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Obesity is one of the major contributors to the excess mortality seen in people with severe mental illness (SMI) and in low- and middle-income countries people with SMI may be at an even greater risk. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight in people with SMI and investigate the association of obesity and overweight with sociodemographic variables, other physical comorbidities, and health-risk behaviours. This was a multi-country cross-sectional survey study where data were collected from 3989 adults with SMI from three specialist mental health institutions in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated using Asian BMI thresholds. Multinomial regression models were then used to explore associations between overweight and obesity with various potential determinants. There was a high prevalence of overweight (17·3 %) and obesity (46·2 %). The relative risk of having obesity (compared to normal weight) was double in women (RRR = 2·04) compared with men. Participants who met the WHO recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake had 2·53 (95 % CI: 1·65–3·88) times greater risk of having obesity compared to those not meeting them. Also, the relative risk of having obesity in people with hypertension is 69 % higher than in people without hypertension (RRR = 1·69). In conclusion, obesity is highly prevalent in SMI and associated with chronic disease. The complex relationship between diet and risk of obesity was also highlighted. People with SMI and obesity could benefit from screening for non-communicable diseases, better nutritional education, and context-appropriate lifestyle interventions.
This chapter considers an application of age of information called AoCSI in which the channel states in a wireless network represent the information of interest and the goal is to maintain fresh estimates of these channel states at each node in the network. Rather than sampling some underlying time-varying process and propagating updates through a queue or graph, the AoCSI setting obtains direct updates of the channels as a by-product of wireless communication through standard physical layer channel estimation techniques. These CSI estimates are then disseminated through the network to provide global snapshots of the CSI to all of the nodes in the network. What makes the AoCSI setting unique is that disseminating some CSI updates and directly sampling/estimating other CSI occur simultaneously. Moreover, as illustrated in this chapter, there are inherent trade-offs on how much CSI should be disseminated in each transmission to minimize the average or maximum age.
The late Pleistocene deposits of Equus Cave, northern Cape Province, South Africa, have provided more than 30,000 taxonomically identifiable mammal bones from 48 species. Context, associations, and features of the bone assemblage implicate brown hyenas as the main accumulators. The fauna is significant mainly because (1) it supplements previous evidence that regional climate was cooler and possibly also somewhat moister during part(s) of the late Pleistocene, but deviated less from the historic norm than in areas farther south; (2) it shows that Bond's springbok, which became extinct in the early Holocene, differed from the surviving common springbok not only in important morphological respects but also in reproductive pattern; and (3) it sustains earlier suggestions that an abundance of carnivores, a paucity of small hard bones, and increase in the cranial/postcranial ratio with species size, and exclusively attritional mortality profiles are features that tend to differentiate assemblages accumulated by brown hyenas from those accumulated by people. In addition, pending firmer dating, the fragmentary human fossils from Equus Cave may support an exclusively African origin for anatomically modern humans.
The relationship between carnassial length and latitude south is analyzed for 17 African carnivore species to determine if individuals tend to be larger in cooler climates, as predicted by Bergmann's Rule. With modern data in support, middle and late Quaternary temperatures might then be inferred from mean carnassial length in fossil samples, such as those from Equus Cave, Elandsfontein, Sea Harvest. Duinefontein, and Swartklip in the Cape Province of South Africa. One problematic aspect of the study is the use of carnassial length and latitude as necessary but imperfect substitutes for body size and temperature, respectively. For some species, another difficulty is the relatively small number of available modern specimens, combined with their uneven latitudinal spread. Still, in 14 of the species, carnassial length does tend to increase with latitude south, while mean carnassial length in the same species tends to be greater in those fossil samples which accumulated under relatively cool conditions, as inferred from sedimentologic, palynological, or geochemical data. Given larger modern samples from a wide variety of latitudes, refinement of the mathematical relationship between carnassial length and latitude in various species may even permit quantitative estimates of past temperatures in southern Africa.
Archeological evidence from the USSR suggests that cultural adaptations to the most rigorous (most continental) environments of northern Eurasia were not achieved until 35–40,000 BP. This presumably sets an absolute basement date for the entry of man into Alaska through the region of Beringia. The absence of evidence for pre-14,000 yr old man in the 48 adjacent United States comparable in any sense to the evidence that has been developed for man prior to 14,000 y.a. in the Old World suggests that movement south out of Alaska only occurred after 14,000 BP.
