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Multiple herbicide-resistant (MHR) kochia is a serious concern in the U.S. Great Plains and warrants alternative herbicide mixtures for its control. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted at Kansas State University research and extension centers near Hays and Garden City, KS, to investigate the interactions of 2,4-D, dichlorprop-p, dicamba, and halauxifen/fluroxypyr premix in various combinations for MHR kochia control. Two previously confirmed MHR (resistant to glyphosate, dicamba, and fluroxypyr) populations and a susceptible population were tested in a greenhouse study. Kochia at the Hays field site was resistant to glyphosate and chlorsulfuron, whereas the population at Garden City was resistant to glyphosate, dicamba, and fluroxypyr. Results from a greenhouse study indicated that 2,4-D, dicamba, dichlorprop-p, and a halauxifen/fluroxypyr premix provided 26% to 69% control of both MHR populations at 28 d after treatment (DAT). However, the control increased to 85% to 97% when these herbicides were applied in three-way mixtures. Synergistic interactions were observed when dicamba was mixed with dichlorprop-p, 2,4-D, dichlorprop-p + 2,4-D, and halauxifen/fluroxypyr + 2,4-D for shoot dry weight reductions (86% to 92%) of both MHR populations. Results from a field study also indicated synergistic interactions when dicamba was mixed with dichlorprop-p + 2,4-D, halauxifen/fluroxypyr + dichlorprop-p, and halauxifen/fluroxypyr + 2,4-D, resulting in 84% to 95% control of MHR kochia at 28 DAT across both sites. These results indicate that synergistic effects of mixing dicamba with other auxinic herbicides in two- or three-way mixtures can help control MHR kochia.
Kochia accessions (designated as KS-4A and KS-4H) collected from a corn field near Garden City, KS, have previously shown multiple resistance to glyphosate, dicamba, and fluroxypyr. These accessions were also suspected as being resistant to photosystem II (PS II) inhibitors. The main objectives of this research were to 1) confirm the coexistence of cross-resistance to PS II inhibitors (atrazine and metribuzin) applied PRE and POST, 2) investigate the underlying mechanism of PS II-inhibitor resistance, and 3) determine the effectiveness of alternative POST herbicides for control of these multiple herbicide–resistant (MHR) kochia accessions. Results from dose-response experiments revealed that the KS-4A and KS-4H kochia accessions were 23-fold to 48-fold resistant to PRE- and POST-applied atrazine and 13-fold to 18-fold resistant to POST-applied metribuzin compared to a known susceptible kochia accession (KS-SUS). Both accessions also showed putative resistance to PRE-applied metribuzin that needs to be confirmed. Sequence analyses of the psbA gene further revealed that all samples from the KS-4A and KS-4H kochia accessions had a Ser264Gly point mutation. A pretreatment with malathion followed by a POST application of atrazine at 1,120 g ha−1 or metribuzin at 630 g ha−1 did not reverse the resistance phenotypes of these MHR accessions. In a separate greenhouse study, alternative POST herbicides, including bicyclopyrone + bromoxynil; bromoxynil + pyrasulfotole; paraquat alone or in combination with atrazine, metribuzin, 2,4-D, or saflufenacil; and saflufenacil alone or in combination with 2,4-D effectively controlled the KS-4H accession (≥97% injury). To our knowledge, this research reports the first case of kochia accessions with cross-resistance to PRE-applied atrazine and POST-applied metribuzin. Growers should adopt diversified weed control strategies, including the use of competitive crops, cover crops, targeted tillage, and harvest weed seed control along with effective alternative PRE and POST herbicides with multiple sites of action to control MHR kochia seedbanks on their production fields.
