To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We describe an adolescent with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and symptomatic high-grade, second-degree atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacemaker placement. It is difficult to ascertain if these two diagnoses were independent or had a causal relationship though ongoing symptoms were not present prior to the infection. Because of this uncertainty, awareness that rhythm disturbances can be cardiac in origin but also secondary to other aetiologies, such as infection, is warranted.
Frailty prevalence is higher in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) compared with high-income countries when measured by biomedical frailty models, the most widely used being the frailty phenotype. Frailty in older people is becoming of global public health interest as a means of promoting health in old age in LMICs. As yet, little work has been done to establish to what extent the concept of frailty, as conceived according to ‘western’ biomedicine, has cross-cultural resonance for a low-income rural African setting. This study aimed to investigate the meaning of frailty contextually, using the biomedical concept of the frailty phenotype as a framework. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of older adults, their care-givers and community representatives in rural northern Tanzania. Thirty interview transcripts were transcribed, translated from Kiswahili to English and thematically analysed. Results reveal that despite superficial similarities in the understanding of frailty, to a great extent the physical changes highlighted by the frailty phenotype were naturalised, except when these were felt to be due to a scarcity of resources. Frailty was conceptualised as less of a physical problem of the individual, but rather, as a social problem of the community, suggesting that the frailty construct may be usefully applied cross-culturally when taking a social equity focus to the health of older people in LMICs.
The National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2002–2003, n =2095) indicated that Asian-Americans (AA) use mental health services less frequently than the general population (8.6% vs. 17.95%). Even AA who have been diagnosed with mental health disorders use mental health services less frequently than their non-AA counterparts (34.1% versus 41.1%)2. AA in Riverside County count for 7.4% of the population, or about 181,356 individuals, according to the 2018 census estimates. The objective of the study is to examine and compare rates of utilization of mental health services by AA specifically in the Riverside County setting. This study utilizes data on patients’ ethnicity, age, gender, and diagnosis as collected annually by the Riverside County Department of Mental Health from the fiscal year of 2017–2018. It compares the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the rate of utilization of mental health services by AA in the county to the data collected by the NLAAS. The total number of AA using mental health services in Riverside County is 669, which totals 1.73% of all individuals accessing the same services. The number of AA using mental health services represented 0.45% of the total AA population in Riverside County. AA in Riverside County are utilizing MH services even less than the national rates (0.45% vs 8.6% nationally from NLAAS data). The gap in care illustrated by these results exemplifies not only the disparity in utilization of MH services seen in this particular ethnic group, but portrays the stagnant results from Riverside County s attempts to address this issue. Possible reasons for the disparity include lack of access, stigma, recovery, migration, and a lack of culturally-competent care. A reimagined outreach initiative may help to better address this issue. Riverside County already has implemented an AA Task Force, holds health fairs at local churches in the communities, supports a UCR School of Medicine student-run free clinic, and is active in NAMI events.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to global shortages of N95 respirators. Reprocessing of used N95 respirators may provide a higher filtration crisis alternative, but whether effective sterilization can be achieved for a virus without impairing respirator function remains unknown. We evaluated the viricidal efficacy of Bioquell vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) on contaminated N95 respirators and tested the particulate particle penetration and inhalation and exhalation resistance of respirators after multiple cycles of VHP.
For this study, 3M 1870 N95 respirators were contaminated with 3 aerosolized bacteriophages: T1, T7, and Pseudomonas phage phi-6 followed by 1 cycle of VHP decontamination using a BQ-50 system. Additionally, new and unused respirators were sent to an independent laboratory for particulate filter penetration testing and inhalation and exhalation resistance after 3 and 5 cycles of VHP.
A single VHP cycle resulted in complete eradication of bacteriophage from respirators (limit of detection 10 PFU). Respirators showed acceptable limits for inhalation/exhalation resistance after 3 and 5 cycles of VHP. Respirators demonstrated a filtration efficiency >99 % after 3 cycles, but filtration efficiency fell below 95% after 5 cycles of HPV.
