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Comparative transcriptomics can be used to translate an understanding of gene regulatory networks from model systems to less studied species. Here, we use RNA-Seq to determine and compare gene expression dynamics through the floral transition in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and the closely related crop Brassica rapa. We find that different curve registration functions are required for different genes, indicating that there is no single common ‘developmental time’ between Arabidopsis and B. rapa. A detailed comparison between Arabidopsis and B. rapa and between two B. rapa accessions reveals different modes of regulation of the key floral integrator SOC1, and that the floral transition in the B. rapa accessions is triggered by different pathways. Our study adds to the mechanistic understanding of the regulatory network of flowering time in rapid cycling B. rapa and highlights the importance of registration methods for the comparison of developmental gene expression data.
The current study examines the immediate and short-term impact of daily exposure to community violence on same-day and next-day levels of posttraumatic stress symptomatology and various affective states (i.e., dysphoria, hostility, and anxiety), in a sample of 268 African American adolescents living in urban, low-income, high-violence neighborhoods (Mage = 11.65; 59% female). In addition, the moderating role of affective state variability on this relationship was examined. This study utilized experience sampling method and a daily sampling approach, which contributes a more robust investigation of the short-term effects of violence exposure in youth. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that community violence exposure was positively associated with same-day and next-day symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Violence exposure also exhibited an immediate effect on dysphoria, anxiety, and hostility levels. Youth variability in dysphoria exacerbated the effect of violence exposure on concurrent or next-day posttraumatic stress, dysphoria, and hostility. Moreover, variability in anxiety and hostility exacerbated the experience of next-day hostility. The clinical implications relating to these findings, such as the importance of implementing screening for posttraumatic stress following exposure, the incorporation of preventative treatments among those at risk of exposure, and the targeting of emotion regulation in treatments with adolescents, are discussed.
Research suggests that buprenorphine may possess antidepressant activity. The Beck Depression Inventory was completed at baseline and 3 months by heroin dependent subjects receiving either buprenorphine or methadone maintenance as part of a larger, pre-existing, double blind trial conducted by NDARC (Australia). Depressive symptoms improved in all subjects, with no difference between methadone and buprenorphine groups, suggesting no differential benefit on depressive symptoms for buprenorphine compared to methadone.
Peer support work roles are being implemented internationally, and increasingly in lower-resource settings. However, there is no framework to inform what types of modifications are needed to address local contextual and cultural aspects.
To conduct a systematic review identifying a typology of modifications to peer support work for adults with mental health problems.
We systematically reviewed the peer support literature following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews (registered on PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) on 24 July 2018: CRD42018094832). All study designs were eligible and studies were selected according to the stated eligibility criteria and analysed with standardised critical appraisal tools. A narrative synthesis was conducted to identify types of, and rationales for modifications.
A total of 15 300 unique studies were identified, from which 39 studies were included with only one from a low-resource setting. Six types of modifications were identified: role expectations; initial training; type of contact; role extension; workplace support for peer support workers; and recruitment. Five rationales for modifications were identified: to provide best possible peer support; to best meet service user needs; to meet organisational needs, to maximise role clarity; and to address socioeconomic issues.
Peer support work is modified in both pre-planned and unplanned ways when implemented. Considering each identified modification as a candidate change will lead to a more systematic consideration of whether and how to modify peer support in different settings. Future evaluative research of modifiable versus non-modifiable components of peer support work is needed to understand the modifications needed for implementation among different mental health systems and cultural settings.
Diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis in children on the basis of clinical appearance and throat culture is complicated by high colonisation rates and by the ability of other pathogens to cause clinically similar disease. To characterise the epidemiology of Lancefield Group A, C and G β-haemolytic streptococcus (GAS, GCS and GGS, respectively) in children, we conducted a 2-year prospective study of 307 school children between 7 and 11 years old. GGS and GAS were commonly identified organisms both for silent streptococcal colonisation and symptomatic sore throat, while GCS was uncommonly found. Streptococcal culture positivity at the time of clinical pharyngitis was estimated to reflect true streptococcal pharyngitis in only 26% of instances, with the frequency varying from 54% for children rarely colonised to 1% for children frequently colonised. Numerous GAS emm types were identified, including several types previously associated with severe pharyngitis (e.g. emm types 1, 3 and 28). No severe complications were seen in any child. These data suggest that the clinical diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis is likely to remain difficult and that treatment decisions will remain clouded by uncertainty. There remains a need for organism-specific rapid point-of-care streptococcal diagnostic tests and tests that can distinguish between streptococcal colonisation and disease.
