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Reducing Na intake is an urgent global challenge, especially in East Asia and high-income Asia-Pacific regions. However, the sources of Na and their effects on urinary Na excretion have not been fully studied. We sought to clarify these sources and their association with urinary Na excretion. We examined four 3-d weighed food records and five 24-h urinary collections from each of 253 participants in Japan, aged 35–80 years, between 2012 and 2013. We compared the levels of Na according to four categories: foods contributing to discretionary or non-discretionary Na intake, the situation in which dishes were cooked and consumed, food groups and types of cuisine. We also conducted regression analysis in which 24-h urinary Na excretion was a dependent variable and the amounts of food intake in the four categories were independent variables. Levels of Na were the highest in discretionary intake (60·6 %) and in home-prepared dishes (84·0 %). Of the food groups, miso soup showed the highest percentage contribution to Na intake (13·3 %) after seasonings such as soya sauce. In the regression analysis, the standardised coefficient for foods of non-discretionary Na sources was larger than that for discretionary sources, whereas that for home-prepared dishes was consistent with the levels of Na in those foods. Pickled products, followed by fresh fish and shellfish, miso soup and rice, were associated with high urinary Na excretion. Thus, discretionary foods (such as miso soup) contribute the most to Na consumption, although non-discretionary intake (such as pickled vegetables) may influence urinary Na excretion.
The association between the intake of non-alcoholic beverages and CVD in Asians is uncertain. The intake of non-alcoholic beverages was estimated in 77 407 participants of the Japan Public Health Centre-based cohort study aged 45–74 years. The Cox regression calculated the hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for incident CVD according to sex-specific quintiles of intake of non-alcoholic beverages. A total of 4578 incident CVD (3751 strokes and 827 CHD) were diagnosed during a 13·6-year median follow-up. The risks of stroke and total CVD were lower for the highest v. lowest intake quintiles of non-alcoholic beverages in men and women: the multivariable HRs (95 % CIs) were 0·82 (0·71, 0·93, Ptrend = 0·005) and 0·86 (0·76, 0·97, Ptrend = 0·02), respectively, in men and were 0·73 (0·63, 0·86, Ptrend = 0·003) and 0·75 (0·65, 0·87, Ptrend = 0·005), respectively, in women. The reduced risk was evident for both ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes and was mainly attributable to green tea consumption. The intake of non-alcoholic beverages from coffee and other beverages was not associated with the risk of CVD in both men and women. Also, there was no association between the intake of non-alcoholic beverages and the risk of CHD in either sex. In conclusion, the risks of stroke and total CVD were lower with a higher intake of non-alcoholic beverages in Japanese men and women.
We examine the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a subsample of participants in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Cohort Study using a database of polyphenol-containing foods commonly consumed in the Japanese population. Participants of the validation study were recruited from two different cohorts. In Cohort I, 215 participants completed a 28-d dietary record (DR) and the FFQ, and in Cohort II, 350 participants completed DRs and the FFQ. The total polyphenol intake estimated from the 28-d DR and FFQ were log-transformed and adjusted for energy intake by the residual method. Spearman correlation coefficients (CCs) between estimates from the FFQ and 28-d DR as well as two FFQs administered at a 1-year interval were computed. Median intakes of dietary polyphenols calculated from the DRs were 1172 mg/d for men and 1024 mg/d for women in Cohort I, and 1061 mg/d for men and 942 mg/d for women in Cohort II. The de-attenuated CCs for polyphenol intake between the DR and FFQ were 0⋅47 for men and 0⋅37 for women in Cohort I and 0⋅44 for men and 0⋅50 for women in Cohort II. Non-alcoholic beverages were the main contributor to total polyphenol intake in both men and women, accounting for 50 % of total polyphenol intake regardless of cohort and gender, followed by alcoholic beverages and seasoning and spices in men, and seasoning and spices, fruits and other vegetables in women. The present study showed that this FFQ had moderate validity and reproducibility and is suitable for use in future epidemiological studies.
