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The chapter explains how the centrist Christian Democratic Austrian People’s Party (ÖVP) has responded to the challenges of the silent revolution and counter-revolution by demonstrating a selective willingness to cooperate with the populist radical right Freedom Party (FPÖ). Sufficient electoral distress led to the installation of new leaders who were able to change the strategic status quo. In the first instance, in 1995 Wolfgang Schüssel emphasized policy-seeking and in the second case Sebastian Kurz pursed vote-seeking. Both strategies resulted in a positional alignment and eventually a coalition with the FPÖ, which at the time was pursuing office. Changes in the ÖVP depended on shifts in the balance of power among important intra-party groups, specifically, hardline Conservatives and market Liberals viewing cooperation with the FPÖ as advantageous for their respective interests. Overall, the chapter concludes that while the ÖVP has been affected by massive voter de-alignment since the 1980s, it responded to the counter-revolution and the resulting surge of nativist populism mainly by means of emulation and cooperation.
This paper investigates the views on competition theory and policy of the American institutional economists during the first half of the 20th century. These perspectives contrasted with those of contemporary neoclassical and later mainstream economic approaches. We identify three distinct dimensions to an institutionalist perspective on competition. First, institutionalist approaches focused on describing industry details, so as to bring theory into closer contact with reality. Second, institutionalists emphasized that while competition was sometimes beneficial, it could also be disruptive. Third, institutionalists had a broad view of the objectives of competition policy that extended beyond effects on consumer welfare. Consequently, institutionalists advocated for a wide range of policies to enhance competition, including industrial self-regulation, broad stakeholder representation within corporations, and direct governmental regulations. Their experimental attitude implied that policy would always be evolving, and antitrust enforcement might be only one stage in the development toward a regime of industrial regulation.
Nudging has become a well-known policy practice. Recently, ‘boosting’ has been suggested as an alternative to nudging. In contrast to nudges, boosts aim to empower individuals to exert their own agency to make decisions. This article is one of the first to compare a nudging and a boosting intervention, and it does so in a critical field setting: hand hygiene compliance of hospital nurses. During a 4-week quasi-experiment, we tested the effect of a reframing nudge and a risk literacy boost on hand hygiene compliance in three hospital wards. The results show that nudging and boosting were both effective interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance. A tentative finding is that, while the nudge had a stronger immediate effect, the boost effect remained stable for a week, even after the removal of the intervention. We conclude that, besides nudging, researchers and policymakers may consider boosting when they seek to implement or test behavioral interventions in domains such as healthcare.
The stable chromium (Cr) isotope system has emerged over the past decade as a new tool to track changes in the amount of oxygen in earth's ocean-atmosphere system. Much of the initial foundation for using Cr isotopes (δ53Cr) as a paleoredox proxy has required recent revision. However, the basic idea behind using Cr isotopes as redox tracers is straightforward—the largest isotope fractionations are redox-dependent and occur during partial reduction of Cr(VI). As such, Cr isotopic signatures can provide novel insights into Cr redox cycling in both marine and terrestrial settings. Critically, the Cr isotope system—unlike many other trace metal proxies—can respond to short-term redox perturbations (e.g., on timescales characteristic of Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles). The Cr isotope system can also be used to probe the earth's long-term atmospheric oxygenation, pointing towards low but likely dynamic oxygen levels for the majority of Earth's history.
One of the most impressive examples of an Inca capacocha ceremony was discovered during an archaeological expedition to the summit of Misti volcano in 1998. The offerings at the site included several human sacrifices, along with fine ceramics and figurines made from gold, silver, and Spondylus sp. shell. One of the two burials appeared to contain the bones of males and the other of females. The sex was established based on the contents of the graves, because the fragile skeletal material had been badly affected by volcanic activity and exact identification was difficult to make in situ. To limit the risk of damage, the bones were excavated together with the surrounding soil and transported in frozen blocks to the Museo Santuarios Andinos of Universidad Católica de Santa María in Arequipa. This material was the object of a bioarchaeological investigation in February and March 2018. The results revealed that at least eight individuals had been buried in the graves. The findings have increased our understanding of the age categories and physical condition of the individuals chosen to be sacrificed during the capacocha ritual.
Something that has been ‘misplaced’ has been either put in the wrong place or lost altogether (for example, because it had been misplaced). This may have happened to a tradition of early music which we will call ‘non-mensural polyphony’. To start with, it cannot easily be found because it goes by many names. Researchers variously call it ‘simple’, ‘primitive’, ‘archaic’, ‘peripheral’, ‘organum-like’ (‘organal’), ‘early’, ‘liturgical’, ‘usual’ (‘usuell’), ‘monastic’ (‘klösterlich’), ‘oral’ and ‘retrospective’ polyphony. You may be forgiven for thinking that a musical tradition with so many names would command the particular affection of music historians – but no. The plurality of the nomenclature only suggests that they did not really know where to place it. Understandably, leading reference works and general music histories make no mention of it. But the misplacement is not entirely accidental; it corresponds to a misconception in the historiography of early European music.
