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Depression is a common and serious mental illness that begins early in life. An association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and subsequent depression is clear in adults. We examined associations between individual CVD risk factors and depression in young people.
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases from inception to 1 January 2020. We extracted data from cohort studies assessing the longitudinal association between CVD risk factors [body mass index (BMI), smoking, systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein] and depression, measured using a validated tool in individuals with mean age of 24 years or younger. Random effect meta-analysis was used to combine effect estimates from individual studies, including odds ratio (OR) for depression and standardised mean difference for depressive symptoms.
Based on meta-analysis of seven studies, comprising 15 753 participants, high BMI was associated with subsequent depression [pooled OR 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21–2.14; I2 = 31%]. Based on meta-analysis of eight studies, comprising 30 539 participants, smoking was associated with subsequent depression (pooled OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.36–2.20; I2 = 74%). Low, but not high, SBP was associated with an increased risk of depression (pooled OR 3.32; 95% CI 1.68–6.55; I2 = 0%), although this was based on a small pooled high-risk sample of 893 participants. Generalisability may be limited as most studies were based in North America or Europe.
Targeting childhood/adolescent smoking and obesity may be important for the prevention of both CVD and depression across the lifespan. Further research on other CVD risk factors including blood pressure and cholesterol in young people is required.
Mental health policy makers require evidence-based information to optimise effective care provision based on local need, but tools are unavailable.
To develop and validate a population-level prediction model for need for early intervention in psychosis (EIP) care for first-episode psychosis (FEP) in England up to 2025, based on epidemiological evidence and demographic projections.
We used Bayesian Poisson regression to model small-area-level variation in FEP incidence for people aged 16–64 years. We compared six candidate models, validated against observed National Health Service FEP data in 2017. Our best-fitting model predicted annual incidence case-loads for EIP services in England up to 2025, for probable FEP, treatment in EIP services, initial assessment by EIP services and referral to EIP services for ‘suspected psychosis’. Forecasts were stratified by gender, age and ethnicity, at national and Clinical Commissioning Group levels.
A model with age, gender, ethnicity, small-area-level deprivation, social fragmentation and regional cannabis use provided best fit to observed new FEP cases at national and Clinical Commissioning Group levels in 2017 (predicted 8112, 95% CI 7623–8597; observed 8038, difference of 74 [0.92%]). By 2025, the model forecasted 11 067 new treated cases per annum (95% CI 10 383–11 740). For every 10 new treated cases, 21 and 23 people would be assessed by and referred to EIP services for suspected psychosis, respectively.
Our evidence-based methodology provides an accurate, validated tool to inform clinical provision of EIP services about future population need for care, based on local variation of major social determinants of psychosis.
The Scaling-up Health-Arts Programme: Implementation and Effectiveness Research (SHAPER) project is the world's largest hybrid study on the impact of the arts on mental health embedded into a national healthcare system. This programme, funded by the Wellcome Trust, aims to study the impact and the scalability of the arts as an intervention for mental health. The programme will be delivered by a team of clinicians, research scientists, charities, artists, patients and healthcare professionals in the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and the community, spanning academia, the NHS and the charity sector. SHAPER consists of three studies – Melodies for Mums, Dance for Parkinson's, and Stroke Odysseys – which will recruit over 800 participants, deliver the interventions and draw conclusions on their clinical impact, implementation effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. We hope that this work will inspire organisations and commissioners in the NHS and around the world to expand the remit of social prescribing to include evidence-based arts interventions.
Depression is associated with lower educational attainment, but there has been little investigation of long-term educational trajectories in large cohorts with diagnosed depression.
To describe the educational attainment trajectories of children with a depression diagnosis in secondary care, and to investigate whether these trajectories vary by sociodemographic characteristics.