The evolution of resistance to multiple herbicides in Palmer amaranth is a major challenge for its management. In this study, a Palmer amaranth population from Hutchinson, Kansas (HMR), was characterized for resistance to inhibitors of photosystem II (PSII) (e.g., atrazine), acetolactate synthase (ALS) (e.g., chlorsulfuron), and EPSP synthase (EPSPS) (e.g., glyphosate), and this resistance was investigated. About 100 HMR plants were treated with field-recommended doses (1×) of atrazine, chlorsulfuron, and glyphosate, separately along with Hutchinson multiple-herbicide (atrazine, chlorsulfuron, and glyphosate)–susceptible (HMS) Palmer amaranth as control. The mechanism of resistance to these herbicides was investigated by sequencing or amplifying the psbA, ALS, and EPSPS genes, the molecular targets of atrazine, chlorsulfuron, and glyphosate, respectively. Fifty-two percent of plants survived a 1× (2,240 g ai ha−1) atrazine application with no known psbA gene mutation, indicating the predominance of a non–target site resistance mechanism to this herbicide. Forty-two percent of plants survived a 1× (18 g ai ha−1) dose of chlorsulfuron with proline197serine, proline197threonine, proline197alanine, and proline197asparagine, or tryptophan574leucine mutations in the ALS gene. About 40% of the plants survived a 1× (840 g ae ha−1) dose of glyphosate with no known mutations in the EPSPS gene. Quantitative PCR results revealed increased EPSPS copy number (50 to 140) as the mechanism of glyphosate resistance in the survivors. The most important finding of this study was the evolution of resistance to at least two sites of action (SOAs) (~50% of plants) and to all three herbicides due to target site as well as non–target site mechanisms. The high incidence of individual plants with resistance to multiple SOAs poses a challenge for effective management of this weed.
Evolution and rapid spread of herbicide-resistant (HR) kochia has become a significant challenge for growers in the U.S. Great Plains. The main objectives of this research were to confirm and characterize the response of putative auxinic HR (Aux-HR) kochia accessions (designated as KS-4A, KS-4D, KS-4H, KS-10A, KS-10-G, and KS-10H) collected from two different corn fields near Garden City, KS, to dicamba and fluroxypyr and to determine the EPSPS gene copy number to detect whether those accessions were also resistant to glyphosate. Single-dose experiments indicated that putative Aux-HR kochia accessions had 78% to 100% and 85% to 100% survivors when treated with dicamba (560 g ae ha−1) and fluroxypyr (235 g ae ha−1), respectively. Whole-plant dicamba dose–response studies revealed that the selected Aux-HR accessions had 2.9- to 15.1- and 3.1- to 9.4-fold resistance to dicamba relative to two susceptible accessions (MT-SUS and KS-SUS). In a separate fluroxypyr dose–response experiment, the selected Aux-HR accessions also exhibited 3.8- to 7.3- and 3.0- to 8.6-fold resistance to fluroxypyr on the basis of shoot fresh and dry weight responses, respectively. The confirmed Aux-HR kochia accessions also had 3 to 13 EPSPS gene copies relative to MT-SUS and KS-SUS accessions (each with 1 EPSPS gene copy). These results suggest that the putative Aux-HR kochia accessions from Kansas had developed moderate to high levels of cross-resistance to dicamba and fluroxypyr and low to high levels of resistance to glyphosate. This is the first confirmation of kochia accessions with cross-resistance to dicamba and fluroxypyr in Kansas. Growers should use diverse kochia control programs, including the proper use of dicamba and fluroxypyr stewardship, use of cover crops, occasional tillage, diversified crop rotations, and alternative effective herbicides to prevent further evolution and spread of Aux-HR kochia on their fields.
Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] is one of the most troublesome weeds throughout the North American Great Plains. Herbicides such as glyphosate and dicamba have been used widely to control B. scoparia for decades. However, many B. scoparia populations have evolved resistance to these herbicides due to selection. Especially, dicamba-resistant B. scoparia populations are often also found to be glyphosate-resistant. The objective of this research was to determine whether these two herbicide resistances are linked in B. scoparia. Reciprocal crosses were performed between glyphosate- and dicamba-resistant (GDR) and glyphosate- and dicamba-susceptible (GDS) B. scoparia to produce F1 and F2 progeny. Two F1 and seven F2 progeny families were screened with various doses of dicamba or glyphosate. All the F1 progeny survived both dicamba and glyphosate treatments. Chi-square analyses of F2 progeny suggest (1) glyphosate and dicamba resistances in B. scoparia are inherited via single, dominant nuclear genes; and (2) glyphosate- and dicamba-resistant genes are not linked. Thus, the dicamba and glyphosate resistances appear to have evolved independently due to intense selection but do not seem to spread together.