Bioquell VHP demonstrated high viricidal activity for N95 respirators inoculated with aerosolized bacteriophages. Bioquell technology can be scaled for simultaneous decontamination of a large number of used but otherwise intact respirators. Reprocessing should be limited to 3 cycles due to concerns both about impact of clinical wear and tear on fit, and to decrement in filtration after 3 cycles.
Debate about the nature of climate and the magnitude of ecological change across Australia during the last glacial maximum (LGM; 26.5–19 ka) persists despite considerable research into the late Pleistocene. This is partly due to a lack of detailed paleoenvironmental records and reliable chronological frameworks. Geochemical and geochronological analyses of a 60 ka sedimentary record from Brown Lake, subtropical Queensland, are presented and considered in the context of climate-controlled environmental change. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of dune crests adjacent to prominent wetlands across North Stradbroke Island (Minjerribah) returned a mean age of 119.9 ± 10.6 ka; indicating relative dune stability soon after formation in Marine Isotope Stage 5. Synthesis of wetland sediment geochemistry across the island was used to identify dust accumulation and applied as an aridification proxy over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. A positive trend of dust deposition from ca. 50 ka was found with highest influx occurring leading into the LGM. Complexities of comparing sedimentary records and the need for robust age models are highlighted with local variation influencing the accumulation of exogenic material. An inter-site comparison suggests enhanced moisture stress regionally during the last glaciation and throughout the LGM, returning to a more positive moisture balance ca. 8 ka.
Mormon Lake, elevation 2166 m with maximum historic surface area of 31.4 km2, lies in a forested endorheic basin covering 103 km2. It is the largest unaltered freshwater body on the 337,000 km2 Colorado Plateau. Prehistorical (before AD 1878) highstands were ca. 9 and 24 m relative to depocenter datum. These levels likely occurred during four multidecadal episodes of cool, wet conditions between ca. 3.55 and 0.20 ka BP. Maximum historical levels (early 1900s) were up to 7.9 m, whereas modern (post-1941) levels were frequently zero or relatively low. Historical climate records indicate reconstructed lake levels correlate directly with annual precipitation and inversely with temperature. Early highstands were associated with above average precipitation and the lowest temperatures of the 116 yr record. The lake receded after 1941; thereafter, frequent drying and low-water levels resulted from recurrent drought and steadily increasing temperatures. Consequently, a wet episode from the 1970s to the 1990s had precipitation like the early 1900s, but highstands were only ca. 3.8 m. The historical lake-level chronology is consistent with changes of hydrologic balance predicted by climate models, that is, reduced effective precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation). These changes, particularly aridification, apparently began in the 1970s or earlier. Global oceanic and atmospheric climate modulate lake levels and regional hydroclimate.
To conduct a pilot study implementing combined genomic and epidemiologic surveillance for hospital-acquired multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) to predict transmission between patients and to estimate the local burden of MDRO transmission.
Pilot prospective multicenter surveillance study.
The study was conducted in 8 university hospitals (2,800 beds total) in Melbourne, Australia (population 4.8 million), including 4 acute-care, 1 specialist cancer care, and 3 subacute-care hospitals.
All clinical and screening isolates from hospital inpatients (April 24 to June 18, 2017) were collected for 6 MDROs: vanA VRE, MRSA, ESBL Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp), and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPa) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb). Isolates were analyzed and reported as routine by hospital laboratories, underwent whole-genome sequencing at the central laboratory, and were analyzed using open-source bioinformatic tools. MDRO burden and transmission were assessed using combined genomic and epidemiologic data.
In total, 408 isolates were collected from 358 patients; 47.5% were screening isolates. ESBL-Ec was most common (52.5%), then MRSA (21.6%), vanA VRE (15.7%), and ESBL-Kp (7.6%). Most MDROs (88.3%) were isolated from patients with recent healthcare exposure.