Purpose: To examine the safety and tolerability of clinical graded aerobic treadmill testing in recovering adolescent moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program. Methods: We completed a retrospective case series of two moderate and five severe TBI patients (mean age, 17.3 years) who underwent initial Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Testing at a mean time of 71.6 days (range, 55-87) postinjury. Results: Six patients completed one graded aerobic treadmill test each and one patient underwent initial and repeat testing. There were no complications. Five initial treadmill tests were completely tolerated and allowed an accurate assessment of exercise tolerance. Two initial tests were terminated early by the treatment team because of neurological and cardiorespiratory limitations. As a result of testing, two patients were cleared for aerobic exercise as tolerated and four patients were treated with individually tailored submaximal aerobic exercise programs resulting in subjective improvement in residual symptoms and/or exercise tolerance. Repeat treadmill testing in one patient performed after 1 month of treatment with submaximal aerobic exercise prescription was suggestive of improved exercise tolerance. One patient was able to tolerate aerobic exercise following surgery for posterior glottic stenosis. Conclusions: Preliminary results suggest that graded aerobic treadmill testing is a safe, well tolerated, and clinically useful tool to assess exercise tolerance in appropriately selected adolescent patients with TBI. Future prospective studies are needed to evaluate the effect of tailored submaximal aerobic exercise prescription on exercise tolerance and patient outcomes in recovering adolescent moderate and severe TBI patients.
Objectives: To summarize the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pediatric sports-related concussion (SRC) patients who were evaluated and managed at a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and examine the healthcare resources and personnel required to meet the needs of this patient population. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all pediatric SRC patients referred to the Pan Am Concussion Program from September 1st, 2013 to May 25th, 2015. Initial assessments and diagnoses were carried out by a single neurosurgeon. Return-to-Play decision-making was carried out by the multidisciplinary team. Results: 604 patients, including 423 pediatric SRC patients were evaluated at the Pan Am Concussion Program during the study period. The mean age of study patients was 14.30 years (SD: 2.32, range 7-19 years); 252 (59.57%) were males. Hockey (182; 43.03%) and soccer (60; 14.18%) were the most commonly played sports at the time of injury. Overall, 294 (69.50%) of SRC patients met the clinical criteria for concussion recovery, while 75 (17.73%) were lost to follow-up, and 53 (12.53%) remained in active treatment at the end of the study period. The median duration of symptoms among the 261 acute SRC patients with complete follow-up was 23 days (IQR: 15, 36). Overall, 25.30% of pediatric SRC patients underwent at least one diagnostic imaging test and 32.62% received referral to another member of our multidisciplinary clinical team. Conclusion: Comprehensive care of pediatric SRC patients requires access to appropriate diagnostic resources and the multidisciplinary collaboration of experts with national and provincially-recognized training in TBI.
There is growing evidence that Behavioural Activation is an effective treatment for older adults with depression. However, there is a lack of detail given in studies about any adaptations made to interventions or efforts made to remove treatment barriers. Factors such as co-morbid physical health problems, cognitive impairment and problems with social support suggest there may be specific treatment considerations when developing interventions for this group. This article aims to describe adaptations made to a general adult Behavioural Activation manual using literature on treatment factors for older adults as an organizational framework. This information may be of use to mental health workers delivering behavioural interventions to older adults with depression and documents the initial phase of developing a complex intervention.
Kant emphasizes that moral philosophy must be divided into two parts, a ‘purely rational’ metaphysics of morals, and an empirical application to individuals, which Kant calls ‘moral anthropology’. But Kant gives humanity (die Menschheit) a prominent role even in the purely rational part of ethics – for example, one formulation of the categorical imperative is a demand to treat humanity as an end in itself. This paper argues that the only concepts of humanity suited to play such a role are the rational idea of humanity, and the rational ideal derived from this idea, which Kant discusses in Critique of Practical Reason and other texts.
