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Research indicates that green tea extract (GTE) supplementation is beneficial for a range of conditions, including several forms of cancer, cardiovascular, and liver diseases; nevertheless, the existing evidence addressing its effects on body composition, oxidative stress, and obesity-related hormones is inconclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effects of GTE supplementation on body composition (body mass [BM], body fat percentage [BFP], fat mass [FM], body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC]), obesity-related hormones (leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin) and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]) markers. We searched proper databases, including PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science, up to July 2022 to recognize published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of GTE supplementation on the markers mentioned above. A random-effects model was used to carry out a meta-analysis. The heterogeneity among the studies was assessed using the I2 index. Among the initial 11286 studies identified from an electronic database search, 59 studies involving 3802 participants were eligible to be included in this meta-analysis. Pooled effect sizes indicated that BM, BFP, BMI, and MDA significantly reduced following GTE supplementation. In addition, GTE supplementation increased adiponectin and TAC, with no effects on FM, leptin, and ghrelin. Certainty of evidence across outcomes ranged from low to high. Our results suggest that GTE supplementation can attenuate oxidative stress, BM, BMI, and BFP, which are thought to negatively affect human health. Moreover, GTE as a nutraceutical dietary supplement can increase TAC and adiponectin.
Prior meta-analytic investigations over a decade ago rather inconclusively indicated that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation could improve anthropometric and body composition indices in the general adult population. More recent investigations have emerged, and an up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis on this topic must be improved. Therefore, this investigation provides a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) on the impact of CLA supplementation on anthropometric and body composition (body mass (BM), BMI, waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM), body fat percentage (BFP) and fat-free mass (FFM)) markers in adults. Online databases search, including PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science up to March 2022, were utilised to retrieve RCT examining the effect of CLA supplementation on anthropometric and body composition markers in adults. Meta-analysis was carried out using a random-effects model. The I2 index was used as an index of statistical heterogeneity of RCT. Among the initial 8351 studies identified from electronic databases search, seventy RCT with ninety-six effect sizes involving 4159 participants were included for data analyses. The results of random-effects modelling demonstrated that CLA supplementation significantly reduced BM (weighted mean difference (WMD): −0·35, 95 % CI (−0·54, −0·15), P < 0·001), BMI (WMD: −0·15, 95 % CI (−0·24, −0·06), P = 0·001), WC (WMD: −0·62, 95% CI (−1·04, −0·20), P = 0·004), FM (WMD: −0·44, 95 % CI (−0·66, −0·23), P < 0·001), BFP (WMD: −0·77 %, 95 % CI (−1·09, −0·45), P < 0·001) and increased FFM (WMD: 0·27, 95 % CI (0·09, 0·45), P = 0·003). The high-quality subgroup showed that CLA supplementation fails to change FM and BFP. However, according to high-quality studies, CLA intake resulted in small but significant increases in FFM and decreases in BM and BMI. This meta-analysis study suggests that CLA supplementation may result in a small but significant improvement in anthropometric and body composition markers in an adult population. However, data from high-quality studies failed to show CLA’s body fat-lowering properties. Moreover, it should be noted that the weight-loss properties of CLA were small and may not reach clinical importance.
Recent meta-analytic work indicated that guar gum supplementation might improve lipid profile markers in different populations. However, critical methodological limitations such as the use of some unreliable data and the lack of inclusion of several relevant studies, and the scarcity in assessments of regression and dose-specific effects make it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions from the meta-analysis. Therefore, current evidence regarding the effects of guar gum supplementation on lipid profile remains unclear. The present systematic review, meta-regression and dose–response meta-analysis aimed to examine the effects of guar gum supplementation on lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), LDL, TAG and HDL) in adults. Relevant studies were obtained by searching the PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase and Web of Science databases (from inception to September 2021). Weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95 % CI were estimated via a random-effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were reported using standard methods. Pooled analysis of nineteen randomised controlled trials (RCT) revealed that guar gum supplementation led to significant reductions in TC (WMD: −19·34 mg/dl, 95 % CI −26·18, −12·49, P < 0·001) and LDL (WMD: −16·19 mg/dl, 95 % CI −25·54, −6·83, P = 0·001). However, there was no effect on TAG and HDL among adults in comparison with control group. Our outcomes suggest that guar gum supplementation lowers TC and LDL in adults. Future large RCT on various populations are needed to show further beneficial effects of guar gum supplementation on lipid profile and establish guidelines for clinical practice.