Combining genomics and epidemiology identified that at least 27.1% of MDROs were likely acquired in a hospital; most of these transmission events would not have been detected without genomics. The highest proportion of transmission occurred with vanA VRE (88.4% of patients).
Genomic and epidemiologic data from multiple institutions can feasibly be combined prospectively, providing substantial insights into the burden and distribution of MDROs, including in-hospital transmission. This analysis enables infection control teams to target interventions more effectively.
The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the brain and spinal cord in humans with neuroangiostrongyliasis (NA) due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection has been well reported. Equivalent studies in animals are lacking. This case series describes clinical and MRI findings in 11 dogs with presumptively or definitively diagnosed NA. MRI of the brain and/or spinal cord was performed using high-field (1.5 T) or low-field (0.25 T) scanners using various combinations of transverse, sagittal, dorsal and three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted (T1W), transverse, sagittal and dorsal T2-weighted (T2W), T2W fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2*-weighted (T2*W) gradient echo (GRE), dorsal T2W short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and post-gadolinium transverse, sagittal, dorsal and 3D T1W and transverse T2W FLAIR sequences. In 4/6 cases where the brain was imaged, changes consistent with diffuse meningoencephalitis were observed. Evidence of meningeal involvement was evident even when not clinically apparent. The spinal cord was imaged in 9 dogs, with evidence of meningitis and myelitis detected in regions consistent with the observed neuroanatomical localization. Pathognomonic changes of neural larva migrans, as described in some human patients with NA, were not detected. NA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with MRI evidence of focal or diffuse meningitis, myelitis and/or encephalitis, especially in areas where A. cantonensis is endemic. If not precluded by imaging findings suggestive of brain herniation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection for cytology, fluid analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing should be considered mandatory in such cases after the MRI studies.
The principal aim of this study was to optimize the diagnosis of canine neuroangiostrongyliasis (NA). In total, 92 cases were seen between 2010 and 2020. Dogs were aged from 7 weeks to 14 years (median 5 months), with 73/90 (81%) less than 6 months and 1.7 times as many males as females. The disease became more common over the study period. Most cases (86%) were seen between March and July. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained from the cisterna magna in 77 dogs, the lumbar cistern in f5, and both sites in 3. Nucleated cell counts for 84 specimens ranged from 1 to 146 150 cells μL−1 (median 4500). Percentage eosinophils varied from 0 to 98% (median 83%). When both cisternal and lumbar CSF were collected, inflammation was more severe caudally. Seventy-three CSF specimens were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing for antibodies against A. cantonensis; 61 (84%) tested positive, titres ranging from <100 to ⩾12 800 (median 1600). Sixty-one CSF specimens were subjected to real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) testing using a new protocol targeting a bioinformatically-informed repetitive genetic target; 53/61 samples (87%) tested positive, CT values ranging from 23.4 to 39.5 (median 30.0). For 57 dogs, it was possible to compare CSF ELISA serology and qPCR. ELISA and qPCR were both positive in 40 dogs, in 5 dogs the ELISA was positive while the qPCR was negative, in 9 dogs the qPCR was positive but the ELISA was negative, while in 3 dogs both the ELISA and qPCR were negative. NA is an emerging infectious disease of dogs in Sydney, Australia.
