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Frontal ablation, the combination of submarine melting and iceberg calving, changes the geometry of a glacier's terminus, influencing glacier dynamics, the fate of upwelling plumes and the distribution of submarine meltwater input into the ocean. Directly observing frontal ablation and terminus morphology below the waterline is difficult, however, limiting our understanding of these coupled ice–ocean processes. To investigate the evolution of a tidewater glacier's submarine terminus, we combine 3-D multibeam point clouds of the subsurface ice face at LeConte Glacier, Alaska, with concurrent observations of environmental conditions during three field campaigns between 2016 and 2018. We observe terminus morphology that was predominately overcut (52% in August 2016, 63% in May 2017 and 74% in September 2018), accompanied by high multibeam sonar-derived melt rates (4.84 m d−1 in 2016, 1.13 m d−1 in 2017 and 1.85 m d−1 in 2018). We find that periods of high subglacial discharge lead to localized undercut discharge outlets, but adjacent to these outlets the terminus maintains significantly overcut geometry, with an ice ramp that protrudes 75 m into the fjord in 2017 and 125 m in 2018. Our data challenge the assumption that tidewater glacier termini are largely undercut during periods of high submarine melting.
Identifying the most effective ways to support career development of early stage investigators in clinical and translational science should yield benefits for the biomedical research community. Institutions with Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) offer KL2 programs to facilitate career development; however, the sustained impact has not been widely assessed.
A survey comprised of quantitative and qualitative questions was sent to 2144 individuals that had previously received support through CTSA KL2 mechanisms. The 547 responses were analyzed with identifying information redacted.
Respondents held MD (47%), PhD (36%), and MD/PhD (13%) degrees. After KL2 support was completed, physicians’ time was divided 50% to research and 30% to patient care, whereas PhD respondents devoted 70% time to research. Funded research effort averaged 60% for the cohort. Respondents were satisfied with their career progression. More than 95% thought their current job was meaningful. Two-thirds felt confident or very confident in their ability to sustain a career in clinical and translational research. Factors cited as contributing to career success included protected time, mentoring, and collaborations.
This first large systematic survey of KL2 alumni provides valuable insight into the group’s perceptions of the program and outcome information. Former scholars are largely satisfied with their career choice and direction, national recognition of their expertise, and impact of their work. Importantly, they identified training activities that contributed to success. Our results and future analysis of the survey data should inform the framework for developing platforms to launch sustaining careers of translational scientists.
Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) TL1 trainees and KL2 scholars were surveyed to determine the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on training and career development. The most negative impact was lack of access to research facilities, clinics, and human subjects, plus for KL2 scholars lack of access to team members and need for homeschooling. TL1 trainees reported having more time to think and write. Common strategies to maintain research productivity involved time management, virtual connections with colleagues, and shifting to research activities not requiring laboratory/clinic settings. Strategies for mitigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on training and career development are described.
Ice mélange has been postulated to impact glacier and fjord dynamics through a variety of mechanical and thermodynamic couplings. However, observations of these interactions are very limited. Here, we report on glaciological and oceanographic data that were collected from 2016 to 2017 at LeConte Glacier and Bay, Alaska, and serendipitously captured the formation, flow and break-up of ephemeral ice mélange. Sea ice formed overnight in mid-February. Over the subsequent week, the sea ice and icebergs were compacted by the advancing glacier terminus, after which the ice mélange flowed quasi-statically. The presence of ice mélange coincided with the lowest glacier velocities and frontal ablation rates in our record. In early April, increasing glacier runoff and the formation of a sub-ice-mélange plume began to melt and pull apart the ice mélange. The plume, outgoing tides and large calving events contributed to its break-up, which took place over a week and occurred in pulses. Unlike observations from elsewhere, the loss of ice mélange integrity did not coincide with the onset of seasonal glacier retreat. Our observations provide a challenge to ice mélange models aimed at quantifying the mechanical and thermodynamic couplings between ice mélange, glaciers and fjords.
In order to conduct translational science, scientists must combine domain-specific expertise with knowledge on how to identify and cross translational hurdles, and insights on positioning discoveries for the next translational stage. Expert educators from the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium identified 97 knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) important to include in training programs for translational scientists. To assist educators and trainees to use these KSAs, a conceptual model called “Personalized Pathways” was developed that prioritizes KSAs based on trainee background, research area, or phenotype, and expertise on the research team.
To understand how CTSA educators prioritize specific KSAs when developing personalized training plans for different translational phenotypes and to identify areas of similarity and difference across phenotypes.
A web-based, cross-sectional survey of CTSA educators was done. For a selected phenotype, respondents recommended one of four levels of mastery for each of the 97 KSAs. Results were tabulated by frequency, weighted by importance, and divided into tertiles representing high, middle, and lower priority KSAs. Agreement across phenotypes was compared using Krippendorff’s alpha.
Ten KSAs were high training priority for Preclinical, Clinical, and Community-Engaged phenotypes. These address research methods, responsible conduct of research, team building, and communicating research results. Nine KSAs were in the next tertile for priority reflecting KSAs in biostatistics, bioinformatics, regulatory precepts, and translating implications of research findings.
