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Response to lithium in patients with bipolar disorder is associated with clinical and transdiagnostic genetic factors. The predictive combination of these variables might help clinicians better predict which patients will respond to lithium treatment.
To use a combination of transdiagnostic genetic and clinical factors to predict lithium response in patients with bipolar disorder.
This study utilised genetic and clinical data (n = 1034) collected as part of the International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLi+Gen) project. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were computed for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, and then combined with clinical variables using a cross-validated machine-learning regression approach. Unimodal, multimodal and genetically stratified models were trained and validated using ridge, elastic net and random forest regression on 692 patients with bipolar disorder from ten study sites using leave-site-out cross-validation. All models were then tested on an independent test set of 342 patients. The best performing models were then tested in a classification framework.
The best performing linear model explained 5.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response and was composed of clinical variables, PRS variables and interaction terms between them. The best performing non-linear model used only clinical variables and explained 8.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response. A priori genomic stratification improved non-linear model performance to 13.7% (P = 0.0001) and improved the binary classification of lithium response. This model stratified patients based on their meta-polygenic loadings for major depressive disorder and schizophrenia and was then trained using clinical data.
Using PRS to first stratify patients genetically and then train machine-learning models with clinical predictors led to large improvements in lithium response prediction. When used with other PRS and biological markers in the future this approach may help inform which patients are most likely to respond to lithium treatment.
We conducted a survey of 16,914 patients to determine the point prevalence of healthcare-associated catheter-associated urinary tract infection (HA-CAUTI) and urinary catheter care in public hospitals in Hong Kong. Overall HA-CAUTI prevalence was 0.27%. Compliance was generally good, except for documenting the date of planned removal and securing the catheter properly.
We spend much of our time consuming stories across different types of media, often becoming deeply engaged or transported into these stories. However, there has been almost no research into whether processing a story in one’s non-native language influences our level of transportation. We analyzed three existing datasets in order to compare engagement with English-language stories for those who reported English as their first language and those who reported English as their second language. Stories were presented as text (Study 1), audio (Study 2), and short films (Study 3). Across all studies, equivalent levels of narrative transportation between language groups were found, even after accounting for age and years of English fluency. These results are in contrast to some previous proposals that emotional reactions are attenuated during non-native language processing, despite equivalent levels of comprehension. Our evidence indicates that individuals processing a narrative in their second language feel just as transported into the story as those processing the same narrative in their native language.
Childhood maltreatment is one of the strongest predictors of adulthood depression and alterations to circulating levels of inflammatory markers is one putative mechanism mediating risk or resilience.
To determine the effects of childhood maltreatment on circulating levels of 41 inflammatory markers in healthy individuals and those with a major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis.
We investigated the association of childhood maltreatment with levels of 41 inflammatory markers in two groups, 164 patients with MDD and 301 controls, using multiplex electrochemiluminescence methods applied to blood serum.
Childhood maltreatment was not associated with altered inflammatory markers in either group after multiple testing correction. Body mass index (BMI) exerted strong effects on interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels in those with MDD.
Childhood maltreatment did not exert effects on inflammatory marker levels in either the participants with MDD or the control group in our study. Our results instead highlight the more pertinent influence of BMI.
Declaration of interest
D.A.C. and H.W. work for Eli Lilly Inc. R.N. has received speaker fees from Sunovion, Jansen and Lundbeck. G.B. has received consultancy fees and funding from Eli Lilly. R.H.M.-W. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Ferrer, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, MyTomorrows, Otsuka, Pfizer, Pulse, Roche, Servier, SPIMACO and Sunovian. I.M.A. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with Alkermes, Lundbeck, Lundbeck/Otsuka, and Servier. S.W. has sat on an advisory board for Sunovion, Allergan and has received speaker fees from Astra Zeneca. A.H.Y. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, Lundbeck, Eli Lilly, Sunovion; honoraria for consulting from Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck, Sunovion, Janssen; and research grant support from Janssen. A.J.C. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, honoraria for consulting with Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck and research grant support from Lundbeck.