We identified new referrals to South London and Maudsley's NHS Foundation Trust between 2007 and 2013 who received a depression diagnosis at under 18 years old. Linking their health records to the National Pupil Database, we standardised their performance on three assessments (typically undertaken at ages 6–7 years (school Year 2), 10–11 (Year 6) and 15–16 (Year 11)) relative to the local reference population in each academic year. We used mixed models for repeated measures to estimate attainment trajectories.
In our sample of 1492 children, the median age at depression diagnosis was 15 years (interquartile range = 14–16). Their attainment showed a decline between school Years 6 and 11. Attainment was consistently lower among males and those eligible for free school meals. Black ethnic groups also showed lower attainment than White ethnic groups between Years 2 and 6, but showed a less pronounced drop in attainment at Year 11.
Those who receive a depression diagnosis during their school career show a drop in attainment in Year 11. Although this pattern was seen among multiple sociodemographic groups, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status predict more vulnerable subgroups within this clinical population who might benefit from additional educational support or more intensive treatment.
This work investigated the photophysical pathways for light absorption, charge generation, and charge separation in donor–acceptor nanoparticle blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and indene-C60-bisadduct. Optical modeling combined with steady-state and time-resolved optoelectronic characterization revealed that the nanoparticle blends experience a photocurrent limited to 60% of a bulk solution mixture. This discrepancy resulted from imperfect free charge generation inside the nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and chemically resolved X-ray mapping showed that enhanced miscibility of materials did improve the donor–acceptor blending at the center of the nanoparticles; however, a residual shell of almost pure donor still restricted energy generation from these nanoparticles.
Neuroscience reveals that human beings are interdependent creatures, hardwired for empathy and relationship. Natural selection has favored prosocial traits like empathy, kindness, sharing, cooperative play, mutual understanding, perspective taking, and trust [1, 2]. Social connection is central to both physical and mental well-being and increased survival [1, 3]. Conversely, social isolation is correlated with myriad deleterious consequences to health and longevity. Nervous system development, genetic expression, and health are integrally dependent on social connection [4, 5]. Children who are raised within secure environments with healthy bonds of presence, attunement, and resonance and trust will develop a neural framework that promotes receptivity, flexibility, self-understanding, mindful awareness, empathy (the ability to feel with others), and compassion (the feeling that arises when confronted with another’s suffering and desire to alleviate that suffering).
The steep rise in the rate of psychiatric hospital detentions in England is poorly understood.
To identify explanations for the rise in detentions in England since 1983; to test their plausibility and support from evidence; to develop an explanatory model for the rise in detentions.
Hypotheses to explain the rise in detentions were identified from previous literature and stakeholder consultation. We explored associations between national indicators for potential explanatory variables and detention rates in an ecological study. Relevant research was scoped and the plausibility of each hypothesis was rated. Finally, a logic model was developed to illustrate likely contributory factors and pathways to the increase in detentions.
Seventeen hypotheses related to social, service, legal and data-quality factors. Hypotheses supported by available evidence were: changes in legal approaches to patients without decision-making capacity but not actively objecting to admission; demographic changes; increasing psychiatric morbidity. Reductions in the availability or quality of community mental health services and changes in police practice may have contributed to the rise in detentions. Hypothesised factors not supported by evidence were: changes in community crisis care, compulsory community treatment and prescribing practice. Evidence was ambiguous or lacking for other explanations, including the impact of austerity measures and reductions in National Health Service in-patient bed numbers.
Better data are needed about the characteristics and service contexts of those detained. Our logic model highlights likely contributory factors to the rise in detentions in England, priorities for future research and potential policy targets for reducing detentions.
For a small minority of personnel, military service can have a negative impact on their mental health. Yet no studies have assessed how the mental health of UK veterans (who served during the recent operations in Afghanistan or Iraq) compares to non-veterans, to determine if they are at a disadvantage. We examine the prevalence of mental disorders and alcohol misuse in UK veterans compared to non-veterans.
Veteran data were taken from the third phase of the King's Centre for Military Health Research cohort study (n = 2917). These data were compared with data on non-veterans taken from two large general population surveys: 2014 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n = 5871) and wave 6 of the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS, n = 22 760).
