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In April 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced its intention to ban menthol flavoring in cigarettes and cigars. The Agency’s decision was based in part on the disproportionate impact of menthol flavoring in Black communities.
Anti-selection occurs when information asymmetry exists between insurers and applicants. When an applicant knows they are at high risk of loss, but the insurer does not, the applicant may try to use this knowledge differential to secure insurance at a lower premium that does not match risk.
This article assesses why Eurosceptic national parties form groups in the European Parliament and examines in what ways two of these groups – the European Conservatives and Reformists and Europe of Freedom and Democracy – operate in the European Parliament. It draws on interviews with politicians and group officials, roll-call votes and expert judgement data. We look at the group formation process with a focus on the British Conservatives and UK Independence Party and find that the European Conservatives and Reformists group was created with a mixture of policy-seeking and party-management aims. The UK Independence Party's interest in the Europe of Freedom and Democracy group is largely on the basis of the group's provision of distinct practical advantages, such as resources for political campaigns. We provide evidence that hard Eurosceptic and regionalist niche parties in the European Parliament struggle to agree with each other in roll-call votes on a range of subjects. Finally, we show that the hard and soft Eurosceptic parties studied here go about policy-seeking in different ways in the European Parliament in line with their differing principles on the integration process.
The Nakhla meteorite represents basaltic rock from the martian upper crust, with reduced carbon indicative of the ingress of carbonaceous fluids. Study of a terrestrial analogue basalt with reduced carbon from the Ordovician of Northern Ireland shows that remote analysis could detect the carbon using Raman spectroscopy. Analysis of gases released by crushing detects methane-rich fluids in the basalt and especially in cross-cutting carbon-bearing veinlets. The results suggest that automated analysis on Mars could detect the reduced carbon, which may be derived from magmatic and/or meteoritic infall sources.
An important step in understanding Foucault's broader projects is to understand his view of power. Foucault's analyses of power are simultaneously articulated at two levels, the empirical and the theoretical. The first level is constituted by a detailed examination of historically specific modes of power and how these modes emerged out of earlier forms. Hence, he identifies modern forms of power, such as the closely related modes he termed “disciplinary power” and “biopower”, and earlier, premodern forms such as “sovereign power”. Indeed, much of his work on power is devoted to the task of articulating the emergence of later modes of power from earlier ones, and his analyses of disciplinary power in particular have been especially useful for subsequent scholars.
Three very simple examples can illustrate these forms of power. First, imagine a pyramid, with a king at the top, his ministers in the middle and the king's subjects (the people) at the bottom. If the king issues an edict, then his ministers will execute the order, imposing it upon the king's subjects. Traditionally, power has been understood as “being at the top of the pyramid”; and that was all that it was understood to be. But Foucault expands (indeed, totally reconceives) what constitutes power, and shows how this traditional view can be situated within a fuller understanding. He observed that in actual fact, power arises in all kinds of relationships, and can be built up from the bottom of a pyramid (or any structure).
FS CMa objects are a group of hot stars that exhibit the B[e] phenomenon. The group was defined a few years ago on the basis of the formerly known unclassified B[e] stars and newly discovered objects. One of their main features is the presence of hot circumstellar dust whose properties were unknown. We present IR spectra of nearly 20 FS CMa objects obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Dusty features, such as broad silicate bands in emission and narrow bands that are usually explained by PAHs, are detected. The IR fluxes are compared to those detected by IRAS and MSX. Main results of the data analysis are briefly discussed.
The tensile strain in AlGaN layers on GaN is well established to lead to cracking if a critical thickness is reached, unless measures such as interlayers are applied to prevent their formation. However in devices, such as HFETs such an approach is impractical. Growth of AlGaN-GaN structures was carried out by MOVPE using a standard two stage process for the growth of the GaN on sapphire. The crack structures were examined by optical and atomic force microscopy. Studies on thin AlGaN layers on GaN close to the crack critical thickness show the stress centres from which the cracks propagate are threading dislocations with cracks often initially forming to link together these stress centres if they are in close proximity. These cracks then extend and “lock” into the generally observed 〈2110〉 direction in more highly strained layers. A macroscopically uniform crack array is observed in these thin AlGaN samples.
The mdx mouse is the most commonly used animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We tested the null hypothesis that 20 weeks of clenbuterol treatment (∼2 mg kg-1 day-1) of mdx and control mice would have no effect on the absolute and specific force (Po, kN m-2) and absolute and normalised power output (W kg-1) of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles. For mdx and control mice, clenbuterol treatment produced modest increases in the mass of the two muscles but did not increase absolute or specific force or normalised power output. For absolute power output, only the EDL muscles of mdx mice showed a difference following treatment, with the power output of treated mice being 118 % that of the untreated mice. The modest effects of clenbuterol treatment on the dynamic properties of skeletal muscle provide little support for any improvement in muscle function for the dystrophic condition. Experimental Physiology (2000) 85.3, 295-299.
This work reports longitudinal evaluation of the speech-like vocal development of infants born at risk due to prematurity or low socio-economic status (SES) and infants not subject to such risk. Twenty infants were preterm (10 of low SES) and 33 were full term (16 of low SES), and all were studied from 0;4 through 1;6. The study provides the indication that at-risk infants are not generally delayed in the ability to produce well-formed speech-like sounds as indicated in taperecorded vocal samples. At the same time, premature infants show a tendency to produce well-formed syllables less consistently than full terms after the point at which parents and laboratory personnel note the onset of the canonical babbling stage (the point after which well-formed syllables are well established in the infant vocal repertoires). Further, even though low SES infants produce well-formed speech-like structures on schedule, they show a reliably lower tendency to vocalize in general, as reflected by fewer utterances per minute in recorded samples.
Near IR grating spectrophotometric observations (λ / Δλ ≃ 400 ) of Nova Ophiuchi 1988 between 0.9 and 1.35 μm on September 22.2, 1988 UT (J.D. = 2447426.7) are reported. We observed the nova with the Lick Observatory 3–meter Shane telescope using the Aerospace cooled grating spectrometer. A 7.5 arc sec aperture was used. The detector was a germanium photodiode, cooled to 77 K and used in conjunction with a charge integrating amplifier. These are the first IR observations ever made of a slow nova.
Figure 1 shows the spectrum which contains Paschen emission lines β, γ δ, ε, ζ, η, He I λ1.083 μm, and a very weak continuum, all consistent with a post-maximum, early nebular phase. Figure 1 also shows a number of possible weak lines including [ Fe II ] and He I as well as an unidentified feature at 1.01 μm in the far red wing of Paδ. The line to continuum ratio for He I λ1.083 is about 300. The emission lines are resolved in the stronger features ( Paδ Paζ, Paβ, and He I λ1.083) and show a mean FWHM of 900 ± 150 km/sec.
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