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission occurs in 0.2%-10% of people after accidental needlestick exposures. However, postexposure prophylaxis is not currently recommended. We sought to determine the safety, tolerability, and acceptance of postexposure prophylaxis with peginterferon alfa-2b in healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to blood from HCV-infected patients.
Open-label pilot trial of peginterferon alfa-2b for HCV postexposure prophylaxis.
TWO academic tertiary-referral centers.
HCWs exposed to blood from HCV-infected patients were informed of the availability of postexposure prophylaxis. Persons who elected postexposure prophylaxis were given weekly doses of peginterferon alfa-2b for 4 weeks.
Among 2,702 HCWs identified with potential exposures to bloodborne pathogens, 213 (7.9%) were exposed to an HCV antibody-positive source. Of 51 HCWs who enrolled in the study, 44 (86%) elected to undergo postexposure prophylaxis (treated group). Seven subjects elected not to undergo postexposure prophylaxis (untreated group). No cases of HCV transmission were observed in either the treated or untreated group, and no cases occurred in the remaining 162 HCWs who did not enroll in this study. No serious adverse events related to a peginterferon alfa-2b regimen were recorded, but minor adverse events were frequent.
In this pilot study, there was a lower than expected frequency of HCV transmission after accidental occupational exposure. Although peginterferon alfa-2b was safe, because of the lack of HCV transmission in either the treated or untreated groups there is little evidence to support routine postexposure prophylaxis against HCV in HCWs.
Disaster is a collective responsibility requiring coordinated response from all parts of society. This theme focused on coordination and management issues in a diverse range of scenarios.
Details of the methods used are provided in the preceding paper. The chairs moderated all presentations and produced a summary that was presented to an assembly of all of the delegates. Although the main points developed in Themes 1 and 4 were different from each other (as reported in the Results section), their implementation was similar. Therefore, the chairs of both groups presided over one workshop that resulted in the generation of a set of Action Plans that then were reported to the collective group of all delegates.
The main points developed during the presentations and discussions included: (1) the need for evidence-based assessments and planning, (2) the need for a shift in focus to health-sector readiness, (3) empowerment of survivors, (4) provision of relief for the caregivers, (5) address the incentives and disincentives to attain readiness, (6) engage in joint preparation, response, and training, (7) focus on prevention and mitigation of the damage from events, and (8) improve media relations. There exists a need for institutionalization of processes for learning from experiences obtained from disasters.
Action plans presented include: (1) creation of an Information and Data Clearinghouse on Disaster Management, (2) identification of incentives and disincentives for readiness and develop strategies and interventions, and (3) act on lessons learned from evidence-based research and practical experience.
There is an urgent need to proactively establish coordination and management procedures in advance of any crisis. A number of important insights for improvement in coordination and management during disasters emerged.
The compound BaBiTe3 was prepared by the reaction of Ba/Bi/Te at over 700 °C either in K2TE4 or BaTe3 flux and was recrystallized in Ba/Te3 flux. The black rod-shaped polycrystalline material crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P212121 with a=4.6077(2) A, b=17.0437(8) Å, c=18.2997(8) Å. Its structure is made of interdigitating columnar anionie [Bi4Te10(Te2)] ∞2+ “herring-bone” shaped segments which arrange into layers with Ba ions between them. The electrical conductivity, thermopower, thermal lattice conductivity, infrared absorption properties of this material suggest it is a narrow gap semiconductor.
Initial studies using the rat sciatic nerve demonstrated the ability to adapt a multiple lumen cuff face to a nerve stump repair site. The neurons in the proximal stump grew through the individual conduits of the silicone rubber cuff, crossed a 5 mm gap, and continued into the distal stump. The effect of the cuff design on axonal regeneration was studied by comparing macroscopic and microstructural results for experimental groups of Sprague-Dawley rats with controls at 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks post-implantation. The several individual nerve bundles which formed within the cuff lumens during these periods maintained their alignment on the distal side of the gap. The use of the multiple lumen system provided suitable scaffolding support and control of orientation and direction for fibers and established a sized, controlled environment for regeneration within each of the separate nerve cuff compartments.
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