included reports of a lifetime and current mental disorders determined using a diagnostic interview for DSM-5 disorders, sociodemographic factors, and psychiatric treatment utilization.
The lifetime prevalence of EDs was 0.95%. Being Black, multiracial, having unmarried parents, and family economic insecurity were significant predictors for developing an ED. Among psychiatric conditions, the major depressive disorder was most robustly associated with EDs in both cross-sectional and temporal analyses. Only 47.40% of children who had a lifetime ED received some type of psychiatric treatment. EDs were not a significant predictor of psychiatric treatment utilization after accounting for sex, sexual orientation, parent marital status, economic insecurity, and all other psychiatric diagnoses.
Despite increasing prevalence rates of preadolescent EDs, the current findings suggest that the majority of children with these disorders remain untreated. Devoting increased attention and resources to reaching families of children with EDs with the least means for receiving care, and screening for EDs in children with depression, may be important steps for reducing this unmet need.
Although the clinical importance of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has received increasing recognition, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime prevalence of NSSI in adults and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric disorders, and lifetime treatment for NSSI.
A nationally representative face-to-face survey was conducted with 7192 adults aged ≥18 years in England. Respondents were interviewed about engagement in NSSI, psychiatric illness, suicidal thoughts and behavior, and treatment history for this behavior.
The estimated lifetime prevalence rate of NSSI was 4.86%. Younger age, growing up without biological parents in the household, being unmarried, and impoverished backgrounds were associated with NSSI. The majority of respondents with lifetime NSSI (63.82%) had at least one current psychiatric disorder. Most psychiatric conditions were associated with greater odds of lifetime NSSI in multivariate models. NSSI was strongly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, respectively, even after accounting for psychiatric disorders and sociodemographic covariates. A substantial proportion of respondents with NSSI history (30.92%) have engaged in medically severe self-harm, as indexed by requiring medical attention for this behavior. The majority of respondents with NSSI (56.20%) had not received psychiatric care for this behavior.
NSSI is prevalent in the general population and associated with considerable psychiatric comorbidity. A high rate of unmet treatment needs is evident among those with this behavior. Those at the greatest lifetime risk for NSSI may also be particularly limited in their resources to cope with this behavior.
Compared to active ideation, passive ideation remains relatively understudied and its clinical importance poorly defined. The weight that should be accorded passive ideation in clinical risk assessment is therefore unclear.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of passive ideation, its psychiatric comorbidity, associated sociodemographic characteristics, as well as psychological and environmental correlates. For reference, pooled effects were also calculated for direct comparisons of passive and active ideation with respect to potential correlates. Relevant articles published since inception to 9 September 2019 were identified through a systematic search of MEDLINE and PsycINFO.
A total of 86 studies were included in this review. The prevalence of passive ideation was high across sample types, ranging from 5.8% for 1-year prevalence to 10.6% for lifetime prevalence in the general population. Passive ideation was strongly associated with sexual minority status, psychiatric comorbidity, psychological characteristics implicated in risk, and suicide attempts. Preliminary evidence exists for a large association with suicide deaths. The effect sizes for individual correlates of passive and active ideation were largely equivalent and mostly non-significant in head-to-head comparisons.
Passive ideation is a prevalent clinical phenomenon associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Current evidence also suggests notable similarities exist between passive and active ideation in terms of psychiatric comorbidity and psychological and other characteristics traditionally associated with risk.
Over the past several years there has been considerable interest in the relation between emotion dysregulation and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), particularly given that rates of NSSI have been increasing and NSSI is a critical risk factor for suicidal behavior. To date, however, no synthesis of empirical findings exists.
The present study presents a comprehensive meta-analytic review of the literature on the association between NSSI and emotion dysregulation. A total of 48 publications, including 49 independent samples, were included in this analysis.
Overall, a significant association was found between emotion dysregulation and NSSI (pooled OR = 3.03 [95% CI = 2.56–3.59]). This association was reduced but remained significant (OR = 2.40 [95% CI = 2.01–2.86]) after adjustment for publication bias. Emotion dysregulation subscales most strongly associated with NSSI included limited access to regulation strategies, non-acceptance of emotional responses, impulse control difficulties, and difficulties engaging goal-directed behavior. Lack of emotional awareness/clarity and cognitive aspects of dysregulation yielded weaker, yet significant, positive associations with NSSI.
Findings support the notion that greater emotion dysregulation is associated with higher risk for NSSI among individuals across settings, regardless of age or sex. Furthermore, findings reveal facets of dysregulation that may have unique implications for NSSI. This meta-analysis highlights the importance of better understanding emotion dysregulation as a treatment target for preventing NSSI.
Previous research into religious service attendance as a protective
factor against suicide has been conducted only retrospectively, with
psychological autopsy studies using proxy informants of completed
suicide, rather than prospectively, with completed suicide as a dependent
To determine whether individuals who frequently attended religious
services were less likely to die by suicide than those who did not attend
We analysed data from a nationally representative sample
(n = 20 014), collected in the USA between 1988 and
1994, and follow-up mortality data from baseline to the end of 2006.
Cox proportional hazard regression analysis indicated that those who
frequently attended religious services were less likely to die by suicide
than those who did not attend, after accounting for the effects of other
relevant risk factors.
Frequent religious service attendance is a long-term protective factor
Binocular rivalry (BR) is an intriguing phenomenon that occurs when two different images are presented, one to each eye, resulting in alternation or rivalry between the percepts. The phenomenon has been studied for nearly 200 years, with renewed and intensive investigation over recent decades. The rate of perceptual switching has long been known to vary widely between individuals but to be relatively stable within individuals. A recent twin study demonstrated that individual variation in BR rate is under substantial genetic control, a finding that also represented the first report, using a large study, of genetic contribution for any post-retinal visual processing phenomenon. The twin study had been prompted by earlier work showing BR rate was slow in the heritable psychiatric condition, bipolar disorder (BD). Together, these studies suggested that slow BR may represent an endophenotype for BD, and heralded the advent of modern clinical and genetic studies of rivalry. This new focus has coincided with rapid advances in 3D display technology, but despite such progress, specific development of technology for rivalry research has been lacking. This review therefore compares different display methods for BR research across several factors, including viewing parameters, image quality, equipment cost, compatibility with other investigative methods, subject group, and sample size, with a focus on requirements specific to large-scale clinical and genetic studies. It is intended to be a resource for investigators new to BR research, such as clinicians and geneticists, and to stimulate the development of 3D display technology for advancing interdisciplinary studies of rivalry.
We are investigating field galaxy evolution with the optical multiband survey of Osmer et al. (1995, in preparation; Hall et al. 1992, Bull. A.A.S., 24, 1136), which covers some 3000 sq. arcmin of sky with CCD photometry in six broad-band filters from 3000-10000Å, complete down to R∼23. The sample contains some 9000 cataloged galaxies, of which 7000 have data in at least three colors.
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