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Resistance to colistin, a last resort antibiotic, has emerged in India. We investigated colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae(ColR-KP) in a hospital in India to describe infections, characterize resistance of isolates, compare concordance of detection methods, and identify transmission events.
Retrospective observational study.
Case-patients were defined as individuals from whom ColR-KP was isolated from a clinical specimen between January 2016 and October 2017. Isolates resistant to colistin by Vitek 2 were confirmed by broth microdilution (BMD). Isolates underwent colistin susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and whole-genome sequencing. Medical records were reviewed.
Of 846 K. pneumoniae isolates, 34 (4%) were colistin resistant. In total, 22 case-patients were identified. Most (90%) were male; their median age was 33 years. Half were transferred from another hospital; 45% died. Case-patients were admitted for a median of 14 days before detection of ColR-KP. Also, 7 case-patients (32%) received colistin before detection of ColR-KP. All isolates were resistant to carbapenems and susceptible to tigecycline. Isolates resistant to colistin by Vitek 2 were also resistant by BMD; 2 ColR-KP isolates were resistant by disk diffusion. Moreover, 8 multilocus sequence types were identified. Isolates were negative for mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes. Based on sequencing analysis, in-hospital transmission may have occurred with 8 case-patients (38%).
Multiple infections caused by highly resistant, mcr-negative ColR-KP with substantial mortality were identified. Disk diffusion correlated poorly with Vitek 2 and BMD for detection of ColR-KP. Sequencing indicated multiple importation and in-hospital transmission events. Enhanced detection for ColR-KP may be warranted in India.
The importance of a planned and coordinated approach to the initial resuscitation, stabilisation and subsequent management of babies born between 27 and 28 completed weeks' gestation was emphasised in the Confidential Enquiries of Stillbirths and Deaths in Infancy (CESDI) Project 27/28 Enquiry (Mackintosh 2003). This chapter covers many of the aspects of care that the report highlighted as contributing to optimising the care of the premature infant. More than 90% of the babies studied for the CESDI report required resuscitation. Having a resuscitation system based on the needs of infants is the recommended approach. The resuscitation guidelines used by the neonatal life support course have been formalised for the term neonate based on combined evidence from the limited pool of resuscitation trials, consensus views on best practice and experimental animal models (Kattwinkel et al. 1999; Niermeyer et al. 2000). The basic approach to resuscitating a preterm neonate is similar to that of the term neonate with emphasis on maintaining body heat and possible earlier progression to advanced manoeuvres to stabilise the airway and administer exogenous surfactant.
Communication forms a cornerstone of the management of imminent preterm deliveries. Liaison between the delivery suite and the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is thus essential to ensure that potential problems are anticipated and that appropriate cot spaces are available.
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