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Coalescence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galaxy mergers is potentially the dominant contributor to the low frequency gravitational wave background (GWB). It was proposed by Merritt & Ekers that X-shaped radio galaxies are signposts of such coalescences and that their abundance might be used to predict the magnitude of the GWB. Cheung identified a sample of 100 candidate X-shaped radio galaxies using the NRAO FIRST survey; these are small-axial-ratio extended radio sources with off-axis emission. In Roberts et al. we made radio images of 52 of these sources with resolution of about 1 arcsecond using archival Very Large Array data. Fifty-one of the 52 were observed at 1.4 GHz, seven were observed at 1.4 and 5 GHz, and one was observed only at 5 GHz. Our higher resolution VLA images along with FIRST survey images of the sources in the sample reveal that extended extragalactic radio sources with small axial ratios are largely (60%) cases of double radio sources with twin lobes that have off-axis extensions, usually with inversion-symmetric structure. The available radio images indicate that at most 20% of sources might be genuine X-shaped radio sources that could have formed by a restarting of beams in a new direction following an interruption and axis flip. The remaining 20% are in neither of these categories.
These images indicate that at most a small fraction of the candidates might be genuine X-shaped radio sources that were formed by a restarting of beams in a new direction following a major merger, or by spin drift caused by BH-BH interaction. This suggests that fewer than 1.3% of extended radio sources appear to be candidates for genuine axis reorientations (“spin flips”), or 2.2% if possible “axis drift” sources are included, much smaller than the 7% suggested by Leahy & Parma. Thus, the associated GWB may be substantially smaller than previous estimates. These results can be used to normalize detailed calculations of the SMBH coalescence rate and the GWB.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
Episodic activity in super-massive black holes is shown by radio galaxies exhibiting ‘double-double’ radio morphologies (Subrahmanyan et al. 1996, Schoenmakers et al. 2000). Spectacular examples showing a renewal of beam activity in the form of new beams emerging within relic radio lobes of previous activity have placed the phenomenon of recurrence in AGN outflows on a firm footing.
By using the SUMSS and WENSS GRG samples, we infer that on timescales of order a few million years, low luminosity radio sources are more likely to exhibit episodic behaviour in the accretion on to their supermassive black holes as compared to the more powerful radio galaxies.
Supernova 2001ig in NGC 7424 has been observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array at ~2 week intervals since its discovery, making this the best-studied Type IIb radio supernova since SN 1993J. We present radio light curves for frequencies from 1.4 to 20 GHz, and preliminary attempts to model the observed behavior. Since peaking in radio luminosity at 8.6 and 4.8 GHz some 1-2 months after the explosion, SN 2001ig has on at least two occasions deviated significantly from a smooth decline, indicative of interaction with a dense circumstellar medium and possibly of periodic progenitor mass-loss.
Modeling and simulation of rapid thermal processing has been studied extensively in the past. This work presents the results of a combined simulation and measurement study of a commercial multilamp RTP chamber. The simulations were used to estimate the contributions of different geometrical, material, process, and physical effects on temperature uniformity. The physical effects considered in the simulations included radiation, thermal conduction, transient effects during ramp up and cool down and the effects of patterns on the wafer surface. The effects were corroborated by direct temperature measurements using thermocouple embedded wafers, and the results were used to reliably calculate stress effects. The stress distributions were determined analytically in cases without surface films on the wafer. In the case of wafers with surface films, stress distributions were calculated based on thermal strains. This study allows us to concentrate efforts on increasing temperature uniformity to those areas where the greatest benefits in terms of yield and film uniformity can be obtained.
Flip chip interconnect systems are becoming increasingly popular in the electronics industry due to their low profile and high densities. During temperature cycles, the differential expansions between various assembly members of a flip chip interconnect system produce mechanical stresses that are the driving force for failures. Such failures can be a significant reliability concern.
Accelerated test methodologies for flip chip interconnect systems assess the reliability of existing interconnects and identify potential reliability concerns in future interconnect designs. Traditionally, such methodologies have relied on test methods such as temperature cycling to determine the mechanical integrity of the flip chip interconnect. However, application of such methods to new interconnect materials, geometry and processes requires characterization of basicmechanical behavior of the interconnect system.
In this work, the feasibility of using a micromechanical test methodology for flip chip applications is examined. 90PbSn solders is used as an example. The data obtained from such flip chip solder interconnects is validated using a damage integral methodology. The measured data is shown to adequately describe published thermal stress profiles and thermal fatigue life data measured using solder joints of the same composition. Finally, some considerations in the application of micromechanical measurements to determination of acceleration factors and development of accelerated test methods are discussed.
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