To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter describes the revolution in pension saving during the past two decades, which included the closing of the old pension funds to new members in 1995, the shift from defined benefit pensions to defined contribution pensions and finally the Mandatory Pension Law of 2008. It discusses both the macro-effect of the reforms and their micro-effect. On the macro level, the reforms transformed long-term pension saving into the main component of saving, in terms of both net deposits and assets. On the micro level, a comparison of the 70+ and 50–60 age groups during the last two decades shows that the older group has not experienced a drop in its standard of living and has not suffered from greater income inequality relative to the younger group, although this conclusion may be premature. Finally, the reforms have played a major role in revolutionizing the capital market by reducing the reliance on subsidized government bonds, increasing competition in the pension sector and opening the capital market to global capital flows.
The introduction summarizes some of the main issues and findings covered in the book. The first section relates this volume to its two predecessors, arguing that while the last two decades signaled the fulfillment of many of the hopes raised in the previous volumes, the economy still suffers from many of the maladies highlighted in them, including low levels of productivity and high levels of inequality. Section 1.2 is concerned with the background to local economic developments, including the massive immigration wave of the 1990s and fluctuations in the conflict with the Palestinians and in the global economy. Section 1.3 discusses the reduction in government expenditures and taxes and the reaction of monetary policy to the global financial crisis. Section 1.4 summarizes the main structural reforms aiming to reduce government intervention and increase business sector competition, as well as the attempt to reduce economy-wide concentration. Section 1.5 focuses on economic growth and its determinants: changes in employment, physical and human capital, and productivity. The final section highlights two issues: (a) the improvement of Israel’s level of economic freedom and its position relative to other rich countries and (b) the increase of inequality in income and the deterioration of social services.
This book describes and analyses developments in the Israeli economy from 1995 to 2017. During this period, inflation was vanquished, the deficit in the balance of payments turned into a surplus, the public debt to GDP ratio sharply decreased, and unemployment has declined to an historical low. Nevertheless, the economy still suffers from many maladies: the productivity level is among the lowest in the developed world, and inequality has generally been on the rise. In the face of these threats to future growth and social cohesiveness, the question arises: has the reliance on market forces gone too far, and has the government retreated from its traditional tasks, tasks the private sector cannot (or does not) perform.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.