Little is known about predictors of decline in vitamin D status (vitamin D decline) over time. We aimed to determine demographic and lifestyle variables associated with vitamin D decline by sufficiently controlling for seasonal effects of vitamin D uptake in a middle-aged to elderly population. Using a longitudinal study design within the larger framework of the Murakami Cohort Study, we examined 1044 individuals aged between 40 and 74 years, who provided blood samples at baseline and at 5-year follow-up, the latter of which were taken on a date near the baseline examination (±14 d). Blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were determined with the Liaison® 25OH Vitamin D Total Assay. A self-administered questionnaire collected demographic, body size and lifestyle information. Vitamin D decline was defined as the lowest tertile of 5-year changes in blood 25(OH)D (Δ25(OH)D) concentration (<6·7 nmol/l). Proportions of those with vitamin D decline were 182/438 (41·6 %) in men and 166/606 (27·4 %) in women (P < 0·0001). In men, risk of vitamin D decline was significantly lower in those with an outdoor occupation (P = 0·0099) and those with the highest quartile of metabolic equivalent score (OR 0·34; 95 % CI 0·14, 0·83), and higher in those with ‘university or higher’ levels of education (OR 2·92; 95 % CI 1·04, 8·19). In women, risk of vitamin D decline tended to be lower with higher levels of vitamin D intake (Pfor trend = 0·0651) and green tea consumption (Pfor trend = 0·0025). Predictors of vitamin D decline differ by sex, suggesting that a sex-dependent intervention may help to maintain long-term vitamin D levels.
Although dietary Ca, vitamin D and vitamin K are nutritional factors associated with osteoporosis, little is known about their effects on incident osteoporotic fractures in East Asian populations. This study aimed to determine whether intakes of these nutrients predict incident osteoporotic fractures. We adopted a cohort study design with a 5-year follow-up. Subjects were 12 794 community-dwelling individuals (6301 men and 6493 women) aged 40–74 years. Dietary intakes of Ca, vitamin D and vitamin K were assessed with a validated FFQ. Covariates were demographic and lifestyle factors. All incident cases of major osteoporotic limb fractures, including those of the distal forearm, neck of humerus, neck or trochanter of femur and lumbar or thoracic spine were collected. Hazard ratios (HR) for energy-adjusted Ca, vitamin D and vitamin K were calculated with the residual method. Mean age was 58·8 (sd 9·3) years. Lower energy-adjusted intakes of Ca and vitamin K in women were associated with higher adjusted HR of total fractures (Pfor trend = 0·005 and 0·08, respectively). When vertebral fracture was the outcome, Pfor trend values for Ca and vitamin K were 0·03 and 0·006, respectively, and HR of the lowest and highest (reference) intake groups were 2·03 (95 % CI 1·08, 3·82) and 2·26 (95 % CI 1·19, 4·26), respectively. In men, there were null associations between incident fractures and each of the three nutrient intakes. Lower intakes of dietary Ca and vitamin K were independent lifestyle-related risk factors for osteoporotic fracture in women but not men. These associations were robust for vertebral fractures, but not for limb fractures.
Evidence that diet is associated with breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Most of the studies have focused on risks associated with specific foods and nutrients, rather than overall diet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in Japanese women. A total of 49 552 Japanese women were followed-up from 1995 to 1998 (5-year follow-up survey) until the end of 2012 for an average of 14·6 years. During 725 534 person-years of follow-up, 718 cases of breast cancer were identified. We identified three dietary patterns (prudent, westernised and traditional Japanese). The westernised dietary pattern was associated with a 32 % increase in breast cancer risk (hazard ratios (HR) 1·32; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·70; Ptrend=0·04). In particular, subjects with extreme intake of the westernised diet (quintile (Q) Q5_5th) had an 83 % increase in risk of breast cancer in contrast to those in the lowest Q1 (HR 1·83; 95 % CI 1·25, 2·68; Ptrend=0·01). In analyses stratified by menopausal status, postmenopausal subjects in the highest quintile of the westernised dietary pattern had a 29 % increased risk of breast cancer (HR 1·29; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·76; Ptrend=0·04). With regard to hormone receptor status, the westernised dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of oestrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positivetumours (HR 2·49; 95 % CI 1·40, 4·43; Ptrend<0·01). The other dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. A westernised dietary pattern is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.
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