Previous studies have advocated that collagen peptide supplementation (CPS) can positively affect cardiovascular health. However, the widespread impact of CPS on CVD-related markers is not fully resolved. Consequently, the current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of CPS on CVD-related markers. A systematic search in the Scopus, PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases were completed to identify relevant randomised, placebo-controlled trials (RCT) published up to November 2021. Mean Differences were pooled using a random-effects model, while publication bias, sensitivity analyses and heterogeneity were assessed using previously validated methods. Twelve RCT, comprising of a total of eleven measured markers, were selected for the quantitative analysis. Pooled data revealed that CPS significantly decreased fat mass (–1·21 kg; 95 % CI: −2·13, −0·29; I2 = 0·0 %; P = 0·010) and increased fat-free mass, based on body mass percentage (1·49 %; 95 % CI: 0·57, 2·42; I2 = 0·0 %; P = 0·002). Moreover, collagen peptide supplementation led to a significant decrease in serum LDL (–4·09 mg/dl; 95 % CI: −8·13, −0·04; I2 = 93·4 %; P = 0·048) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (–5·04 mmHg; 95 % CI: −9·22, −0·85; I2 = 98·9 %; P = 0·018). Our analysis also indicated that CPS did not affect glycemic markers. Our outcomes indicate that CPS reduces fat mass, LDL and SBP while increasing fat-free mass. Future investigations with longer CPS duration are needed to expand on our results.
Previous studies evaluating the effects of betaine supplementation on body composition offer contradictory findings. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of betaine supplementation on body composition indices (body mass (BM), BMI, body fat percentage (BFP), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM)), and dietary intakes. Studies examining the effects of betaine supplementation on body composition and dietary intakes published up to August 2021 were identified through PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, SCOPUS and Ovid databases. Betaine supplementation failed to significantly affect BM ((weighted mean difference (WMD): −0·40 kg, 95 % CI −1·46, 0·64), P = 0·447), BMI ((WMD: −0·05 kg/m2, 95 % CI −0·36, 0·25), P = 0·719), BFP ((WMD: 0·26 %, 95 % CI −0·82, 1·36), P = 0·663), FM ((WMD: −0·57 kg, 95 % CI −2·14, 0·99), P = 0·473) and FFM ((WMD: 0·61 kg, 95 % CI −1·27, 2·49), P = 0·527). Subgroup analyses based on participant’s age (< 40 and > 40 years), sex, BMI, trial duration (< 8 and ≥ 8 weeks), betaine supplementation dosage (< 4 and ≥ 4 g) and health status (healthy or unhealthy) demonstrated similar results. Other than a potential negligible increase in protein intake (WMD: 3·56 g, 95 % CI 0·24, 6·88, P = 0·035), no changes in dietary intakes were observed following betaine supplementation compared with control. The present systematic review and meta-analysis does not show any beneficial effects of betaine supplementation on body composition indices (BM, BMI, FM and FFM).
Obesity remains a serious relevant public health concern throughout the world despite related countermeasures being well understood (i.e. mainly physical activity and an adjusted diet). Among different nutritional approaches, there is a growing interest in ketogenic diets (KD) to manipulate body mass (BM) and to enhance fat mass loss. KD reduce the daily amount of carbohydrate intake drastically. This results in increased fatty acid utilisation, leading to an increase in blood ketone bodies (acetoacetate, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate and acetone) and therefore metabolic ketosis. For many years, nutritional intervention studies have focused on reducing dietary fat with little or conflicting positive results over the long term. Moreover, current nutritional guidelines for athletes propose carbohydrate-based diets to augment muscular adaptations. This review discusses the physiological basis of KD and their effects on BM reduction and body composition improvements in sedentary individuals combined with different types of exercise (resistance training or endurance training) in individuals with obesity and athletes. Ultimately, we discuss the strengths and the weaknesses of these nutritional interventions together with precautionary measures that should be observed in both individuals with obesity and athletic populations. A literature search from 1921 to April 2021 using Medline, Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Sportdiscus Databases was used to identify relevant studies. In summary, based on the current evidence, KD are an efficient method to reduce BM and body fat in both individuals with obesity and athletes. However, these positive impacts are mainly because of the appetite suppressive effects of KD, which can decrease daily energy intake. Therefore, KD do not have any superior benefits to non-KD in BM and body fat loss in individuals with obesity and athletic populations in an isoenergetic situation. In sedentary individuals with obesity, it seems that fat-free mass (FFM) changes appear to be as great, if not greater, than decreases following a low-fat diet. In terms of lean mass, it seems that following a KD can cause FFM loss in resistance-trained individuals. In contrast, the FFM-preserving effects of KD are more efficient in endurance-trained compared with resistance-trained individuals.
