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Understanding how and under what circumstances a highly effective psychological intervention, improved symptoms of depression is important to maximise its clinical effectiveness.
To address this complexity, we estimate the indirect effects of potentially important mediators to improve symptoms of depression (measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)) in the Healthy Activity Program trial.
Interventional in(direct) effects were used to decompose the total effect of the intervention on PHQ-9 scores into the direct and indirect effects. The following indirect effects were considered: characteristics of sessions, represented by the number of sessions and homework completed; behavioural activation, according to an adapted version of the Behavioural Activation for Depression Scale – Short Form; and extra sessions offered to participants who did not respond to the intervention.
Of the total effect of the intervention measured through the difference in PHQ-9 scores between treatment arms (mean difference: −2.1, bias-corrected 95% CI −3.2 to −1.5), 34% was mediated through improved levels of behavioural activation (mean difference: −0.7, bias-corrected 95% CI −1.2 to −0.4). There was no evidence to support the mediating role of characteristics of the sessions nor the extra sessions offered to participants who did not respond to the treatment.
Findings from our robust mediation analyses confirmed the importance of targeting behavioural activation. Contrary to published literature, our findings suggest that neither the number of sessions nor proportion of homework completed improved outcomes. Moreover, in this context, alternative treatments other than extra sessions should be considered for patients who do not respond to the intervention.
Our Palaeolithic ancestors did not make good representations of themselves on the rocky surfaces of caves and barring certain exceptions – such as the case of La Marche (found on small slabs of stone or plaquettes) or the Cueva de Ambrosio – the few known examples can only be referred to as anthropomorphs. As such, only hand stencils give us a real picture of the people who came before us. Hand stencils and imprints provide us with a large amount of information that allows us to approach not only their physical appearance but also to infer less tangible details, such as the preferential use of one hand over the other (i.e., handedness). Both new and/or mature technologies as well as digital processing of images, computers with the ability to process very high resolution images, and a more extensive knowledge of the Palaeolithic figures all help us to analyse thoroughly the hands in El Castillo cave. The interdisciplinary study presented here contributes many novel developments based on real data, representing a major step forward in knowledge about our predecessors.
One of the main health-related worries for older adults is becoming dependent. Even healthy older adults may worry about becoming dependent, generating guilt feelings due to the anticipation of future needs that others must solve. The guilt associated with self-perception as a burden has not been studied in older adults, and there is no instrument available to measure these feelings.
To adapt the Self-Perceived Burden Scale (SPBS; Cousineau et al., 2003) for the assessment of feelings of guilt for perceiving oneself as a burden for the family in older adults without explicit functional or cognitive impairment.
Participants were 298 older adults living independently in the community. Participants completed the assessment protocol, which included measures of guilt associated with self-perception as a burden, depressive and anxious symptomatology, self-perceived burden, and sociodemographic information.
Results from exploratory, parallel and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the scale, named Guilt associated with Self-Perception as a Burden Scale (G-SPBS), has a unidimensional structure, explaining 57.04% of the variance of guilt. Good reliability was found (Cronbach’s alpha = .94). The results revealed significant (p < .01) positive associations with depressive and anxious symptomatology.
These findings suggest that the G-SPBS shows good psychometric properties which endorse its use with healthy community older adults. Also, guilt associated with perceiving oneself as a burden seems to be a relevant variable that can contribute to improving our understanding of psychological distress in older adults.
Astronomy is connected with the every day experiences of the people, since the observation of simple and repetitive phenomena, as the succesion of days and nights, untill events of high impact, as the total solar eclipses. In this sense, the Astronomy is a fascinating activity and can be used to inspire interest in sciences in general. In this contribution, we introduce the Network of Astronmy School Education as part of the IAU proposals connected with teaching training programs, and we highlight several examples on the specific topic of the eclipses: their importance and connection with the culture, that can capture students attention if we use the workshops as part of the classes.
Ibn al-Haytham (known as Alhazen in occident), extensively studied the camera obscura phenomenon in the early 11th century. This instrument was used to obtain the projected image of a landscape on the screen and also was addopte by the scientists and famous painters along the centuries, to experiment with it until their final evolution as the modern photografic camera. The resource in the simple version of the “pinhole camera” can be used at the classroom to experience several phenomena, such us solar eclipses and Moon phases, and to each about optics and geometry. This contribution presents an application of this ingeniuos tool in the framework of solar eclipses, where the scale models are important to understand what really happens with the Sun-Earth-Moon system.
Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools used to develop continuous predictions of species occurrence. ‘Integrated SDMs’ (ISDMs) are an elaboration of this approach with potential advantages that allow for the dual use of opportunistically collected presence-only data and site-occupancy data from planned surveys. These models also account for survey bias and imperfect detection through the use of a hierarchical modelling framework that separately estimates the species–environment response and detection process. This is particularly helpful for conservation applications and predictions for rare species, where data are often limited and prediction errors may have significant management consequences. Despite this potential importance, ISDMs remain largely untested under a variety of scenarios. We performed an exploration of key modelling decisions and assumptions on an ISDM using the endangered Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) as a test species. We found that site area had the strongest effect on the magnitude of population estimates and underlying intensity surface and was driven by estimates of model intercepts. Selecting a site area that accounted for the individual movements of the species within an average home range led to population estimates that coincided with expert estimates. ISDMs that do not account for the individual movements of species will likely lead to less accurate estimates of species intensity (number of individuals per unit area) and thus overall population estimates. This bias could be severe and highly detrimental to conservation actions if uninformed ISDMs are used to estimate global populations of threatened and data-deficient species, particularly those that lack natural history and movement information. However, the ISDM was consistently the most accurate model compared to other approaches, which demonstrates the importance of this new modelling framework and the ability to combine opportunistic data with systematic survey data. Thus, we recommend researchers use ISDMs with conservative movement information when estimating population sizes of rare and data-deficient species. ISDMs could be improved by using a similar parameterization to spatial capture–recapture models that explicitly incorporate animal movement as a model parameter, which would further remove the need for spatial subsampling prior to implementation.
In this paper, the feedback linearization approach is used to introduce a motion controller for unicycle-type wheeled mobile robots (UWMRs). The output function is defined as a linear combination of the error state. The novel scheme is firstly tested in numerical simulation and compared with its corresponding experimental result. Three controllers are taken from the literature and compared to the proposed approach by means of experiments. The gains of the experimentally tested controllers are selected to obtain identical energy consumption. The Optitrack commercial vision system and Pioneer P3-DX UWMR are used in real-time experimental tests. In addition, two sets of experimental results for different motion tasks are provided. The results show that the proposed controller presents the best tracking accuracy.
The aim of this investigation was to study castor, canola, and sesame vegetable oils in order to evaluate their potential use as lubricants in steel mechanical components. For this purpose, densities of each oil were evaluated using the pycnometer method, as well as their dynamic viscosities through a Brookfield DV-II rotational viscometer. Both properties were evaluated at temperatures of 25, 40 and 100 °C. Additionally, viscosity indexes were determined according to ASTM D 2270. These rheological properties were used to estimate the lubrication regime considering parameters of real contact conditions in mechanical components. Friction and wear analyses were carried out to investigate the behaviour of the vegetable oil as lubricants. Such tests were carried out at room temperature on a CSM tribometer with pin-on-disk configuration by using castor, canola and sesame oils as lubricants. AISI 4140 hardened steel against AISI 100Cr6 steel pin was used as a mechanical component. From the rheological study, it was observed that canola and sesame oils behave as dilatant fluids at the evaluated temperatures, while castor oil behaves like a Newtonian fluid at 25 and 40 °C. Castor oil showed the highest density value among oils studied, but it also exhibited the lowest value of viscosity index (271). Contrarily, sesame oil was the least dense, but it exhibited the highest viscosity index (545). On the other hand, the lubrication regime study showed that by using castor oil as a lubricant in the mechanical component (4140/100Cr6), the system worked in a mixed lubrication regime while by using canola and sesame oils the system operated in boundary lubrication conditions. Finally, the kinetic friction coefficients were different for each lubricant obtaining the lowest value with castor oil while the highest value of friction coefficient was exhibited by the sesame oil lubricant.
The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of substrate roughness on the adhesion and tribological performance of thin TiN coatings obtained by physical vapor deposition. For that purpose, substrates of AISI H13 steel with surface finishes of 0.06, 0.28 and 0.90 μm in Ra were coated with TiN under the same coating conditions. The chemical composition of the steel, as well as that of the TiN coating, were obtained using EDS analysis. Adhesion tests were carried out following the procedure of BSi 1071-8 standard while hardness was evaluated by ASTM C 1327-03. On the other hand, dry sliding friction tests were conducted with a pin-on-disk tribometer, according to the ASTM G 99-05 standard. This study showed that the roughness of the coating increases as the substrate roughness increases. Regarding adhesion and hardness, all the samples showed an adhesion class 1 according to the standard and a hardness value of 14.51 GPa. Nevertheless, the highest substrate roughness produced the best adhesion. On the other hand, the lowest values for the friction coefficient and wear behavior were obtained by the sample with the lowest substrate roughness of 0.06 µm. In addition, it was found that friction and wear increase when the substrate roughness increases.