Timing of weed emergence and seed persistence in the soil influence the ability to implement timely and effective control practices. Emergence patterns and seed persistence of kochia populations were monitored in 2010 and 2011 at sites in Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, and South Dakota. Weekly observations of emergence were initiated in March and continued until no new emergence occurred. Seed was harvested from each site, placed into 100-seed mesh packets, and buried at depths of 0, 2.5, and 10 cm in fall of 2010 and 2011. Packets were exhumed at 6-mo intervals over 2 yr. Viability of exhumed seeds was evaluated. Nonlinear mixed-effects Weibull models were fit to cumulative emergence (%) across growing degree days (GDD) and to viable seed (%) across burial time to describe their fixed and random effects across site-years. Final emergence densities varied among site-years and ranged from as few as 4 to almost 380,000 seedlings m−2. Across 11 site-years in Kansas, cumulative GDD needed for 10% emergence were 168, while across 6 site-years in Wyoming and Nebraska, only 90 GDD were needed; on the calendar, this date shifted from early to late March. The majority (>95%) of kochia seed did not persist for more than 2 yr. Remaining seed viability was generally >80% when seeds were exhumed within 6 mo after burial in March, and declined to <5% by October of the first year after burial. Burial did not appear to increase or decrease seed viability over time but placed seed in a position from which seedling emergence would not be possible. High seedling emergence that occurs very early in the spring emphasizes the need for fall or early spring PRE weed control such as tillage, herbicides, and cover crops, while continued emergence into midsummer emphasizes the need for extended periods of kochia management.
Imazethapyr dose response curves were developed under laboratory and field conditions with the imazethapyr-resistant and -susceptible corn hybrids Pioneer 3180IR, IR denoting a hybrid homozygous for the XA17 gene conferring resistance to imazethapyr, and normal Pioneer 3180, respectively, and their F1 progeny to establish methods of measuring the presence of the XA17 gene and quantifying its impact. At two field locations, absorption of photosynthetically active radiation was a sensitive index of corn injury caused by imazethapyr. Imazethapyr, at 35 g/ha (one half the labeled rate), reduced absorption of photosynthetically active radiation in Pioneer 3180 by 8.3% at 1 wk after treatment. Plant height also was a sensitive index of injury. The minimum rate at which imazethapyr injury was detected in the Pioneer 3180IR/Pioneer 3180 F1 hybrid differed with location. Pioneer 3180IR was not injured by 280 g/ha of imazethapyr. The Pioneer 3180IR/3180 F1 hybrid was injured slightly by imazethapyr at 140 g/ha, but recovered within 5 wk after treatment, and grain yield was not reduced by 280 g/ha of imazethapyr. A seedling assay reliably detected differences between progeny of Pioneer 3180IR and Pioneer 3180IR/3180 F1.
Imazethapyr resistance in common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was confirmed in 1996 in a field near Rossville, KS. In 1997, common sunflower achenes were collected within a 20-km radius of the field with known resistance to determine if resistance was present in nearby fields or if resistance had spread to the native population on the roadside. Collections were made from 14 soybean (Glycine max) fields, one corn (Zea mays) field, and 11 roadsides. Achenes from Konza Prairie Research Natural Area, a prairie that had received no herbicide applications in the past 25 yr, served as the susceptible control. Common sunflower seedlings were treated in a greenhouse with 71 g ai/ha imazethapyr and 11 g ai/ha chlorimuron. In all 15 fields sampled, at least 1% of the common sunflower exhibited an intermediate response to imazethapyr or chlorimuron. In 13 fields, at least 1% of the plants were resistant to imazethapyr, and in all 15 fields, at least 1% of the plants were resistant to chlorimuron. Ten roadsides had common sunflower that showed intermediate response to imazethapyr or chlorimuron. At least 1% of the plants from seven roadsides were resistant to imazethapyr or chlorimuron. Common sunflower collected from fields with repeated applications of imazethapyr showed more resistance to imazethapyr than to chlorimuron.
Seed of three weed species collected from the grain bins of combines while standing hard red winter wheat was harvested germinated better than hand-harvested seed. Combine-harvested curly dock seed germinated from 4 to 24% more than hand-harvested seed. Curly dock seed harvested with a commercial-type combine germinated better than those harvested with a small-plot combine. Harvesting slimleaf lambsquarters and Venice mallow seed with a commercial-type combine also enhanced germination compared to hand-harvested seed.
