The global dairy sector is facing the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions whilst increasing productivity to feed a growing population. Despite the importance of this challenge, many developing countries do not have the required resources, specifically funding, expertise and facilities, for quantifying GHG emissions from dairy production and research. This paper aims to address this challenge by discussing the magnitude of the issue, potential mitigation approaches and benefits in quantifying GHG emissions in a developing country context. Further, the paper explores the opportunities for developing country dairy scientists to leverage resources from developed countries, such as using existing relevant GHG emission estimation models. It is clear that further research is required to support developing countries to quantify and understand GHG emissions from dairy production, as it brings significant benefits including helping to identify and implement appropriate mitigation strategies for local production systems, trading carbon credits and achieving the nationally determined contribution obligations of the Paris Agreement.