Although the gross and microscopic pathology in rats infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis has been well described, corresponding changes detected using diagnostic imaging modalities have not been reported. This work describes the cardiopulmonary changes in mature Wistar rats chronically infected with moderate burdens of A. cantonensis using radiology, computed tomography (CT), CT angiography, echocardiography, necropsy and histological examinations. Haematology and coagulation studies were also performed. Thoracic radiography, CT and CT angiography showed moderately severe alveolar pulmonary patterns mainly affecting caudal portions of the caudal lung lobes and associated dilatation of the caudal lobar pulmonary arteries. Presumptive worm profiles could be detected using echocardiography, with worms seen in the right ventricular outflow tract or straddling either the pulmonary and/or the tricuspid valves. Extensive, multifocal, coalescing dark areas and multiple pale foci affecting the caudal lung lobes were observed at necropsy. Histologically, these were composed of numerous large, confluent granulomas and fibrotic nodules. Adult worms were found predominantly in the mid- to distal pulmonary arteries. An inflammatory leukogram, hyperproteinaemia and hyperfibrinogenaemia were found in most rats. These findings provide a comparative model for A. cantonensis in its accidental hosts, such as humans and dogs. In addition, the pathological and imaging changes are comparable to those seen in dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum, suggesting rats infected with A. cantonensis could be a model for dogs with A. vasorum infection.
Earlier studies examining structural brain abnormalities associated with cognitively derived subgroups were mainly cross-sectional in design and had mixed findings. Thus, we obtained cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize the extent and trajectory of brain structure abnormalities underlying distinct cognitive subtypes (“preserved,” “deteriorated,” and “compromised”) seen in psychotic spectrum disorders.
Data from 364 subjects (225 patients with psychotic conditions and 139 healthy controls) were first used to determine the relationship of cognitive subtypes with cross-sectional measures of subcortical volume and cortical thickness. To probe neurodevelopmental abnormalities, brain structure laterality was examined. To examine whether neuroprogressive abnormalities persist, longitudinal brain structural changes over 5 years were examined within a subset of 101 subjects. Subsequent discriminant analysis using the identified brain measures was performed on an independent subject group.
Cross-sectional comparisons showed that cortical thinning and limbic volume reductions were most widespread in “deteriorated” cognitive subtype. Laterality comparisons showed more rightward amygdala lateralization in “compromised” than “preserved” subtype. Longitudinal comparisons revealed progressive hippocampal shrinkage in “deteriorated” compared with healthy controls and “preserved” subtype, which correlated with worse negative symptoms, cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Post-hoc discrimination analysis on an independent group of 52 subjects using the identified brain structures found an overall accuracy of 71% for classification of cognitive subtypes.
These findings point toward distinct extent and trajectory of corticolimbic abnormalities associated with cognitive subtypes in psychosis, which can allow further understanding of the biological course of cognitive functioning over illness course and with treatment.
Prior tests of Hicks’ Induced Innovation Hypothesis (IIH) have been greatly hampered because the lack of supply-side data implicitly requires the untenable assumption that the marginal research cost is the same for different inputs. We document that, with appropriate model specification and panel data, a two-way fixed-effects estimator can account for much of the non-neutrality of the innovation function. Using a test procedure that is robust to a time-variant and non-neutral innovation function, we test the IIH in U.S. agriculture for the period 1960–2004. We use only readily available data for innovation demand and total public research expenditures.
Disinfectants are important for arresting the spread of pathogens in the environment. Frequently used disinfectants are often incompatible with certain surfaces, expensive and can produce hazardous by-products. We report that micron-sized water droplets can act as an effective disinfectant, which were formed by spraying pure bulk water with coaxial nebulizing airflow. Spraying for 20 min onto Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium on stainless-steel discs caused inactivation of over 98% of the bacteria. Control experiments resulted in less than 10% inactivation (water stream only and gas only) and 55% inactivation with 3% hydrogen peroxide. Experiments have shown that cell death results from cell wall destruction. We suggest that the combined action of reactive oxygen species present in water droplets (but not in bulk water) along with the droplet surface charge is responsible for the observed bactericidal activity.
Oxidative stress is implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia, and the antioxidant defence system (AODS) may be protective in this illness. We examined the major antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in prefrontal brain and its correlates with clinical and demographic variables in schizophrenia.
GSH levels were measured in the dorsolateral prefrontal region of 28 patients with chronic schizophrenia using a magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence specifically adapted for GSH. We examined correlations of GSH levels with age, age at onset of illness, duration of illness, and clinical symptoms.