Within their historic range at the southwestern tip of Africa, Cape dune molerats (Bathyergus suillus) tend to be significantly larger in areas of higher rainfall. They also tend to be large in late Quaternary fossil samples associated with independent evidence for relatively moist climate and small in samples associated with evidence for relatively dry conditions. Together with sedimentologic/geomorphic and other faunal observations, fluctuations in fossil dune molerat size imply that the regional climate was very moist during an early late Quaternary interval corresponding to marine isotope stage 4 (74,000 to 59,000 yr B.P.) or perhaps to substage 5b or 5d (centered on 110,000 and 90,000 yr B.P., respectively.) It was comparably moist again from roughly 14,000 to 8,000 yr B.P., somewhat drier than at present from about 8000 until 4000 yr B.P., and mainly near the modern average after 4000 yr B.P. Together, the modern and fossil data suggest that dune molerat size is a reliable index of past precipitation, but it may not be useful for revealing extremely arid conditions because these seem to be associated with depositional/occupational gaps in most local paleontological/archeological sites.
Nelson Bay Cave is located on the Robberg Peninsula (34°06′ S, 23°24′ E) at Plettenberg Bay, Cape Province, South Africa. Excavation of the Late Quaternary fill of the cave has provided a rich assemblage of mammalian remains dated between ca. 18,000 and 5000 radiocarbon years B.P. Identification and analysis of these remains has shown that important changes in the composition of the mammalian fauna took place first about 12,000 B.P. and again about 9000 B.P. The earlier change is especially clear-cut and is interpreted to reflect the disappearance of grassland from the area as well as the influence of rising sea level. Both faunal changes were accompanied by changes in associated artifactual materials and it is suggested that faunal and cultural changes were causally linked. The mammalian species dated between 18,000 and 12,000 B.P. include the latest recorded Sub-Saharan occurrences of some extinct taxa and indicate that terminal Pleistocene/Early Holocene megafaunal extinctions may have been more important in Southern Africa than has hitherto been thought.
The average adult size of the rock hyrax varies greatly across South Africa. Regression analysis suggests that mean hyrax size is more closely linked to precipitation than to temperature, probably because precipitation has a much greater impact on preferred hyrax food plants. The relationship between mean size and precipitation is curvilinear, such that size increases up to about 700 mm/annum and declines thereafter. This parallels a tendency for less palatable grasses to replace more palatable ones where rainfall exceeds 700 mm/annum. In conjunction with other indicators of past climate, hyrax size variation can be used to reconstruct precipitation history near deeply stratified South African late Quaternary sites, including Elands Bay Cave, Die Kelders Cave 1, and Nelson Bay Cave.
Boegoeberg 1 (BOG1) is located on the Atlantic coast of South Africa, 850 km north of Cape Town. The site is a shallow rock shelter in the side of a sand-choked gully that was emptied by diamond miners. Abundant coprolites, chewed bones, and partially digested bones implicate hyenas as the bone accumulators. The location of the site, quantity of bones, and composition of the fauna imply it was a brown hyena nursery den. The abundance of Cape fur seal bones shows that the hyenas had ready access to the coast. Radiocarbon dates place the site before 37,000 14C yr ago, while the large average size of the black-backed jackals and the presence of extralimital ungulates imply cool, moist conditions, probably during the early part of the last glaciation (isotope stage 4 or stage 3 before 37,000 14C yr ago) or perhaps during one of the cooler phases (isotope substages 5d or 5b) within the last interglaciation. Comparisons of the BOG1 seal bones to those from regional Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) archeological sites suggest (1) that hyena and human seal accumulations can be distinguished by a tendency for vertebrae to be much more common in a hyena accumulation and (2) that hyena and LSA accumulations can be distinguished by a tendency for hyena-accumulated seals to represent a much wider range of individual seal ages. Differences in the way hyenas and people dismember, transport, and consume seal carcasses probably explain the contrast in skeletal part representation, while differences in season of occupation explain the contrast in seal age representation. Like modern brown hyenas, the BOG1 hyenas probably occupied the coast year-round, while the LSA people focused their coastal visits on the August–October interval when nine-to-eleven-month-old seals were abundant. The MSA sample from Klasies River Mouth Cave 1 resembles BOG1 in seal age composition, suggesting that unlike LSA people, MSA people obtained seals more or less throughout the year.
Very little is known about the prehistory of Siberia prior to the Sartan (“Main Würm” = “Main Wisconsin”) Stadial of the Last Glacial. It is not yet clear whether this is result of the inadequacy of investigations so far or of the fact that human occupation was relatively limited in pre-Sartan times. The Sartan occupation of Siberia has been well documented by the discovery of a relatively large number of open-air sites in the major river valleys of the region. The large numbers of broken-up animal bones found at many of these sites, in combination with rich inventories of bone and stone artifacts and remains of structures, hearths, ect., show that the Sartan inhabitants of Siberia were comparable in level of cultural development to their European (Upper Paleolithic) contemporaries. More particularly, they seem to have been effective big-game hunters, fully capable of exploiting the comparatively rich game resources of their open country environment. As in Europe, evidence from Siberia suggests that the environmental change (especially reforestation) which took place at the end of the Last Glacial led to decreased reliance on big-game hunting and increased emphasis on other modes of subsistence, especially fishing.
