Dicliptera verticillata is a medicinal plant traditionally used in western Cameroon to cure female infertility. This experiment was designed to assess the effects of the aqueous extract of Dicliptera verticillata (AEDv) on fertility and gestation in female rats. Oral increasing doses of AEDv were administered to immature female rats over 20 d. After this time, some animals were mated with fertile males and some fertility parameters were assayed; the other animals were euthanized for preliminary toxicity parameters analysis. The effects of AEDv on the different stages of gestation were assayed on selected animals previously controlled for estrous cycle regularity and mated. AEDv led to an increase in serum, uterine and ovarian proteins as well as in ovarian and uterine weights (P < 0.05) in immature female rats. Hepatic proteins significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in high dose-treated animals (50 and 100 mg/kg) compared with controls. The number of implantation sites and the fertility rate were significantly lower (P < 0.05), while the antifertility activity increased significantly (P < 0.05) in treated rats compared with controls. When administered from the 1st to the 5th day of pregnancy, AEDv led to a decrease of more than 60% in the implantation rate in high dose-treated rats (50, 100, and 400 mg/kg). From the 6th to the 9th day, the implantation, gestation rates and the number of fetuses decreased significantly in all treated groups. From the 11th to the 20th day, a 50% resorption and decrease in gestation rate were reported in 50 mg/kg dose-treated animals. AEDv possesses weak contraceptive and abortifacient effects during pregnancy.