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Extending Campbell's (1999) staying alive theory (SAT) beyond aggression, we reviewed evidence that females are more self-protective than males. Many commentators provided additional supporting data. Sex differences in life-history adaptations, in the optimal relation between survival and reproduction, and in the mechanisms underlying trade-offs involved with self-protection remain important topics with numerous opportunities for improved understanding.
Many male traits are well explained by sexual selection theory as adaptations to mating competition and mate choice, whereas no unifying theory explains traits expressed more in females. Anne Campbell's “staying alive” theory proposed that human females produce stronger self-protective reactions than males to aggressive threats because self-protection tends to have higher fitness value for females than males. We examined whether Campbell's theory has more general applicability by considering whether human females respond with greater self-protectiveness than males to other threats beyond aggression. We searched the literature for physiological, behavioral, and emotional responses to major physical and social threats, and found consistent support for females' responding with greater self-protectiveness than males. Females mount stronger immune responses to many pathogens; experience a lower threshold to detect, and lesser tolerance of, pain; awaken more frequently at night; express greater concern about physically dangerous stimuli; exert more effort to avoid social conflicts; exhibit a personality style more focused on life's dangers; react to threats with greater fear, disgust, and sadness; and develop more threat-based clinical conditions than males. Our findings suggest that in relation to threat, human females have relatively heightened protective reactions compared to males. The pervasiveness of this result across multiple domains suggests that general mechanisms might exist underlying females' unique adaptations. An understanding of such processes would enhance knowledge of female health and well-being.
Individuals with discordantly high apoB to LDL-cholesterol levels carry a higher risk of atherosclerotic CVD compared with those with average or discordantly low apoB to LDL-cholesterol. We aimed to determine associations between apoB and LDL-cholesterol discordance in relation to nutrient patterns (NP) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Participants were grouped by established LDL-cholesterol and apoB cut-offs (Group 1: low apoB/low LDL-cholesterol, Group 2: low apoB/high LDL-cholesterol, Group 3: high apoB/low LDL-cholesterol, Group 4: high apoB/high LDL-cholesterol). Principle component analysis was used to define NP. Machine learning (ML) and structural equation models were applied to assess associations of nutrient intake with apoB/LDL-cholesterol discordance using the combined effects of apoB and LDL-cholesterol. Three NP explained 63·2 % of variance in nutrient consumption. These consisted of NP1 rich in SFA, carbohydrate and vitamins, NP2 high in fibre, minerals, vitamins and PUFA and NP3 rich in dietary cholesterol, protein and Na. The discordantly high apoB to LDL-cholesterol group had the highest consumption of the NP1 and the lowest consumption of the NP2. ML showed nutrients that had the greatest unfavourable dietary contribution to individuals with discordantly high apoB to LDL-cholesterol were total fat, SFA and thiamine and the greatest favourable contributions were MUFA, folate, fibre and Se. Individuals with discordantly high apoB in relation to LDL-cholesterol had greater adherence to NP1, whereas those with lower levels of apoB, irrespective of LDL-cholesterol, were more likely to consume NP3.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
We study the acylindrical hyperbolicity of groups acting by isometries on CAT(0) cube complexes, and obtain simple criteria formulated in terms of stabilisers for the action. Namely, we show that a group acting essentially and non-elementarily on a finite dimensional irreducible CAT(0) cube complex is acylindrically hyperbolic if there exist two hyperplanes whose stabilisers intersect along a finite subgroup. We also give further conditions on the geometry of the complex so that the result holds if we only require the existence of a single pair of points whose stabilisers intersect along a finite subgroup.
We introduce the concept of a standard form for two embedded maximal sphere systems in the doubled handlebody, and we prove an existence and uniqueness result. In particular, we show that pairs of maximal sphere systems in the doubled handlebody (up to homeomorphism) bijectively correspond to square complexes satisfying a set of properties. This work is a variant on Hatcher's normal form.
We give a proof that there exists a universal constant K such that the disc graph associated to a surface S forming a boundary component of a compact, orientable 3-manifold M is K-quasiconvex in the curve graph of S. Our proof does not require the use of train tracks.
The goal of this survey is to define and explain the Morse boundary of a geodesic space, a generalisation of the Gromov boundary of a hyperbolic space that records the “hyperbolic directions” in the space. This article relates Morse boundaries to the notion of stability, which generalises to arbitrary geodesic spaces the notion of quasiconvexity in hyperbolic spaces.
We construct a family of right-angled Coxeter groups which provide counter-examples to questions about the stable boundary of a group, one-endedness of stable subgroups, and the commensurability types of right-angled Coxeter groups.
These are notes from a mini-course lectured by Denis Osin on acylindrically hyperbolic groups given at Beyond Hyperbolicity in Cambridge in June 2016. In this course we will be looking at acylindrically hyperbolic groups. Such groups make up a large portion of the "universe of finitely presented groups" described in Martin Bridson's course. Through examples of such groups we shall see that this class is indeed a large portion of the universe, but we shall also see that there is much we can prove. In particular, we will discuss results on small-cancellation theory and Dehn fillings, as well as some newer results.
A finitely generated subgroup H of a torsion-free hyperbolic group G is called immutable if there are only finitely many conjugacy classes of injections of H into G. We show that there is no uniform algorithm to recognize immutability, answering a uniform version of a question asked by the authors.
The first part of this survey is a heuristic, non-technical discussion of what an HHS is, and the aim is to provide a good mental picture both to those actively doing research on HHSs and to those who only seek a basic understanding out of pure curiosity. It can be read independently of the second part, which is a detailed technical discussion of the axioms and the main tools to deal with HHSs.