We found a negative correlation between GSH levels and age at onset (r = −0.46, p = 0.015), and a trend-level positive relationship between GSH and duration of illness (r = 0.34, p = 0.076).
Our findings are consistent with a possible compensatory upregulation of the AODS with longer duration of illness and suggest that the AODS may play a role in schizophrenia.
The prehospital disaster and emergency medical services community stands on the front-line in the response to events such as novel influenza, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, and other high consequence diseases such as the Ebola Virus Disease.
To address provider and community safety, we developed an online educational program utilizing a Multi-Pathogen Approach to infectious disease personal protective equipment (PPE) deployment by prehospital providers. Such vigilance starts with syndromic recognition and quickly transcends to include operational issues, clinical interventions, and public health integration.
The University of Maryland, Baltimore County (Maryland, USA), Department of Emergency Health Services partnered with the Maryland State Department of Health (USA), to develop an online educational curriculum. The curriculum was developed through an expert panel consensus group including prehospital providers and is hybrid in design and includes awareness level training and procedural guidance.
Currently deployed online, this educational content demonstrating the use of the Multi-Pathogen Approach is accessible open-access via YouTube worldwide on computers, tablets, and smartphones. This curriculum is also accessible for continuing medical education to over 50,000 prehospital, hospital, and clinic personnel throughout Maryland and the National Capital Region of the United States. The curriculum consists of twelve modules of didactic and live videotaped demonstrations.
The development of the Multi-Pathogen Approach for the deployment of PPE and the use of online education modules has given prehospital providers an easily accessible open-access tool for high consequence disease management. The development of educational efforts such as these can help ensure better patient care and prehospital EMS system readiness.
This article describes how the core principles and techniques of transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) can be used in general psychiatry to help in the management of patients with borderline personality disorder (or other moderate to severe personality disorders). It focuses on: knowledge – appreciating how an understanding of object relations assists the clinician in assessment and treatment; attitude – developing a stance to manage the confusing and negative feelings that may arise in both clinician and patient; and skills – describing how use of TFP techniques (technical neutrality, analysing the transference and countertransference, and judicious use of interpretation) helps the clinician to continue thinking in the fraught clinical encounter. The structural (including contemporary object relations) and structured approach in TFP are exemplified in clinical vignettes.
After reading this article you will be able to:
• Apply an understanding of object relations theory to interactions with patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
• Describe the use of the treatment contract and technical neutrality
• Understand and better manage the countertransference in working with patients with BPD
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: A brain-machine interface (BMI) is a device implanted into the brain of a paralyzed or injured patient to control an external assistive device, such as a cursor on a computer screen, a motorized wheelchair, or a robotic limb. We hypothesize we can utilize electrical stimulation of subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes as a method of generating the percepts of somatosensation such as vibration, temperature, or proprioception. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: There will be 10 subjects, who are informed, willing, and consented epilepsy patients undergoing initial surgery for placement of subdural ECoG electrodes in the brain for seizure monitoring. ECoG will be used as a platform for recording high-resolution local field potentials during real-touch behavioral tasks. In addition, ECoG will also be used to electrically stimulate the human cerebral cortex in order to map and understand how varying stimulation parameters produce percepts of sensation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: To determine how tactile and proprioceptive signals are integrated in S1, we will perform spectral analysis of the broadband local field potentials to look for increased power in specific frequency bands in the ECoG recordings while touching or moving the hand. To explore generating artificial sensation, the subject will be asked to perform a variety of tasks with and without the aid of stimulation. We anticipate the subject’s performance will be enhanced with the addition of artificial sensation. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Many patients might benefit from a BMI, such as those with stroke, amputation, spinal cord injury, or brain trauma. The current generation of BMI devices are guided by visual feedback alone. However, without somatosensory feedback, even the most basic limb movements are difficult to perform in a fluid and natural manner. The results from this project will be crucial to developing a closed loop motor/sensory BMI.