Nosema bombycis is a destructive and specific intracellular parasite of silkworm, which is extremely harmful to the silkworm industry. N. bombycis is considered as a quarantine pathogen of sericulture because of its long incubation period and horizontal and vertical transmission. Herein, two single-chain antibodies targeting N. bombycis hexokinase (NbHK) were cloned and expressed in fusion with the N-terminal of Slmb (a Drosophila melanogaster FBP), which contains the F-box domain. Western blotting demonstrated that Sf9-III cells expressed NSlmb–scFv-7A and NSlmb–scFv-6H, which recognized native NbHK. Subsequently, the NbHK was degraded by host ubiquitination system. When challenged with N. bombycis, the transfected Sf9-III cells exhibited better resistance relative to the controls, demonstrating that NbHK is a prospective target for parasite controls and this approach represents a potential solution for constructing N. bombycis-resistant Bombyx mori.