Throughout its range in Latin America the jaguar Panthera onca is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, and conflict with humans. Protected areas in Panama harbour some of the last remaining suitable habitat for jaguars and are vital to conservation. However, no previous studies had assessed which factors in particular affect the tolerance of rural Panamanians towards jaguars and National Park conservation, which is important to jaguar persistence. Whether these factors are consistent with previous research on human–carnivore coexistence is unclear. To address this we estimated the number of instances of depredation of cattle by jaguars, and assessed attitudes and perceptions of rural Panamanians. We conducted semi-structured interviews in two disparate study areas: Cerro Hoya National Park and Darién National Park. Depredation events were more frequent in the latter, but only residents of the former reported conflict between people and coyotes Canis latrans. Positive perceptions of jaguars and National Parks, and criticism of park management, increased with level of education and land ownership. Men were more open to receiving help on their farms to mitigate impacts of jaguars, and more tolerant of the presence of jaguars, than women. Residents from both study areas indicated high appreciation for their respective National Parks. We provide recommendations to improve community outreach and education initiatives, and suggest priority areas for future mitigation efforts concerning human–jaguar interactions in Panama.
Traditionally, islands have been used as ecological and biogeographical models because of their assumed ecological simplicity, reduced ecosystem size and isolation. The vast number of Earth's oceanic islands play a key role in maintaining global biodiversity and serve as a rich source of evolutionary novelty. Research into the factors determining diversity patterns on islands must disentangle natural phenomena from anthropogenic causes of habitat transformation, interruption and enhancement of biological fluxes and species losses and gains in these geographically and ecologically limited environments. The anthropogenic ecological forcing of communication through global transport has profound implications regarding island–continent links. Anthropogenic disturbances along continental margins and insular coasts contribute to shaping island biotas in ecological time, but also have evolutionary consequences of global resonance. Patterns of human landscape and resource use (geographical space and ecological communities and species), as well as increasing ecological connectivity of oceanic islands and mainland, are chief driving forces in island biogeography that should be reappraised. Global indirect effects of human activities (i.e. climate change) may also affect islands and interact with these processes. We review the implications of direct and indirect anthropogenic disturbances on island biotic patterns, focusing on island size, isolation and introduced exotic species, as well as the unsettled issue of oceanic island ecological vulnerability.
Protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) causes a significant impairment of the immune system, the thymus being one of the most affected organs. It has been demonstrated that the administration of probiotic fermented milk (PFM) recovered the intestinal barrier, histological alterations and mucosal and systemic immune functions in a non-severe malnutrition model using BALB/c mice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in the same model of malnutrition, the effect of a PFM added to a re-nutrition diet on the recovery of the thymus, analysing histological and functional alterations caused by malnutrition. Mice were undernourished and divided into three groups according to the dietary supplement received during re-nutrition: milk, PFM or its bacterial-free supernatant (BFS). They were compared with well-nourished and malnourished mice. PFM was the most effective re-nutrition supplement to improve the histology of the thymus, decreasing cellular apoptosis in this organ and recovering the percentage of CD4+/CD8− single-positive thymocytes. Immature double-positive thymocytes were increased in the malnourished control (MC). The production of different cytokines in the thymus was increased in mice given PFM, compared with the mice that received other dietary supplements and MC. Mice given the BFS presented an improvement in the thymus similar to those that received milk. We demonstrated the importance of the whole PFM supplementation on the histological and functional recovery of the thymus in a non-severe PEM model.
We assess the national conservation status of the amphibians and reptiles of Morocco by applying the IUCN Red List Criteria at the national level and assess its utility as a planning tool to establish regional priorities for conservation. We rely on the accessory data accompanying regional red lists, mainly distribution range and habitats used by, and threats affecting, species of conservation concern. We also correlated some natural history traits to examine the nature and causes of the risk of extinction. With 13 species of amphibians (31% regionally threatened) and 99 species of reptiles (14% regionally threatened), Morocco is one of the Mediterranean countries with the highest diversity of herpetofauna, mainly because of the high percentage of endemism (amphibians 31%, reptiles 24%). The relative frequencies of threatened species were found to be contingent on both taxonomic group and habitat. The overwhelming importance of the threats of small range and number of habitats used by species is different from the threats to the same species at the global level; this demonstrates the usefulness of national or regional analyses of conservation status for setting conservation priorities. The importance of regional assessment derives from the fact that the boundaries set for conservation management are mainly political rather than biogeographical.
