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The purpose of this study was to determine if the mixed evidence of almond consumption on HbA1c stems from testing people with different body fat distributions (BFD) associated with different risks of glucose intolerance. A 6-month randomised controlled trial in 134 adults was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to the almond (A) or control (C) group based on their BFD. Those in the almond group consumed 1·5 oz of almonds with their breakfast and as their afternoon snack daily. Those in the control group continued their habitual breakfast and afternoon snack routines. Body weight and composition were measured and blood samples were collected for determination of HbA1c, glycaemia and lipaemia at 0 and 6 months. Appetite ratings, energy intake and diet quality were collected at 0, 2, 4 and 6 months. Participants consuming almonds ingested 816 (sem 364) kJ/d more than participants in the control group (P = 0·03), but this did not result in any differences in body weight (A: –0·3 (sem 0·4), C: –0·4 (sem 0·4); P > 0·3). Participants in the almond, high android subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) group had a greater reduction in android fat mass percentage (A: –1·0 (sem 0·6), C: 1·1 (sem 0·6); P = 0·04), preserved android lean mass percentage (A: 0·9 (sem 0·6), C: –1 (sem 0·6); P = 0·04) and tended to decrease android visceral adipose tissue mass (A: –13 (sem 53) g, C: 127 (sem 53) g; P = 0·08) compared with those in the control, high SAT group. There were no differences in HbA1c between groups (A: 5·4 (sem 0·04), C: 5·5 (sem 0·04); P > 0·05). Thus, BFD may not explain the mixed evidence on almond consumption and HbA1c. Long-term almond consumption has limited ability to improve cardiometabolic health in those who are overweight and obese but otherwise healthy.
Chapter 20 of The Cambridge Companion to Sappho looks at Sappho’s significance for the rich poetic culture of the Hellenistic world, including Apollonius, Theocritus, and Posidippus, as a parallel development to the scholarly discourse surrounding the editing of her work during this period.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus was a rhetorician, critic and historiographer in Augustan Rome. This volume seeks to understand Dionysius as a writer positioned between Greece and Rome and between rhetoric and historiography. The introduction discusses the complex relationship between Dionysius’ history of early Rome and his rhetorical and critical works, and it presents Dionysius as both thoroughly Greek and very Roman. Dionysius’ works are interpreted as part of the Greek literature of the Augustan Age and as responding to the political, cultural and intellectual climate of Rome under Augustus. The following chapters are presented in three parts: (1) Dionysius and Augustan Rhetoric and Literary Criticism, (2) Dionysius and Augustan Historiography, and (3) Dionysius and Augustan Rome. The introduction concludes with a consideration of Dionysius’ intended audience.
This essay investigates the assumptions which underlie Dionysius’ critical practice through a close examination of some of the more programmatic passages of the On Thucydides. Dionysius is concerned to determine why classical authors made the choices they did and how such knowledge can be instructive in Dionysius’ own day. In this investigation, Dionysius typically retrojects back on to the subjects of his essays his own sense of what is morally and stylistically appropriate; some of Thucydides’ faults lie in the fact that he did not share Dionysius' own classicising view of the achievements of classical Athens. The essay also discusses Dionysius’ defence against the charge that the best critics must themselves also be able to compose great works in the genres in which they claim expertise.
The Greek author Dionysius of Halicarnassus came to Rome in 30/29 BC. He learnt Latin, developed a network of students, patrons and colleagues, and started to teach rhetoric. He published a history of early Rome (Roman Antiquities), and essays on rhetoric and literary criticism, including On the Ancient Orators, On Composition, and several letters. This volume examines how Dionysius' critical and rhetorical works are connected with his history of Rome, and the complex ways in which both components of this dual project - rhetorical criticism and historiography - fit into the social, intellectual, literary, cultural and political world of Rome under Augustus. How does Dionysius' interpretation of the earliest Romans resonate with the political reality of the Principate? And how do his views relate to those of Cicero, Livy and Horace? This volume casts new light on ancient rhetoric, literary criticism, historiography and the literary culture of Augustan Rome.