Due to the important roles of resistance training and protein consumption in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia, we assessed the efficacy of post-exercise Icelandic yogurt consumption on lean mass, strength and skeletal muscle regulatory factors in healthy untrained older males. Thirty healthy untrained older males (age = 68 ± 4 years) were randomly assigned to Icelandic yogurt (IR; n 15, 18 g of protein) or an iso-energetic placebo (PR; n 15, 0 g protein) immediately following resistance training (3×/week) for 8 weeks. Before and after training, lean mass, strength and skeletal muscle regulatory factors (insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), Activin A, myostatin (MST) and follistatin (FST)) were assessed. There were group × time interactions (P < 0·05) for body mass (IR: Δ 1, PR: Δ 0·7 kg), BMI (IR: Δ 0·3, PR: Δ 0·2 kg/m2), lean mass (IR: Δ 1·3, PR: Δ 0·6 kg), bench press (IR: Δ 4, PR: 2·3 kg), leg press (IR: Δ 4·2, PR: Δ 2·5 kg), IGF-1 (IR: Δ 0·5, Δ PR: 0·1 ng/ml), TGF-β (IR: Δ − 0·2, PR: Δ − 0·1 ng/ml), GDF15 (IR: Δ − 10·3, PR: Δ − 4·8 pg/ml), Activin A (IR: Δ − 9·8, PR: Δ − 2·9 pg/ml), MST (IR: Δ − 0·1, PR: Δ − 0·04 ng/ml) and FST (IR: Δ 0·09, PR: Δ 0·03 ng/ml), with Icelandic yogurt consumption resulting in greater changes compared with placebo. The addition of Icelandic yogurt consumption to a resistance training programme improved lean mass, strength and altered skeletal muscle regulatory factors in healthy untrained older males compared with placebo. Therefore, Icelandic yogurt as a nutrient-dense source and cost-effective supplement enhances muscular gains mediated by resistance training and consequently may be used as a strategy for the prevention of sarcopenia.
We aimed to assess the effects of spirulina supplementation during gradual weight loss on serum concentrations of follistatin (FST), myostatin (MST), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and body composition in competitive wrestlers. Forty competitive wrestlers (age: 22 (sem 2) years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: gradual weight loss + spirulina (SP; n 20) or gradual weight loss + placebo (PL; n 20). Subjects in both groups lost weight according to a designed diet over 12 d and were required to reduce baseline body mass (BM) by 4%. Subjects in the SP group received two tablets of spirulina, while subjects in the PL received two tablets of placebo before each meal. Concentrations of mentioned serum markers and body composition were measured before and after the interventions. BM (SP = −3·1 kg and PL = −2·9 kg), body fat percentage (BFP) (SP = −2·1 % and PL = −0·6 %), fat mass (FM) (SP = −2·2 kg and PL = −0·9 kg) and skeletal muscle mass (SP = −1·4 kg and PL = −1·5 kg) significantly decreased in both groups (P < 0·05). The changes in BFP and FM were significantly greater in SP compared with the PL group (P < 0·001). Additionally, MST (SP = −0·1 ng/ml), AST (SP = −2·1 u/l) and ALT (SP = −2·7 u/l) concentrations significantly diminished in SP group (P = 0·005), while FST (PL = −0·1 ng/ml) and IGF-1 (PL = −2·6 ng/ml) concentrations significantly decreased in PL group (P < 0·05). Spirulina supplementation during gradual weight loss is beneficial in reducing BFP, FM, MST and liver enzymes while maintaining IGF-1 and FST concentrations in competitive wrestlers.