The intestinal ecosystem contains a normal microbiota, non-immune cells and immune cells associated with the intestinal mucosa. The mechanisms involved in the modulation of the gut immune system by probiotics are not yet completely understood. The present work studies the effect of a fermented milk containing probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus (Lb.) casei DN114001 on different parameters of the gut immune system involved with the nonspecific, innate and adaptive response. BALB/c mice received the probiotic bacterium Lb. casei DN114001 or the probiotic fermented milk (PFM). The interaction of the probiotic bacteria with the intestine was studied by electron and fluorescence microscopy. The immunological parameters were studied in the intestinal tissue and in the supernatant of intestinal cells (IC). Results showed that the probiotic bacterium interact with the IC. The whole bacterium or its fragments make contact with the gut associated immune cells. The PFM stimulated the IC with IL-6 release, as well as cells related to the nonspecific barrier and with the immune cells associated with the gut. This last activity was observed through the increase in the population of different immune cells: T lymphocytes and IgA+ B lymphocytes, and by the expression of cell markers related to both innate and adaptive response (macrophages). PFM was also able to activate the enzyme calcineurine responsible for the activation of the transcriptional factor NFAT. PFM induced mucosal immune stimulation reinforcing the non-specific barrier and modulating the innate immune response in the gut, maintaining the intestinal homeostasis.
Operational space control of industrial robots is addressed in this document. We analyze a two-loop hierarchical control with the resolved motion rate controller (RMRC) as outer loop and the joint velocity PI controller as inner loop; the latter is the typical velocity controller used in industrial robots. We prove, by the first time, that these simple controllers make the solutions of the closed-loop system uniformly ultimately bounded. Additionally, we give some simple guidelines for the selection of the control gains so as to ensure an explicit bound of the tracking error.
This paper presents the Nursing Motives for Helping Scale (N-MHS), an instrument designed for the evaluation of three of the four motives for helping derived from Batson's helping pathway theory. Dimensionality was analyzed by means of principal component analysis (n = 113), followed by confirmatory factor analysis. A 3-factor structure (corresponding to Batson's differentiation among altruistic motivation, reward-seeking motivation, and punishment-avoidance motivation, respectively), with 9 items distributed in three latent variables, revealed an acceptable fit to the data. Alpha values (.60 - .74) showed that internal consistency was acceptable for a newly developed subscale with a small number of items. Convergence validity was evaluated with correlations between N-MHS subscales scores and scores on the Professional Expectations Scale (Garrosa, Moreno-Jiménez, Rodríguez-Carvajal, & Morante, 2005). The three resulting subscales are a promising instrument for the evaluation of three nursing motives for helping that can contribute to reduce the potential risks and to improve the potential benefits both for the nurse and the patient.
Living morphogenetic studies show that each definitive ventricle is constructed from different primitive cardiac segments, and each has its specific anatomical features. These ventricular segments are the atrioventricular junction; the primitive inlet segment, part of the primary heart tube, which initially provides the inlets of each ventricle; the primitive outlet segment, which gives rise to both ventricular outlets; and the apical trabeculated regions of the right and left ventricles which grow from the primary heart tube, respectively. In this review, we describe regional pathology based on the relationship of these primitive ventricular components. We propose that the abnormal morphogenesis of one of these segments gives origin to regional ventricular pathology. For example, abnormal embryogenesis of the atrioventricular canal produces malformations of the atrioventricular junctions, such as double inlet ventricle, absence of one atrioventricular connection, and straddling and overriding atrioventricular valves. Similarly, abnormal morphogenesis of the primitive outlet segment gives rise to malformations of the subarterial region of each ventricle, along with the valves guarding these vessels. The principal anatomical features of these malformations of the ventricular inlets and outlets are described, and their possible morphogenesis is discussed. Due to the fact that the apical trabeculated region of each ventricle arises from a separate primitive segment, each ventricle can be identified according to the pattern of its apical trabeculations. This feature is crucial in the elucidation of complex congenital pathology, such as discordant atrioventricular connections.
An analysis of forelimb and hindlimb skeletal morphology of 15 passerine genera was performed to investigate the likely existence of an ecomorphological pattern relating morphology to migratory behaviour. Each genus was represented by a pair of species, one being sedentary and another migrant. Using a phylogenetic comparative method we found migrant species having longer sternum, deeper keel and longer coracoids than non-migrant species. Hindlimb morphology was not related to migration. These results are interpreted as adaptations for migrants favouring flight ability, as the larger the sternum and the coracoids the greater the surface available for attachment of the main muscles involved in active flight.
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