A smaller set of KSAs can be prioritized for training Preclinical-, Clinical-, and Community-Engaged researchers. Future work should explore this approach for other phenotypes.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Verbal communication is a critical component for professional development and leadership. Yet, many clinical translational scientists lack the skills in communication of their scientific work in a meaningful and exciting manner that conveys the potential impact of their work on human health to the lay public, stakeholders, and to other scientists in different fields. We hypothesized that formal communication training could improve information transfer by trainees that would enhance their career development. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We therefore formalized a program for the KL2 scholars at the Ohio State University Center for Clinical and Translational Science that provided training from communications experts to develop a short, concise, and relevant talk about their field of research to general audiences. The program was a hybrid of workshop and individualized training. It culminated in each of the six scholars presenting public talk at the OSU STEM research dissemination and outreach space, the STEAM Factory. The scholars were administered a survey to assess their knowledge of the concepts presented in the training prior to and following the receiving the treatment, as well as their overall assessment of the experience. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The poster will present the positive results of this evaluation and the impact of the training on the KL2 scholars. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The poster explain the training as a model that other CTSA KL2 programs could adapt for their trainees.
We present a workflow to track icebergs in proglacial fjords using oblique time-lapse photos and the Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm. We employ the workflow at LeConte Bay, Alaska, where we ran five time-lapse cameras between April 2016 and September 2017, capturing more than 400 000 photos at frame rates of 0.5–4.0 min−1. Hourly to daily average velocity fields in map coordinates illustrate dynamic currents in the bay, with dominant downfjord velocities (exceeding 0.5 m s−1 intermittently) and several eddies. Comparisons with simultaneous Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements yield best agreement for the uppermost ADCP levels (~ 12 m and above), in line with prevalent small icebergs that trace near-surface currents. Tracking results from multiple cameras compare favorably, although cameras with lower frame rates (0.5 min−1) tend to underestimate high flow speeds. Tests to determine requisite temporal and spatial image resolution confirm the importance of high image frame rates, while spatial resolution is of secondary importance. Application of our procedure to other fjords will be successful if iceberg concentrations are high enough and if the camera frame rates are sufficiently rapid (at least 1 min−1 for conditions similar to LeConte Bay).
Converging evidence suggests that subjective cognitive concerns (SCC) are associated with biomarker evidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) prior to objective clinical impairment. However, the sensitivity of SCC reports in early AD may be biased by demographic factors. Here, we sought to investigate whether age, education, and sex influence the relationship between SCC and amyloid (Aβ) burden.
In this cross-sectional study, we examined 252 clinically normal (CN) individuals (57.7% females) enrolled in the Harvard Aging Brain Study, ages 63–90 years (mean 73.7±6) with 6–20 years of education (mean 15.8±3). SCC was assessed as a composite score comprising three questionnaires. Cortical Aβ burden was assessed with Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography imaging. A series of linear regression models assessed the potential modifying role of demographic variables with respect to Aβ burden and SCC. A post-hoc mediation model was implemented to further understand the relationship between Aβ burden and SCC via their relationship with education.
Age (β = −0.84, p = 0.36) and sex (β = −0.55, p = 0.22) did not modify the relationship between SCC and Aβ burden. Fewer years of education was correlated with greater SCC (r = −0.12, p = 0.05), but the relationship between Aβ burden and SCC was stronger in those with more education (β = 1.16, p < 0.05). A partial mediation effect was found of Aβ burden on SCC via education (b = −0.12, 95% CI [−0.31, −0.02]).
These findings suggest that the association between SCC and Aβ burden becomes stronger with greater educational attainment. Thus, SCC may be of particular importance in highly educated CN individuals harboring amyloid pathology.
Some epidemiological evidence suggests that diets high in omega 3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) may be beneficial for skeletal health. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if randomized controlled trials (RCTs) support a positive effect of n-3 FAs on osteoporosis. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases. We included RCTs with skeletal outcomes conducted in adults or children (> = 1 year old) using n-3 FA fortified foods, diets or supplements alone or in combination with other vitamins/minerals, versus placebo. Primary outcomes were incident fracture at any site and bone mineral density (BMD) in g/cm2. Secondary outcomes included bone formation or resorption markers and bone turnover regulators. A total of 10 RCTs met inclusion criteria. Effect sizes with 95 % confidence intervals were estimated to compare studies across various treatments and outcome measures. No pooled analysis was completed due to heterogeneity of studies and small sample sizes. No RCTs included fracture as an outcome. Four studies reported significant favorable effects of n-3 FA on BMD or bone turnover markers. Of these, three delivered n-3 FA in combination with high calcium foods or supplements. Five studies reported no differences in outcomes between n-3 FA intervention and control groups; one study included insufficient data for effect size estimation. Strong conclusions regarding n-3 FAs and bone disease are limited due to the small number and modest sample sizes of RCTs, however, it appears that any potential benefit of n-3 FA on skeletal health may be enhanced by concurrent administration of calcium.
Cerebral white matter injury in premature infants, known as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), is common after hypoxia–ischemia (HI). While ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) can mediate immature white matter injury, we have previously shown that excitotoxic injury to premyelinating oligodendrocytes (preOLs) in vitro can be attenuated by group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists. Thus, we evaluated mGluR expression in developing white matter in rat and human brain, and tested the protective efficacy of a central nervous system (CNS)-penetrating mGluR agonist on injury to developing oligodendrocytes (OLs) in vivo. Group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) were strongly expressed on OLs in neonatal rodent cerebral white matter throughout normal development, with highest expression early in development on preOLs. Specifically at P6, mGluR1 and mGLuR5 were most highly expressed on GalC-positive OLs compared to neurons, axons, astrocytes and microglia. Systemic administration of (1S,3R) 1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3,-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) significantly attenuated the loss of myelin basic protein in the white matter following HI in P6 rats. Assessment of postmortem human tissue showed both mGluR1 and mGluR5 localized on immature OLs in white matter throughout development, with mGluR5 highest in the preterm period. These data indicate group I mGluRs are highly expressed on OLs during the peak period of vulnerability to HI and modulation of mGluRs is protective in a rodent model of PVL. Group I mGluRs may represent important therapeutic targets for protection from HI-mediated white matter injury.