‘Medieval music’ is conceived as a dual tradition: monophonic and polyphonic. Monophony comprises liturgical plainsong and – more marginally – vernacular artsong; polyphony begins with early organum and arrives, via ‘Notre-Dame’ and ‘ars nova’, at Renaissance counterpoint and the music of our time. ‘Simple’ polyphony is understood – when mentioned at all – as a minor or more conservative variant of polyphony, which has failed to reach Renaissance counterpoint and thus our time; it lacks both the progressive trajectory of counterpoint and the ritual dignity of monodic plainsong. Under these historiographical preconceptions, it is no surprise when certain traditions of music-making disappear from standard history-writing. ‘Simple’ polyphony is in fact not the only species threatened by musicological extinction: Latin song in its diverse non-liturgical traditions and early instrumental practices are usually discussed in music histories only as far as they were notated and polyphonic.
Archival, theoretical and literary sources of the era, however, do not always distinguish between monophony and polyphony. Neither of these terms was actually used at the time. The contemporary terms ‘diaphonia’, ‘organum’ and ‘discantus’ (with their variations) were more special names that never embraced all the possible techniques we would call ‘polyphony’. It remained ‘plain’ even with embellishments or enhancements. It became multiple, for example, when doubled at the fifth and octave.
We measure the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability in between a layer of a diamagnetic fluid flowing in a channel and a layer of ferrofluid resting on top. When the diamagnetic fluid exceeds a critical flow velocity the interface in between both fluids becomes unstable and waves develop. It has been predicted by Sutyrin & Taktarov (J. Appl. Math. Mech., vol. 39, 1975, pp. 520–524) that a homogeneous magnetic field, oriented horizontally, stabilizes the liquid interface. To test this prediction we apply in a closed flow channel a local periodic perturbation of the interface by magnetic or mechanic means. From the measured growth and decay rates of the interface undulations we determine the critical flow velocity for various driving frequencies and applied magnetic fields. In this way we confirm quantitatively the stabilizing effect of the horizontal field. Moreover we measure the dispersion relation of the interfacial waves.
Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the grounded ice flow, and weakening of ice shelves due to climate forcing will decrease their ‘buttressing’ effect, causing a response in the grounded ice. While the processes governing ice-shelf weakening are complex, uncertainties in the response of the grounded ice sheet are also difficult to assess. The Antarctic BUttressing Model Intercomparison Project (ABUMIP) compares ice-sheet model responses to decrease in buttressing by investigating the ‘end-member’ scenario of total and sustained loss of ice shelves. Although unrealistic, this scenario enables gauging the sensitivity of an ensemble of 15 ice-sheet models to a total loss of buttressing, hence exhibiting the full potential of marine ice-sheet instability. All models predict that this scenario leads to multi-metre (1–12 m) sea-level rise over 500 years from present day. West Antarctic ice sheet collapse alone leads to a 1.91–5.08 m sea-level rise due to the marine ice-sheet instability. Mass loss rates are a strong function of the sliding/friction law, with plastic laws cause a further destabilization of the Aurora and Wilkes Subglacial Basins, East Antarctica. Improvements to marine ice-sheet models have greatly reduced variability between modelled ice-sheet responses to extreme ice-shelf loss, e.g. compared to the SeaRISE assessments.
This study related clinical effects to daily doses and serum concentrations of ziprasidone by retrospective analysis of data from a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) survey established for patients treated with the new antipsychotic drug. In the total sample of 463 patients ziprasidone doses ranged between 20 and 320 mg/d and correlated significantly (r2 = 0.093, P < 0.01) with serum concentrations. The latter were highly variable within and between individual patients (between patients median 67 ng/ml, 25–75th percentile 40–103 ng/ml). Pharmacokinetic interactions with comedication played a minor role. According to the clinical global impressions (CGI) scale most of the 348 patients who were under antipsychotic monotherapy with ziprasidone were either much or very much improved (43.3 and 17.3%, respectively). The previously proposed therapeutic range of 50–130 ng/ml ziprasidone in serum or plasma, which can in effect be used interchangeable, was confirmed. In patients who were at least much improved and defined as “responders” mean serum concentrations of ziprasidone were 80 ng/ml and 78 ng/ml in patients who did not reach this improvement score. In patients with serum levels above or below 50 ng/ml, the number of responders was 66 or 63%, respectively. The difference between the two groups was not significant (P = 0.375), and improvement or side effects did not correlate significantly (P > 0.05) with doses or serum levels. It is concluded that TDM of ziprasidone may be useful for treatment optimization because of highly variable serum concentrations resulting under therapeutically recommended doses of the drug.