A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the magnitude of imazethapyr resistance of field corn hybrids with altered acetolactate synthase (ALS) by comparing the responses of ALS extracted from homozygous and heterozygous resistant corn to nicosulfuron, primisulfuron, and imazethapyr. ALS isolated from Pioneer 3162 IR, Pioneer 3180 IR, Pioneer 3377 IR, and Ciba 4393 RSC hybrids was much more resistant to inhibition by these herbicides than ALS from the hybrids Pioneer 3162, Pioneer 3180, Pioneer 3377, and Ciba 4393, and the public inbred LH 74. Corn hybrids heterozygous for the Pioneer resistance gene were intermediate in response to the herbicides. ALS from ICI 8532 IT was resistant to imazethapyr but not to primisulfuron or nicosulfuron. The level of resistance of ALS from ICI 8532 IT was similar to that of ALS from Pioneer 3162 IR x Pioneer 3162 and Pioneer 3180 IR x Pioneer 3180 crosses that were also heterozygous for the resistance gene.
Resistance to imazethapyr was identified in a population of common sunflower that had been treated with imazethapyr for seven consecutive years. The imazethapyr-resistant biotype of common sunflower was approximately 170 times more resistant to imazethapyr than the susceptible biotype based on the rate required for 25% control. Resistance was due to altered acetolactate synthase (ALS) that is less sensitive to imazethapyr. The imazethapyr concentration required to inhibit in vitro ALS activity by 25% was 210–fold higher in the resistant biotype than in the susceptible biotype. Differences in absorption, translocation, and metabolism of imazethapyr in common sunflower biotypes were not sufficient to explain the resistance to imazethapyr.
The study was conducted to determine the cross-resistance of imazethapyr-resistant common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) to selected imidazolinone, sulfonylurea, and triazolopyrimidine herbicides. Whole-plant herbicide dose–response curves and in vitro enzyme studies showed that imazethapyr-resistant common sunflower was highly resistant to imazamox, slightly resistant to thifensulfuron and chlorimuron, and not resistant to cloransulam. Resistance ratios of herbicide concentrations required to inhibit growth by 25% were 310, 3.3, 2.0, and 1.4 times greater in the resistant biotype than in the susceptible biotype for imazamox, thifensulfuron, chlorimuron, and cloransulam, respectively. Similarly, herbicide concentrations required to inhibit ALS activity in vitro by 25% were 332.0, 18.6, 8.3, and 1.2 times greater in the resistant biotype than in the sensitive biotype for imazamox, chlorimuron, thifensulfuron, and cloransulam, respectively.
A three-year field study in west-central Kansas investigated the effects of combinations of spray carrier, nonionic surfactant (NIS), triasulfuron, and/or 2,4-D on winter wheat foliar injury and grain yield. Herbicides applied in water without NIS caused little or no foliar injury in two of three years. Urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) at 112 L/ha (40 kg N/ha) alone or as a carrier for herbicides caused moderate to severe foliar injury in all three years. Adding NIS to UAN spray solutions increased foliar injury, especially with the tank mixture of triasulfuron + 2,4-D. Effects of triasulfuron + NIS or 2,4-D applied in UAN were additive. Foliar injury was related inversely to temperature following application. Foliar injury was most evident 4 to 7 d after application and disappeared within 2 to 3 wk. Diluting UAN 50% with water lessened foliar injury in two of three years, especially in the presence of NIS, regardless of whether herbicides were in the spray solution. Treatments did not reduce wheat grain yield in any year despite estimates of up to 53% foliar injury one year.
A study was conducted near Garden City, KS with irrigated corn to determine how the integration of a terminated winter wheat cover crop with various atrazine rates would affect Palmer amaranth control and corn water use efficiency (WUE). Without atrazine, the presence of a winter wheat cover crop, killed in the boot stage, resulted in a threefold weed biomass reduction in irrigated corn. The highest rate of atrazine completely masked the weed control effect of the cover crop, producing a greater than 15-fold reduction regardless of the presence or absence of the cover crop. A terminated winter wheat cover crop without atrazine elevated corn yield in only two of nine location-yr, and in one instance, depressed yield. However, a terminated wheat cover crop elevated corn yield in six of nine location-yr combinations when used in conjunction with 1.6 kg ha−1 atrazine. Although increases in WUE associated with reductions in soil water evaporation produced by the cover crop seemed to be responsible for some of the increase in corn grain yield and stored soil water at the end of the summer growing season, end of season Palmer amaranth biomass had a more profound impact.