We found that, overall, UK veterans who served at the time of recent military operations were more likely to report a significantly higher prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) (23% v. 16%), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (8% v. 5%) and alcohol misuse (11% v. 6%) than non-veterans. Stratifying by gender showed that the negative impact of being a veteran on mental health and alcohol misuse was restricted to male veterans. Being ill or disabled was associated with a higher prevalence of CMD and PTSD for both veterans and non-veterans.
Whilst the same sociodemographic groups within the veteran and non-veteran populations seemed to have an increased risk of mental health problems (e.g. those who were unemployed), male veterans, in particular, appear to be at a distinct disadvantage compared to those who have never served.
Mood disorders, i.e. major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorders, are leading sources of disability worldwide. Currently available treatments do not yield remission in approximately a third of patients with a mood disorder. This is in part because these treatments do not target a specific core pathology underlying these heterogeneous disorders. In recent years, abnormal inflammatory processes have been identified as putative pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment targets in mood disorders, particularly among individuals with treatment-resistant conditions.
In this selective review, we aimed to summarise recent advances in the field of immunopsychiatry, including emerging pathophysiological models and findings from treatment ttrials of immunomodulatory agents for both MDD and bipolar disorders.
We performed a literature review by searching Medline for clinical trials of immunomodulating agents as monotherapy or adjunctive treatments in MDD and bipolar disorders. Included studies are randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or cross-over trials of immunomodulating agents that had an active comparator or a placebo-arm.
Current evidence shows an association between inflammation and mood symptoms. However, there is conflicting evidence on whether this link is causal.
Future studies should focus on identifying specific neurobiological underpinnings for the putative causal association between an activated inflammatory response and mood disorders. Results of these studies are needed before further treatment trials of immunomodulatory agents can be justified.
Amazona lilacina is a threatened species endemic to Ecuador, existing across a patchwork of mangroves, lowland coastal forests, agricultural and community owned land. The species was described in 2014 and listed as ‘Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List, however, full assessment of the population was lacking. Using a combination of field observations, roost surveys and community questionnaires, conducted over the last 20 years, we provide up-to-date information on the species’ Extent of Occurrence, estimate its global population size, and evaluate its level of threat. Our results suggest the species occurs across an area of 19,890 km2 in three distinct geographically isolated subpopulations. Roost surveys across the range estimate the minimum remaining population at 741–1,090 individuals and we present evidence to suggest a 60% decline over the past 19 years in one part of the species’ range. We conducted community questionnaires with 427 people from 52 communities. The presence of pet parrots was reported in 37 communities, including 17 communities which reported pet A. lilacina. From this we predict that over half of all communities within our study area keep parrots as pets and at least 96 communities keep A. lilacina. Our findings justify an IUCN Red Listing of at least ‘Endangered’ for this species and highlight the need for conservation support. In order to assess population health in more detail, further research is required to assess genetic diversity and roost dynamics, and to identify areas that may be important for feeding and nesting throughout the range. As many of these areas are likely to overlap with community owned land, we suggest that future conservation actions should revolve around, and be led by, these communities.
Smoking tobacco is regarded as an epiphenomenon in patients with schizophrenia when it may be causal. We aimed to examine whether smoking status is related to the onset of schizophrenia or the broader diagnosis of non-affective psychosis, including schizophrenia.
We used data from The Health Improvement Network primary care database to identify people aged 15–24 between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2009. We followed them until the earliest of: first diagnosis of schizophrenia (or psychosis), patient left the practice, practice left THIN, patient died or 31 December 2014.
