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Drug-induced movement disorders (DIMDs) form an important subgroup of secondary movement disorders, which despite conferring a significant iatrogenic burden, tend to be under-recognized and inappropriately managed.
We aimed to look into phenomenology, predictors of reversibility, and its impact on the quality of life of DIMD patients.
We conducted the study in the Department of Neurology at a tertiary-care centre in India. The institutional ethics-committee approved the study. We assessed 55-consecutive DIMD patients at presentation to our movement disorder clinic. Subsequently, they followed up to evaluate improvement in severity-scales (UPDRS, UDRS, BARS, AIMS) and quality of life (EuroQol-5D-5L). Wilcoxan-signed-rank test compared the scales at presentation and follow-up. Binary-logistic-regrerssion revealed the independent predictors of reversibility.
Fourteen patients (25.45%) had acute-subacute DIMD and 41 (74.55%) had tardive DIMD. Tardive-DIMD occurred more commonly in the elderly (age 50.73±16.92 years, p<0.001). Drug-induced-Parkinsonism (DIP) was the most common MD, followed by tardivedyskinesia. Risperidone and levosulpiride were the commonest culprit drugs. Patients in both the groups showed a statistically significant response to drug-dose reduction /withdrawal based on follow-up assessment on clinical-rating-scales and quality of life scores (EQ-5D-5L). DIMD was reversible in 71.42% of acute-subacute DIMD and 24.40% of patients with chronic DIMD (p=0.001). Binary-logistic-regression analysis showed acute-subacute DIMDs and DIP as independent predictors of reversibility.
DIP is the commonest and often reversible drug-induced movement disorder. Levosulpiride is notorious for causing DIMD in the elderly, requiring strict pharmacovigilance.
We evaluated the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions at discharge from a tertiary-care hospital in India. Of the 790 adult patients included, 84.4% received antibiotics. Microbiological specimens were taken from 67.3% of these patients, and pathogens were identified in 28.8% of cases. Overuse of antimicrobials at hospital discharge should be curtailed.
Health-care personnel (HCPs) are predisposed to infection during direct or indirect patient care as well as due to the community spread of the disease.
We observed the clinical presentation and course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in HCPs working in a dedicated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) care hospital during the first and the second wave.
A total of 100 and 223 HCPs were enrolled for the first wave and the second wave, respectively. Cough, shortness of breath, sore throat, runny nose, and headache was seen in 40 (40%) and 152 (68%) (P < 0.01), 15 (15%) and 64 (29%) (P = 0.006), 40 (40%) and 119 (53.3%) (P = 0.03), 9 (9%) and 66 (30%) (P < 0.01), 20 (20%) and 125 (56%) (P < 0.01), respectively. Persistent symptoms at the time of joining back to work were seen in 31 (31%) HCPs and 152 (68%) HCPs, respectively (P ≤ 0.01). Reinfection was reported in 10 HCPs.
Most of the HCPs had mild to moderate infections. Symptoms persist after joining back to work. Upgradation of home-based care and teleconsultation facilities for active disease and redressal of residual symptoms will be helpful.
Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major global threat to patient safety. Systematic surveillance is crucial for understanding HAI rates and antimicrobial resistance trends and to guide infection prevention and control (IPC) activities based on local epidemiology. In India, no standardized national HAI surveillance system was in place before 2017. Methods: Public and private hospitals from across 21 states in India were recruited to participate in an HAI surveillance network. Baseline assessments followed by trainings ensured that basic microbiology and IPC implementation capacity existed at all sites. Standardized surveillance protocols for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) were modified from the NHSN for the Indian context. IPC nurses were trained to implement surveillance protocols. Data were reported through a locally developed web portal. Standardized external data quality checks were performed to assure data quality. Results: Between May 2017 and April 2019, 109 ICUs from 37 hospitals (29 public and 8 private) enrolled in the network, of which 33 were teaching hospitals with >500 beds. The network recorded 679,109 patient days, 212,081 central-line days, and 387,092 urinary catheter days. Overall, 4,301 bloodstream infection (BSI) events and 1,402 urinary tract infection (UTI) events were reported. The network CLABSI rate was 9.4 per 1,000 central-line days and the CAUTI rate was 3.4 per 1,000 catheter days. The central-line utilization ratio was 0.31 and the urinary catheter utilization ratio was 0.57. Moreover, 3,542 (73%) of 4,742 pathogens reported from BSIs and 868 (53%) of 1,644 pathogens reported from UTIs were gram negative. Also, 1,680 (26.3%) of all 6,386 pathogens reported were Enterobacteriaceae. Of 1,486 Enterobacteriaceae with complete antibiotic susceptibility testing data reported, 832 (57%) were carbapenem resistant. Of 951 Enterobacteriaceae subjected to colistin broth microdilution testing, 62 (7%) were colistin resistant. The surveillance platform identified 2 separate hospital-level HAI outbreaks; one caused by colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae and another due to Burkholderia cepacia. Phased expansion of surveillance to additional hospitals continues. Conclusions: HAI surveillance was successfully implemented across a national network of diverse hospitals using modified NHSN protocols. Surveillance data are being used to understand HAI burden and trends at the facility and national levels, to inform public policy, and to direct efforts to implement effective hospital IPC activities. This network approach to HAI surveillance may provide lessons to other countries or contexts with limited surveillance capacity.
