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The prevalence of psychotic experiences (PEs) is higher in low-and-middle-income-countries (LAMIC) than in high-income countries (HIC). Here, we examine whether this effect is explicable by measurement bias.
A community sample from 13 countries (N = 7141) was used to examine the measurement invariance (MI) of a frequently used self-report measure of PEs, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), in LAMIC (n = 2472) and HIC (n = 4669). The CAPE measures positive (e.g. hallucinations), negative (e.g. avolition) and depressive symptoms. MI analyses were conducted with multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses.
MI analyses showed similarities in the structure and understanding of the CAPE factors between LAMIC and HIC. Partial scalar invariance was found, allowing for latent score comparisons. Residual invariance was not found, indicating that sum score comparisons are biased. A comparison of latent scores before and after MI adjustment showed both overestimation (e.g. avolition, d = 0.03 into d = −0.42) and underestimation (e.g. magical thinking, d = −0.03 into d = 0.33) of PE in LAMIC relative to HIC. After adjusting the CAPE for MI, participants from LAMIC reported significantly higher levels on most CAPE factors but a significantly lower level of avolition.
Previous studies using sum scores to compare differences across countries are likely to be biased. The direction of the bias involves both over- and underestimation of PEs in LAMIC compared to HIC. Nevertheless, the study confirms the basic finding that PEs are more frequent in LAMIC than in HIC.
Cognitive alterations are a central and heterogeneous trait in psychotic disorders, driven by environmental, familial and illness-related factors. In this study, we aimed to prospectively investigate the impact of high familial risk for cognitive alterations, unconfounded by illness-related factors, on symptomatic outcomes in patients.
In total, 629 probands with non-affective psychosis and their sibling not affected by psychosis were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-year follow-up. Familial cognitive risk was modeled by three cognitive subtypes (‘normal’, ‘mixed’ and ‘impaired’) in the unaffected siblings. Generalized linear mixed models assessed multi-cross-sectional associations between the sibling cognitive subtype and repeated measures of proband symptoms across all assessments. Between-group differences over time were assessed by adding an interaction effect of time and sibling cognitive subtype.
Probands affected by psychosis with a sibling of the impaired cognitive subtype were less likely to be in symptomatic remission and showed more disorganization across all time points. When assessing differences over time, probands of siblings with the impaired cognitive subtype showed less remission and less improvement of disorganization after 3 and 6 years relative to the other subtypes. They also showed less reduction of positive, negative and excitement symptoms at 6-year follow-up compared to probands with a sibling of the normal cognitive subtype.
Cross-sibling pathways from higher levels of familial cognitive vulnerability to worse long-term outcomes may be informative in identifying cognition-related environmental and genetic risks that impact psychotic illness heterogeneity over time.
For patients with severe mental illness (SMI) in residential facilities, adopting a healthy lifestyle is hampered by the obesity promoting (obesogenic) environment.
To determine the effectiveness of a 12-month lifestyle intervention addressing the obesogenic environment with respect to diet and physical activity to improve waist circumference and cardiometabolic risk factors v. care as usual (Dutch Trial Registry: NTR2720).
In a multisite cluster randomised controlled pragmatic trial, 29 care teams were randomised into 15 intervention (365 patients) and 14 control teams (371 patients). Intervention staff were trained to improve the obesogenic environment.
Waist circumference decreased 1.51 cm (95% CI −2.99 to −0.04) in the intervention v. control group after 3 months and metabolic syndrome z-score decreased 0.22 s.d. (95% CI −0.38 to −0.06). After 12 months, the decrease in waist circumference was no longer statistically significantly different (–1.28 cm, 95% CI −2.79 to 0.23, P = 0.097).
Targeting the obesogenic environment of residential patients with SMI has the potential to facilitate reduction of abdominal adiposity and cardiometabolic risk, but maintaining initial reductions over the longer term remains challenging.
Psychoeducation for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an important psychosocial intervention and should be incorporated into all treatment plans. This chapter is based on the clinical experience of the authors in leading psychoeducational groups in which ADHD patients participated at the Outpatients Clinic of the University Medical Centre, Groningen, and the Netherlands. The authors highlight that together with other psychosocial interventions for ADHD, psychoeducation for adults can play a significantly beneficial role. The chapter presents an update of existing research on psychoeducation for adults with ADHD. It outlines a six-session program for individuals with ADHD that incorporates the elements of psychoeducation. The chapter highlights some of the arguments in favor of psychoeducation. It finally makes some clinical suggestions on how to provide psychoeducation to adult patients with ADHD and their partners and family.
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