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The patient experience of radiotherapy magnetic resonance (MR) simulation is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the patient experience of MR simulation in comparison to computed tomography (CT) simulation, identifying the quality of patient experience and pathway changes which could improve patient experience outcomes.
Materials and Methods:
MR simulation was acquired for 46 anal and rectal cancer patients. Patient experience questionnaires were provided directly after MR simulation. Questionnaire responses were assessed after 33 patients (cohort one). Changes to the scanning pathway were identified and implemented. The impact of changes was assessed by cohort two (13 patients).
Response rates were 85% (cohort one) and 54% (cohort two). 75% of cohort one respondents found the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experience to be better or similar to their CT experience. Implemented changes included routine use of blankets, earplugs and headphones, music and feet-first positioning and further MRI protocol optimisation. All cohort two respondents found the MRI experience to be better or similar to the CT experience.
MR simulation can be a comfortable and positive experience that is comparable to that of standard radiotherapy CT simulation. Special attention is required due to the fundamental differences between CT and MRI scanning.
Neurodevelopment is sensitive to genetic and pre/postnatal environmental influences. These effects are likely mediated by epigenetic factors, yet current knowledge is limited. Longitudinal twin studies can delineate the link between genetic and environmental factors, epigenetic state at birth and neurodevelopment later in childhood. Building upon our study of the Peri/postnatal Epigenetic Twin Study (PETS) from gestation to 6 years of age, here we describe the PETS 11-year follow-up in which we will use neuroimaging and cognitive testing to examine the relationship between early-life environment, epigenetics and neurocognitive outcomes in mid-childhood. Using a within-pair twin model, the primary aims are to (1) identify early-life epigenetic correlates of neurocognitive outcomes; (2) determine the developmental stability of epigenetic effects and (3) identify modifiable environmental risk factors. Secondary aims are to identify factors influencing gut microbiota between 6 and 11 years of age to investigate links between gut microbiota and neurodevelopmental outcomes in mid-childhood. Approximately 210 twin pairs will undergo an assessment at 11 years of age. This includes a direct child cognitive assessment, multimodal magnetic resonance imaging, biological sampling, anthropometric measurements and a range of questionnaires on health and development, behavior, dietary habits and sleeping patterns. Data from complementary data sources, including the National Assessment Program — Literacy and Numeracy and the Australian Early Development Census, will also be sought. Following on from our previous focus on relationships between growth, cardiovascular health and oral health, this next phase of PETS will significantly advance our understanding of the environmental interactions that shape the developing brain.
Acid etching combined with scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.) accentuates a variety of conodont microstructural patterns as compared to unetched specimens. External and internal organic layers surrounding apatitic lamellae are found with internal organic layers apparently thinner than their external counterparts. This may imply partial removal of the outermost organic layer prior to secretion of the next lamella. Etching also provides evidence of internally preserved striate ornament. Polygonal etch artifacts and zones of crystallites aligned in small areas are interpreted as possible sites for apatite biomineralization.
Mindfulness-based approaches for adults are effective at enhancing mental health, but few controlled trials have evaluated their effectiveness among young people.
To assess the acceptability and efficacy of a schools-based universal mindfulness intervention to enhance mental health and well-being.
A total of 522 young people aged 12–16 in 12 secondary schools either participated in the Mindfulness in Schools Programme (intervention) or took part in the usual school curriculum (control).
Rates of acceptability were high. Relative to the controls, and after adjusting for baseline imbalances, children who participated in the intervention reported fewer depressive symptoms post-treatment (P = 0.004) and at follow-up (P = 0.005) and lower stress (P = 0.05) and greater well-being (P = 0.05) at follow-up. The degree to which students in the intervention group practised the mindfulness skills was associated with better well-being (P<0.001) and less stress (P = 0.03) at 3-month follow-up.
The findings provide promising evidence of the programme's acceptability and efficacy.