Eggs are considered a high-quality protein source for their complete amino acid profile and digestibility. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of whole egg (WE) v. egg white (EW) ingestion during 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) on the skeletal muscle regulatory markers and body composition in resistance-trained men. Thirty resistance-trained men (mean age 24·6 (sd 2·7) years) were randomly assigned into the WE + RT (WER, n 15) or EW + RT (EWR, n 15) group. The WER group ingested three WE, while the EWR group ingested an isonitrogenous quantity of six EW per d immediately after the RT session. Serum concentrations of regulatory markers and body composition were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Significant main effects of time were observed for body weight (WER 1·7, EWR 1·8 kg), skeletal muscle mass (WER 2·9, EWR 2·7 kg), fibroblast growth factor-2 (WER 116·1, EWR 83·2 pg/ml) and follistatin (WER 0·05, EWR 0·04 ng/ml), which significantly increased (P < 0·05), and for fat mass (WER –1·9, EWR –1·1 kg), transforming growth factor-β1 (WER –0·5, EWR −0·1 ng/ml), activin A (WER –6·2, EWR –4·5 pg/ml) and myostatin (WER –0·1, EWR –0·06 ng/ml), which significantly decreased (P < 0·05) in both WER and EWR groups. The consumption of eggs absent of yolk during chronic RT resulted in similar body composition and functional outcomes as WE of equal protein value. EW or WE may be used interchangeably for the dietary support of RT-induced muscular hypertrophy when protein intake is maintained.
This systematic review and meta-analysis compared the effects of different rates of weight loss (WL), but equivalent total WL, on body composition and RMR. Studies examining gradual v. rapid WL on body composition and RMR in participants with overweight/obesity published up to October 2019 were identified through PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus and Ovid databases. Meta-analysis was carried out using a fixed or random effects model as appropriate. Although the magnitude of WL was similar (mean difference 0·03 kg, 95 % CI –0·65, 0·71), gradual WL promoted greater reductions in fat mass (FM) (–1 kg, 95 % CI –1·70, –0·29) and body fat percentage (BFP) (–0·83 %, 95 % CI –1·49, –0·17). Gradual WL significantly preserved RMR compared with rapid WL (407·48 kJ, 95 % CI 76·76, 118·01). However, there was no significant difference in waist and hip circumferences, waist:hip ratio and fat-free mass (FFM) between gradual and rapid WL. The present systematic review and meta-analysis indicates beneficial effects of gradual WL, as compared with rapid WL, on FM, BFP and RMR in individuals with overweight/obesity. However, FFM changes and anthropometric indices did not significantly differ following different rates of WL.
Normal-weight obesity (NWO) syndrome is associated with metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of a high-protein (HP) v. a standard protein (SP) diet on appetite, anthropometry and body composition in NWO women. In this clinical trial, fifty NWO women were randomly allocated to HP (n 25) or SP (n 25) diet groups. Women in the HP and SP groups consumed 25 and 15 % of their total energy intake from protein for 12 weeks. Weight, fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), waist circumference (WC) and appetite were evaluated at baseline and following their 3-month intervention. After 12 weeks, the LBM was higher in HP compared with no significant changes in the SP group (mean between-group difference = 1·5 kg; 95 % CI 3·1, 0·01; effect size (d) = 0·4). Furthermore, the HP group had lower FM (mean between-group difference –1·1 kg; 95 % CI 1, –3·3; d = –0·2), body fat percentage (BFP) (mean between-group difference –2 %; 95 % CI 0·7, –5·2; d = –0·3) and WC (mean between-group difference –1·4 cm; 95 % CI 0·6, –3·6; d = –0·2) at the end of the study in comparison with the SP group. In both groups, weight and appetite were unchanged over time without significant differences between groups. Twelve weeks of euenergetic diets with different dietary protein contents resulted in no significant weight loss in women with NWO. However, an HP diet significantly improved body composition (LBM, FM, BFP and WC) in this population.