Kochia is a troublesome weed throughout the western United States. Although
glyphosate effectively controls kochia, poor control was observed in several
no-till fields in Kansas. The objectives of this research were to evaluate
kochia populations response to glyphosate and examine the mechanism that
causes differential response to glyphosate. Glyphosate was applied at 0, 54,
109, 218, 435, 870, 1305, 1740, 3480, and 5220 g ae ha−1 on 10
kochia populations. In general, kochia populations differed in their
response to glyphosate. At 21 d after treatment, injury from glyphosate
applied at 870 g ha−1 range from 4 to 91%. In addition,
glyphosate rate required to cause 50% visible injury (GR50)
ranged from 470 to 2149 g ha−1. Differences in glyphosate
absorption and translocation and kochia mineral content were not sufficient
to explain differential kochia response to glyphosate.
This research explored the use of downy brome (BROTE) as a cover crop in irrigated corn. Although BROTE is a difficult weed to control, it could not be maintained as a cover crop in no-till irrigated corn for more than one season. A 10-fold reduction in BROTE occurred in the second year of corn. By the fourth year, only one BROTE plant could be found at the two locations. Because BROTE did not persist across years, soil coverage decreased 5 to 18% in the later location-years. At one location, normal herbicide rates decreased Johnsongrass biomass more than 22-fold both years it was applied. Increasing herbicide input decreased Palmer amaranth density more than 3-fold, but only in a single location-year. In three of six location-years, level of herbicide input had no significant effect on evapotranspiration (ET). Increased BROTE biomass decreased ET 0.033 to 0.083 cm/d during the first season at both locations. Increased irrigation increased corn yield by 240 to 1,900 kg/ha in five of six location-year combinations. Half rates of in-season herbicides reduced yield only in one of six location-years. High BROTE density reduced ET but did not translate into increased crop yield. In three of six location-year combinations, high BROTE density decreased yield by 300 to 1,000 kg/ha. In a single location-year, increased surface residues provided by BROTE increased yield by 560 kg/ha. Increased irrigation inputs decreased water use efficiency (WUE) by 6.3 kg/ha-cm in a single location-year and increased WUE by 10.8 to 121.6 kg/ha-cm in four of six location-years. Increased herbicide inputs increased WUE by 10.3 kg/ha-cm in one location-year. BROTE density had no significant effect on WUE at location 1. At location 2 in the first 2 yr, WUE was increased 9.4 to 22.2 kg/ha-cm.
A study was conducted near Garden City, KS, under irrigated conditions to determine the effect of full-season Palmer amaranth infestation on corn water use efficiency and light interception in a fully developed corn canopy. Palmer amaranth at densities of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m−1 was established at corn planting in 1996 and 1997 and at two locations in 1998. Soil water was monitored 240 cm deep in 30-cm increments with a neutron probe each year and at each location every 10 d. Photosynthetic photon flux was measured in 1997 and 1998 by using a circular and a linear quantum sensor for above canopy and in four 50-cm increments for within canopy, respectively. Palmer amaranth reduced corn yield from 11 to 91% as density increased from 0.5 to 8 plants m−1. Water use efficiency of corn declined with increased Palmer amaranth density. Regardless of Palmer amaranth density, soil water extraction was greatest in the top 30 cm of the soil profile. The pattern of corn leaf area distribution was similar across Palmer amaranth densities, with 15, 70 to 75, and 5 to 15% of the total leaf area occurring 1.5 m, 0.5 to 1.5 m, and 0 to 0.5 m above the ground, respectively. In weed-free corn, over 60% of light was intercepted from 0.5 to 1.5 m above the ground. In contrast, in mixed canopies 60 to 80% of light was intercepted 1 m above the ground, where 80% of Palmer amaranth leaf area was concentrated. Under the conditions of this study, water was not a limiting factor. The effect of Palmer amaranth density on total light interception was not significant. However, within each treatment, light interception at different heights differed, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the vertical distribution of light through the canopy to assess the effect of weed height on light competition.