Background: Globally, surgical site infections (SSIs) not only complicate the surgeries but also lead to $5–10 billion excess health expenditures, along with the increased length of hospital stay. SSI rates have become a universal measure of quality in hospital-based surgical practice because they are probably the most preventable of all healthcare-associated infections. Although, many national regulatory bodies have made it mandatory to report SSI rates, the burden of SSI is still likely to be significant underestimated due to truncated SSI surveillance as well as underestimated postdischarge SSIs. A WHO survey found that in low- to middle-income countries, the incidence of SSIs ranged from 1.2 to 23.6 per 100 surgical procedures. This contrasted with rates between 1.2% and 5.2% in high-income countries. Objectives: We aimed to leverage the existing surveillance capacities at our tertiary-care hospital to estimate the incidence of SSIs in a cohort of trauma patients and to develop and validate an indigenously developed, electronic SSI surveillance system. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a 248-bed apex trauma center for 18 months. This project was a part of an ongoing multicenter study. The demographic details were recorded, and all the patients who underwent surgery (n = 770) were followed up until 90 days after discharge. The associations of occurrence of SSI and various clinico-microbiological variables were studied. Results: In total, 32 (4.2%) patients developed SSI. S. aureus (28.6%) were the predominant pathogen causing SSI, followed by E. coli (14.3%) and K. pneumoniae (14.3%). Among the patients who had SSI, higher SSI rates were associated in patients who were referred from other facilities (P = .03), had wound class-CC (P < .001), were on HBOT (P = .001), were not administered surgical antibiotics (P = .04), were not given antimicrobial coated sutures (P = .03) or advanced dressings (P = .02), had a resurgery (P < .001), had a higher duration of stay in hospital from admission to discharge (P = .002), as well as from procedure to discharge (P = .002). SSI was cured in only 16 patients (50%) by 90 days. SSI data collection, validation, and analyses are essential in developing countries like India. Thus, it is very crucial to implement a surveillance system and a system for reporting SSI rates to surgeons and conduct a robust postdischarge surveillance using trained and committed personnel to generate, apply, and report accurate SSI data.
Resistance to colistin, a last resort antibiotic, has emerged in India. We investigated colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae(ColR-KP) in a hospital in India to describe infections, characterize resistance of isolates, compare concordance of detection methods, and identify transmission events.
Retrospective observational study.
Case-patients were defined as individuals from whom ColR-KP was isolated from a clinical specimen between January 2016 and October 2017. Isolates resistant to colistin by Vitek 2 were confirmed by broth microdilution (BMD). Isolates underwent colistin susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and whole-genome sequencing. Medical records were reviewed.
Of 846 K. pneumoniae isolates, 34 (4%) were colistin resistant. In total, 22 case-patients were identified. Most (90%) were male; their median age was 33 years. Half were transferred from another hospital; 45% died. Case-patients were admitted for a median of 14 days before detection of ColR-KP. Also, 7 case-patients (32%) received colistin before detection of ColR-KP. All isolates were resistant to carbapenems and susceptible to tigecycline. Isolates resistant to colistin by Vitek 2 were also resistant by BMD; 2 ColR-KP isolates were resistant by disk diffusion. Moreover, 8 multilocus sequence types were identified. Isolates were negative for mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes. Based on sequencing analysis, in-hospital transmission may have occurred with 8 case-patients (38%).
Multiple infections caused by highly resistant, mcr-negative ColR-KP with substantial mortality were identified. Disk diffusion correlated poorly with Vitek 2 and BMD for detection of ColR-KP. Sequencing indicated multiple importation and in-hospital transmission events. Enhanced detection for ColR-KP may be warranted in India.
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