Vitamin D deficiency is now a recognised problem affecting multiple physiological functions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a single dose of vitamin D3 injection on the inflammatory, muscular damage, metabolic and cardiovascular responses to an acute bout of resistance exercise (RE) in vitamin D-deficient resistance-trained males. Blood samples from fourteen vitamin D-deficient resistance-trained males were obtained during two separate trials: lower vitamin D (LVD) and higher vitamin D (HVD, after vitamin D3 injection). Metabolic, inflammatory, muscle damage and cardiovascular markers were evaluated at baseline, immediately and 1 h after RE. There were significant trial-by-time interactions for insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) which significantly (P < 0·05) declined for 1 h after RE in the HVD trial compared with the LVD trial. Homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) declines at 1 h post-RE in the HVD trial. There was also a time effect for blood sugar which significantly (P < 0·05) decreased and for creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and IL-6 which increased significantly 1 h post-RE in both trials. There were no significant changes in other inflammatory and cardiovascular markers following both trials. A single injection of vitamin D3 improved insulin resistance and β-cell function following RE in previously vitamin D-deficient resistance-trained males. Conversely, the injection did not change muscle damage and the inflammatory response to acute RE. Intramuscular vitamin D replacement may have key implications for the promotion of glucose metabolism and lowering the risk of diabetes in vitamin D-deficient individuals.
Since the 1970s, we have seen increasing interest in the integration of Muslims as the most visible ethno-religious minority group in Britain. The term ‘integration’ as used in this chapter is concerned with the social aspect of a process in which Muslims, as well as other minority ethnic people, required and/or would like to participate in society. More elaboration of different theoretical and academic interpretations of this term is discussed later in this chapter. The social aspects of integration mainly revolve around the maintenance of Muslims’ distinctive identity and practice (Modood, 2005, 2007; Parekh, 2008; Vertovec and Wessendorf, 2010). This chapter looks at Scottish Muslims’ integration strategies (based on gender, generational and level of religiosity) and introduces the idea of ‘halal integration’ which entails fitting into society while maintaining their religious identity. This refers to the life of many Scottish Muslims, whom I refer to as ‘halal Scots’ – those who integrated into many aspects of Scottish society while maintaining their religious identity and practice. Some examples of such integration are adopting alternative ways of socialising such as meeting at cafés, running family and social events in non-alcoholic environments, and taking part in voluntary and charitable work.
Previous research reported that Muslims in northern parts of England, for instance, had developed separate rather than integrated lives (Cantle, 2001: 9), though this report was highly contested and more recent surveys have reported that there was more residential mixing in the 2000s (Simpson, 2012). Recently, for instance, David Cameron (British Government, 2011), then the British prime minister, announced at the Munich Security Conference that ‘state multiculturalism’ had encouraged ‘different cultures to live separate lives, apart from each other and apart from the mainstream’. Muslims’ distinctive identity and practice has sometimes even been perceived as a national identity threat (Goodhart, 2004; Chakraborti and Garland, 2009: 45) or has been seen as creating potential enemies within (see Ahmed, 2003). It is, however, important to note that Muslims in the Scottish context established a more mixed and integrated way of living with the majority from the outset (Hussain and Miller, 2006: 19), which was associated partly with the smaller population of Muslims in Scotland (Penrose and Howard, 2008: 95).
This study determined the potential of the tortoise beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to control Canada thistle (Asteraceae) in Iran. Genetic analysis of the tortoise beetle, based on mitochondrial DNA, confirmed the presence of the species in Iran. A field experiment using five insect densities (0 to 20 larvae plant−1) showed a positive correlation between the number of larvae transferred and impact. Feeding by 20 larvae reduced total biomass of Canada thistle by 78% and the number of capitula by 94%. More important, when grown in competition with wheat, four and eight egg batches (corresponding to approximately 12 and 24 larvae) per Canada thistle plant increased wheat ear weight by 46 and 82%, respectively. Host range studies with 22 crop and 21 weed species using no-choice and multiple-choice tests under laboratory and field conditions and parallel data from a field survey showed that joint feeding and oviposition were restricted to Canada thistle and a few other weed species. Limited feeding, without oviposition, was recorded on an additional seven weed species but also on safflower (10 to 15% reduction in biomass), and common sunflower (< 10%); the latter only under no-choice conditions. The growing period of either crop species, however, does not coincide with the feeding period of the tortoise beetle in the field. Findings indicate that the tortoise beetle is a promising biological control agent for Canada thistle in arable crops and grasslands in Iran. Other complementary methods will likely be needed to prevent substantial yield losses.
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