The relative frequencies of different skeletal elements within the bone assemblage recovered from a late Pleistocene fissure fill at Swartklip (South-Western Cape Province, South Africa) are shown to resemble those in the assemblage from the Transvaal australopithecine site of Makapansgat. Since there is evidence that carnivores, probably hyenas, accumulated the bones at Swartklip, it follows that carnivores, rather than hominids, may have accumulated the bones at Makapansgat.
The lower carnassial lengths of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in 12 late Pleistocene samples from Britain indicate that, on average, local hyenas of the last (Devensian) glaciation were significantly larger than their last-interglaciation (Ipswichian) counterparts. Together with the tendency for spotted hyena carnassial length to increase with latitude in present-day Africa, this suggests that spotted hyena body size is inversely related to temperature, as predicted by Bergmann's rule. The implication is that spotted hyena carnassial length can be used as an independent gauge of Pleistocene temperature variation, though the combined African and British data imply that the relationship between carnassial length and temperature is curvilinear, such that as temperature declines, equal amounts of further decline produce progressively smaller increases in average carnassial length.
The Cutting 10 site at Elandsfontein (Hopefield), southwestern Cape Province, South Africa, is one of only three sites in southern Africa where bones and Acheulean artifacts have been documented together in primary or near primary context and the only such site where the association is in the open air. The Cutting 10 bones belong to a minimum of 15 mammalian species, which together suggest both a mid-Pleistocene age for the site and a vegetational setting in which grasses played a much more important role than they did historically. The absence of evidence for hearths, windbreaks, and other features, the composition of the artifact assemblage, the relatively sparse scatter of bones and artifacts, the relatively high bone to artifact ratio, the species composition of the fauna, and the numbers of different kinds of skeletal elements represented all indicate that the Cutting 10 occurrence was more a butchering site than a campsite. Although people are probably responsible for most of the bones, some of them probably come from animals that were killed by large carnivores or that died naturally.
The age (mortality) profiles of ungulate species in a fossil fauna are useful for reconstructing modes of death and of bone accumulation. Crown height measurements probably provide the most practical means of obtaining age profiles in most fossil samples. Reliable, interpretable profiles will result when individual age is estimated from crown height using a mathematical model first suggested by C. A. Spinage and when the individual ages are grouped into relatively broad age classes. One potential objection to the model is that it requires tedious calculation and there is a strong possibility of calculation error when many crown heights are involved. This problem may be circumvented by the use of an interactive BASIC program appended to this paper. The user supplies the raw crown heights in a fossil sample, together with estimates of initial unworn crown height, ages of dental shedding and eruption, and maximum possible individual age. The program then tabulates the number of individuals in successive 10%-of-potential-lifespan intervals.
Some ungulate species at Upper Pleistocene and Holocene archeological sites in South Africa exhibit catastrophic mortality profiles, while others exhibit attritional ones. The awareness by Stone Age people that some species are especially amenable to driving or snaring probably accounts for the catastrophic profiles. Natural catastrophic death immediately followed by human scavenging is a much less likely explanation because the species samples comprise material lumped from deposits that accumulated more or less continuously over hundreds or even thousands of years during which period there is no reason to suppose the repeated occurrence of natural catastrophes nearby.
The inability of Stone Age people to obtain prime-age adults in species that are not particularly amenable to driving or snaring presumably accounts for the attritional mortality profiles. Although the species that display attritional profiles conceivably were scavenged, the high proportion of very young individuals in the profiles suggests active hunting. Very young individuals are much less abundant in attritional profiles from local non-archeological sites, probably because their carcasses were removed from the record before burial, primarily by carnivore or scavenger feeding. Scavenging would account for the abundance of very young individuals in the archeological sites only in the unlikely event that people could regularly locate carcasses before other predators did.
In general, geomorphic/sedimentologic context is probably the best criterion for determining whether a species characterized by a catastrophic profile in an archeological site was hunted or scavenged. At the majority of known sites, active hunting is suggested. In the case of a species characterized by an attritional profile in an archeological site, the proportion of very young individuals in the sample probably provides the best criterion for distinguishing hunting from scavenging. A relatively high proportion of very young individuals suggests active hunting.