In 2005 a hailstorm struck a long-term dose–response study of irrigation requirements and corn plant populations. This misfortune occurred again in 2006 at approximately the same growth stage. Therefore, the objectives of the studies were redirected to measure the impact of actual hail events on corn leaf area index (LAI) and the competitive interaction of escaped Palmer amaranth populations induced by hail across different levels of irrigation and corn populations. In 2005, the study treatment with the lowest corn population and level of irrigation had twice the Palmer amaranth biomass (PABM) at corn harvest compared with the highest corn population and irrigation level. Corn LAI produced simple linear models that predicted both corn grain yield and PABM. In 2007, the nonhail year, PABM was depressed 4- to 15-fold compared with hail years. PABM declined linearly from 417 kg/ha at the lowest level of irrigation and corn population to 48 kg/ha at the highest level of irrigation and corn plant population. Although economic return per increment of irrigation declined in both hail years, the trends in economic returns were still positive. This suggests that a producer with similar conditions should continue to irrigate even though his or her rate of economic return is reduced.
Field experiments were conducted in grain sorghum at five locations in Kansas in 2009 and 2010, to evaluate the efficacy and crop safety of early- to mid-POST (EMPOST) and late-POST (LPOST) applications of premixed pyrasulfotole and bromoxynil (PYRA&BROM) in tank mix combinations with atrazine or atrazine plus 2,4-D ester or dicamba compared to bromoxynil plus atrazine. PYRA&BROM at 244 or 300 g ai ha−1 plus atrazine at 560 g ai ha−1 applied EMPOST controlled pigweed species (Palmer amaranth, tumble pigweed, and redroot pigweed), kochia, velvetleaf, common sunflower, ivyleaf morningglory, and common lambsquarters 93% or greater. Puncturevine control among three locations ranged from 85 to 99%. Control of most weed species was not improved by increasing PYRA&BROM rate from 244 to 300 g ha−1 or by tank mixing 2,4-D or dicamba with PYRA&BROM plus atrazine. However, ivyleaf morningglory control was improved at the LPOST timing by adding 2,4-D or dicamba at 140 g ae ha−1. In no instance did any PYRA&BROM treatment provide greater weed control than bromoxynil plus atrazine at 281 + 560 g ha−1 when applied EMPOST, but in most instances PYRA&BROM treatments were more effective than bromoxynil plus atrazine when applied LPOST. Generally, PYRA&BROM treatments were more effective when applied EMPOST than LPOST, especially when 2,4-D or dicamba was added. PYRA&BROM plus atrazine treatments caused foliar bleaching in sorghum within 7 ± 3 d after treatment, but recovery was complete within 3 to 4 wk and grain yields were not reduced. Tank mixing dicamba with PYRA&BROM and atrazine occasionally reduced visible crop response compared to PYRA&BROM plus atrazine. Our results indicate that PYRA&BROM plus atrazine with or without 2,4-D or dicamba selectively controls several troublesome broadleaf weeds in grain sorghum. Foliar bleaching of sorghum leaves can occur but the symptoms are transient, and grain yields are not likely to be reduced.
Woollyleaf bursage (Ambrosia grayi) is a noxious, rhizomatous perennial with an extensive creeping root system. It is found in the central and southern Great Plains of the U.S. Clopyralid alone or fluroxypyr, picloram, or glyphosate with either 2,4-D or dicamba were applied to woollyleaf bursage at anthesis and 30 d later in three field experiments. With the exception of treatments containing picloram, the effect of application timing was inconsistent. All treatments containing picloram consistently controlled woollyleaf bursage 93% or greater for 9 mo and 74% or greater for 11 mo. Control was poor or inconsistent with all other treatments. Although a rate response was seen with clopyralid, a level higher than 0.28 kg/ha may be necessary to control woollyleaf bursage. After 11 mo, control was less than 60% with treatments containing 1.7 kg/ha of glyphosate in 10 of 12 herbicide treatments and timing combinations over 3 yr.