In men, incidence rates for schizophrenia per 100 000 person years at risk were higher in smoking initiators (non-smoker who became a smoker during the study) than in non-smokers (adjusted IRR 1.94; 95% CI 1.29–2.91) and higher still in smokers (adjusted IRR 3.32; 95% CI 2.67–4.14). Among women, the incidence rate of schizophrenia was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (adjusted IRR 1.50; 95% CI 1.06–2.12), but no higher in smoking initiators than non-smokers. For non-affective psychosis, the pattern was similar for men but more evident in women where psychosis incidence rates were higher in smoking initiators (adjusted IRR 1.90; 95% CI 1.40–2.56) and in smokers (adjusted IRR 2.13; 95% CI 1.76–2.57) than in non-smokers.
We found an important and strong association between smoking and incidence of schizophrenia. Smoking may increase risk through as yet unknown pathways or smoking may share genetic risk with schizophrenia and non-affective psychoses.
Approximately 18% of adults with intellectual disabilities living in the community display behaviours that challenge. Intensive support teams (ISTs) have been recommended to provide high-quality responsive care aimed at avoiding unnecessary admissions and reducing lengthy in-patient stays.
To identify and describe the geographical distribution and characteristics of ISTs, and to develop a typology of IST service models in England.
We undertook a national cross-sectional survey of 73 ISTs. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed based on six prespecified grouping factors (mode of referrals, size of case-load, use of outcome measures, staff composition, hours of operation and setting of service). A simplified form of thematic analysis was used to explore free-text responses.
Cluster analysis identified two models of IST provision: (a) independent and (b) enhanced provision based around a community intellectual disability service. ISTs aspire to adopt person-centred care, mostly use the framework of positive behaviour support for behaviour that challenges, and report concerns about organisational and wider context issues.
This is the first study to examine the delivery of intensive support to people with intellectual disability and behaviour that challenges. A two-cluster model of ISTs was found to have statistical validity and clinical utility. The clinical heterogeneity indicates that further evaluation of these service models is needed to establish their clinical and cost-effectiveness.
Contemporary Nigeria is not typically thought of as a mainstream tourist destination. Even Nigerian travel writer Pèḷú Awófèṣ ò,̣ who avidly promotes the country's potential for travellers, conceded in an interview with me in 2010 that he feared that ‘nobody will go anywhere in Nigeria specifically on vacation’. Nonetheless, as we saw in Chapter 1, the idea of travel for its own sake has had a limited but not insignificant resonance in southwest Nigeria throughout the twentieth century: in the notion of personal development and òḷ àjú associated with travel in many travel narratives, or in the newspapers’ promotion of travel as an improving, ‘civilised’ and relaxing leisure activity. In the postindependence era, there has been a growing interest in domestic tourism as both an aspirational leisure activity and a source of economic growth for the state, reflected in the publication of official tourist guides to Nigeria and the foundation of state tourism institutions such as the Nigeria Tourism Association (now the Nigeria Tourism Development Corporation) in 1962, the National Institute for Hospitality and Tourism in 1988, and the Federal Ministry of Culture and Tourism in 1999.
The press, too, has continued to promote tourism both within and beyond Nigeria. Today, many of Nigeria's newspapers host dedicated travel sections; these typically focus on domestic and international tourism news, information and PR pieces, although they occasionally publish short, first-person narratives describing journalists’ or readers’ own travels. Tourism journalism has undergone a professionalisation, including the foundation of the Association of Nigerian Journalists on Entertainment and Tourism and the Guild of Tourism Journalists, the latter of which is headed by Wálé Ojó-Lánre, a veteran of Nigerian tourism journalism. Some journalists have become known particularly for their extensive reporting on travel and tourism and for their occasional publication of narrative accounts of their own travels, such as Maurice Archibong, who wrote the ‘Travels’ column in the Daily Sun newspaper from 2003. Travel photojournalist and tourism professional John Olú Fáòṣèké has also published several works on tourism prospects in Nigeria and Africa, as well as a guidebook, Travellers’ Guide to Nigeria (1997).
Perceiving a gap in the state provision of travel infrastructure and marketing, private travel and tourism advocates have also sprung up to encourage Nigerians to travel within Nigeria.