We present first imaging results from the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system and PHARO camera on the Hale 5 m telescope. Observations using a vector vortex coronagraph have given us direct detections of the two-ring dusty debris system around the star HD 141569. Our observations reveal the inner clearing in the disk to unprecedentedly small angular separations, and are the most sensitive yet at the H and K bands. We are for the first time able to measure and compare the colors of the scattered light in the inner and outer dust rings, and find that the outer ring is significantly bluer than the inner ring.
Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with improved health outcomes, yet there is limited understanding of the impact of cost and accessibility on fruit and vegetable intake in rural settings. This study examines the relationship between the consumption of fruits and vegetables and their cost and accessibility among blacks and non-Hispanic whites in a rural area. Individual characteristics from a 2006 mail survey (n = 1,510) were combined with store locations and price information from a 2006 ground-truthed census of retail outlets. The mail survey covered seven counties in central Texas with 38 supermarkets/grocery stores. Blacks tended to live closer to a supermarket or grocery store, but they were only slightly more likely than whites to consume two or more servings of fruit daily and much less likely to consume three or more servings of vegetables. Multivariate probit regression analysis revealed that neither access nor cost was related to fruit or vegetable consumption among white respondents. Among blacks, cost was also not associated with consumption. In contrast to whites, however, each additional mile was associated with a three percentage point decline in the probability of consuming two or more servings of fruit daily and a 1.8 percentage point decline in the probability of consuming three or more vegetable servings.
Objective: Several studies have provided prevalence estimates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks in broadly affected populations, although without sufficiently addressing qualifying exposures required for assessing PTSD and estimating its prevalence. A premise that people throughout the New York City area were exposed to the attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) towers and are thus at risk for developing PTSD has important implications for both prevalence estimates and service provision. This premise has not, however, been tested with respect to DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD. This study examined associations between geographic distance from the 9/11 attacks on the WTC and reported 9/11 trauma exposures, and the role of specific trauma exposures in the development of PTSD.
Methods: Approximately 3 years after the attacks, 379 surviving employees (102 with direct exposures, including 65 in the towers, and 277 with varied exposures) recruited from 8 affected organizations were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule/Disaster Supplement and reassessed at 6 years. The estimated closest geographic distance from the WTC towers during the attacks and specific disaster exposures were compared with the development of 9/11–related PTSD as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revision.
Results: The direct exposure zone was largely concentrated within a radius of 0.1 mi and completely contained within 0.75 mi of the towers. PTSD symptom criteria at any time after the disaster were met by 35% of people directly exposed to danger, 20% of those exposed only through witnessed experiences, and 35% of those exposed only through a close associate’s direct exposure. Outside these exposure groups, few possible sources of exposure were evident among the few who were symptomatic, most of whom had preexisting psychiatric illness.
Conclusions: Exposures deserve careful consideration among widely affected populations after large terrorist attacks when conducting clinical assessments, estimating the magnitude of population PTSD burdens, and projecting needs for specific mental health interventions.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:S205-S213)
Emerging evidence suggests impaired one-carbon metabolism in schizophrenia. Homocysteine is one of the key components of one-carbon metabolism. Elevated plasma homocysteine levels were reported in schizophrenia. A linkage study found that nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT), an enzyme involved in one-carbon metabolism, is a determinant of plasma homocysteine levels. In an association study the rs694539 NNMT single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found significantly associated with hyperhomocysteinaemia. Aiming to assess the possible involvement of NNMT in the aetiology of schizophrenia we (1) performed an association study of eight NNMT tagged SNPs in 202 families sharing the same ethnic origin including healthy parents and a schizophrenia proband; (2) assessed NNMT mRNA levels in post-mortem frontal cortex of schizophrenia patients. Genotyping was performed using the ABI SNaPshot and the HRM methods. Individual SNPs and haplotypes were analysed for association using the family-based association test (UNPHASED software). NNMT mRNA levels were measured using RT real-time PCR. In the single SNP analysis, rs694539, previously reported to be associated with hyperhomocysteinaemia, and rs1941404 were significantly associated with schizophrenia (p<0.004 and p=0.033, respectively, following permutation test adjustment). Several haplotypes were also significantly associated with schizophrenia (global p values <0.05 following permutation test adjustment). This is the first study demonstrating an association of NNMT with schizophrenia. Post-mortem frontal cortex NNMT mRNA levels were ~35% lower in schizophrenia patients vs. control subjects. Our study favours the notion that NNMT is involved in the aetiology of schizophrenia.