We tested for gender moderation within a multidomain model of antisocial behavior (ASB) among community youth, drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods study. Youths (N = 1,639) were 9 to 12 years old at baseline and were followed for two additional waves, spaced approximately 2.5 years apart. We hypothesized that harsh and physically coercive parenting, a familial level risk factor, would impact individual level risk factors for ASB, such as childhood temperament ratings of emotionality and inhibitory control, and preadolescent externalizing and internalizing symptoms, as well as involvement with antisocial peers. We further hypothesized that this process and its impact on ASB would be moderated by gender. We used both multiple indicator multiple causes and multiple group analyses to test for gender moderation and a structural equation modeling multiple mediation framework to evaluate the strength of indirect effects. We tested the role of family, individual, and peer level influences on ASB, after accounting for the role of known contextual factors, including poverty, race, and neighborhood. Our overall model fit the data well for males and females, indicating harsh parenting, disinhibition, emotionality, and peers exert a strong influence on risk for ASB. Gender moderated the pathway from harsh parenting to externalizing behavior, such that this was a significant pathway for girls, but not boys. We discussed the importance of these findings with regard to intervention planning for youth at risk for ASB and future gender-informed models of ASB.
Calvin has been traditionally regarded as having consistently interpreted scripture according to its literal sense and having also consistently repudiated non-literal modes of interpretation. This view has been recently challenged, however, by Gary Hansen, who claims that ‘Calvin's theological rules or priorities of interpretation allow for and even require non-literal interpretation of biblical texts’. The issue turns, however, on what interpreting scripture according to the literal sense actually meant for Calvin. Hans Frei claimed Calvin as a champion of the literal sense because he affirmed the primacy of the literal sense with respect to scripture's witness to the identity of Jesus Christ – that is, following the longstanding consensus of the church, Calvin proceeded on the basis that what the scriptures are literally about is not a concept or timeless truth, but the suffering, obedience, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth.
The fact that other so-called ‘non-literal’ modes of interpretation such as allegory appear in Calvin's exegesis should not necessarily, however, be seen as a betrayal of Calvin's commitment to literal interpretation, but rather as evidence of the elasticity of the concept. For Calvin, metaphorical or allegorical interpretations may, to a limited degree, be ascribed to the literal sense, but they must not offend, subvert, or be given independent or equivalent status alongside the literal rendering of the basic story about Jesus depicted in the Gospel narratives.
This essay demonstrates that the literal sense in Calvin is a much more supple notion than many have assumed, especially when one considers his Harmony of the Gospels. Contrary to modernist assumptions and in contrast to a strict, direct identification between signa and res, a tight, irresidual, one-to-one correspondence between what is written and what is written about, Calvin's approach to literal interpretation allows for what Frei called ‘breathing space’.
Interpretations of geologic history would be enhanced if taphonomic processes, including color changes in shells, were better known. This study deals with the origins and alteration of post-mortem colors in podocopid ostracodes. Modern shells were subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures in reactor vessels with sediments, simulating some burial conditions. Fossil shells from outcrops and boreholes were heated and treated with solvents, in an attempt to identify the coloring agent(s).
Modern marine shells are white to pale yellow (Munsell 5Y 8/1 – 2.5Y 8/4). Upon heating at atmosphere, up to about 650°, they became slightly redder, slightly darker, and less color saturated, but never dark (Munsell “value” less than 5). From 650-850° they became yellower and lighter, and above 850° chalky and more yellow. Shells at elevated temperatures and pressures (T-P) with organic-poor sediments and/or iron compounds developed higher color values and lower chromas; they did not become dark. Thus, modern ostracode shells subjected to elevated T-P changed colors, but alone never attained the dark colors seen in many fossils. Only those heated in matured organic-rich sediment and/or crude oils became dark (dark grays, browns, and blacks), like some fossils. Fossil ostracodes from boreholes in Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks showed downhole color differences similar to those from experiments. That is, the colors of fossils are different in hue, value and chroma in different thermal zones and ostracode color appears to be broadly indicative of thermal history.
Fossils near igneous intrusions are dark, while the lowered values and chromas of those in metamorphics also are correlatable with paleotemperatures. Reheated dark fossils lightened at about 375-450°, eventually becoming pale yellow to white, apparently indicating that organic coloring agents were driven off. This, and the fact that modern ostracodes develop dark colors only when heated in organic-rich substances, support the contention that the dark color originates from extrinsic organic materials. Pyritized shells become weak red (Munsell 10R 4/4) upon heating; thus, they can be distinguised from those colored by organics.
Therefore, ostracode colors appear to be diagnostic of T-P and present the potential for use in paleotemperature reconstructions. A wide range of fossils, including conodonts, phosphatic brachiopods, scolecodonts, and palynomorphs are known to show recognizable and useful evidence of thermal maturation and it is proposed that ostracodes be added to the list.
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