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Low pre-albumin, body mass index, and thiamine levels have been associated with poor nutritional status and cognitive/memory deficits in adult heart failure patients. However, the relationship of these nutritional/dietary intake biomarkers to cognition has not been assessed in adolescents post-Fontan procedure and healthy controls.
This is a cross-sectional study. Adolescents (14–21 years of age) post-Fontan completion were recruited from paediatric cardiology clinics and controls from the community. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment was administered (normal ≥ 26), and blood draw (thiamine [normal 70–110 nmol/L] and pre-albumin levels [adolescent normal 23–45 mg/dL]) and the Thiamine Food Frequency Questionnaire were completed by all participants.
Seventy subjects, 40 post-Fontan (mean age 16 ± 1.6, female 51%, Hispanic 44%, hypoplastic left heart syndrome 26%) and 30 controls (mean age 16.8 ± 1.9, female 52%, Hispanic 66%), were participated. Post-Fontan group had lower median total cognitive scores (23 versus 29, p < 0.001), pre-albumin levels (23 versus 27, p = 0.013), and body mass index (20 versus 24, p = 0.027) than controls. Post-Fontan group had higher thiamine levels than controls (127 versus 103, p = 0.033). Lower pre-albumin levels (< 23) and underweight body mass index were associated with abnormal total cognitive scores (p = 0.030). Low pre-albumin level (p = .038) was an independent predictor of worse cognition.
Lower pre-albumin was an independent predictor for worse cognition in adolescents post-Fontan. Lower pre-albumin levels may reflect chronic liver changes or protein-losing enteropathy seen in Fontan physiology. These findings highlight the possibility for nutrition-induced cognitive changes.
For forthcoming wireless applications, a small and highly decoupled complementary split ring resonators (CSRR)–loaded co-planar waveguide (CPW)–fed antenna for dual-band applications is investigated. The low-profile antenna consists of a CSRR-loaded rectangular radiating element with a truncated bottom, giving a wideband performance over the frequency ranges of 5.28–5.52 GHz and 6–7.2 GHz. The antenna has been printed on a widely used FR4 substrate measuring 7.5 × 10.5 × 1.6 mm3 in volume. This research’s suggested antenna is turned into a 4 × 4 multi input multi output (MIMO) construction using a 25 × 25 mm2 printed circuit board. Individual antennas were isolated by nearly 20 dB without using a decoupling device. The antenna has been built, and the measured and simulated results correspond well. Computing envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), channel capacity (CC), and channel capacity loss (CCL) further validates the antenna’s performance (−). The antenna has an overall gain of around 2.54 dBi and a radiation efficiency of approximately 89% throughout the relevant spectral range, which is much better for wireless applications. The suggested antenna’s omnidirectional emission pattern makes it a potential contender for future wireless and cellular applications.
Rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are several times above those of high-income countries. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors (RFs) for VAP cases in ICUs of LMICs.
Prospective cohort study.
This study was conducted across 743 ICUs of 282 hospitals in 144 cities in 42 Asian, African, European, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries.
The study included patients admitted to ICUs across 24 years.
In total, 289,643 patients were followed during 1,951,405 patient days and acquired 8,236 VAPs. We analyzed 10 independent variables. Multiple logistic regression identified the following independent VAP RFs: male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–1.28; P < .0001); longer length of stay (LOS), which increased the risk 7% per day (aOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.07–1.08; P < .0001); mechanical ventilation (MV) utilization ratio (aOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.23–1.31; P < .0001); continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which was associated with the highest risk (aOR, 13.38; 95% CI, 11.57–15.48; P < .0001); tracheostomy connected to a MV, which was associated with the next-highest risk (aOR, 8.31; 95% CI, 7.21–9.58; P < .0001); endotracheal tube connected to a MV (aOR, 6.76; 95% CI, 6.34–7.21; P < .0001); surgical hospitalization (aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.17–1.29; P < .0001); admission to a public hospital (aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.35-1.86; P < .0001); middle-income country (aOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 15–1.29; P < .0001); admission to an adult-oncology ICU, which was associated with the highest risk (aOR, 4.05; 95% CI, 3.22–5.09; P < .0001), admission to a neurologic ICU, which was associated with the next-highest risk (aOR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.78–3.45; P < .0001); and admission to a respiratory ICU (aOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.79–3.07; P < .0001). Admission to a coronary ICU showed the lowest risk (aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.51–0.77; P < .0001).
Some identified VAP RFs are unlikely to change: sex, hospitalization type, ICU type, facility ownership, and country income level. Based on our results, we recommend focusing on strategies to reduce LOS, to reduce the MV utilization ratio, to limit CPAP use and implementing a set of evidence-based VAP prevention recommendations.
Despite advances in medical care, we still come across pregnancy in Eisenmenger syndrome. Eisenmenger syndrome represents the severe end of the spectrum for disease in pulmonary artery hypertension associated with CHD. Due to very high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, pregnancy is contraindicated among these women. Current guidelines also recommend that the women who become pregnant should opt for early termination of pregnancy. Here, we present a case series of 11 women of Eisenmenger syndrome and their pregnancy outcome.
It was a retrospective analysis of 12 pregnancies among 11 women with Eisenmenger syndrome who were managed in a tertiary care referral centre of Northern India.
The mean age of these women was 28 ± 4 years (range 22 to 36 years). Almost 80% of them (9/11) were diagnosed with Eisenmenger syndrome during pregnancy. The commonest cardiac lesion was Ventricular Septal defect (54.5%) followed by Atrial Septal defect (27.3%) and Patent Ductus arteriosus (9.1%). Only three women opted for medical termination of pregnancy, rest eight continued the pregnancy or presented late. Pregnancy complications found include pre-eclampsia (50%), abruption (22%), and fetal growth retardation (62.5%). There were three maternal deaths (mortality rate 27%) in postpartum period.
This case series highlights the delay in diagnosis and treatment of CHD despite improvement in medical care. Women with Eisenmenger syndrome require effective contraception, preconceptional counselling, early termination of pregnancy, and multidisciplinary care.
Drug-induced movement disorders (DIMDs) form an important subgroup of secondary movement disorders, which despite conferring a significant iatrogenic burden, tend to be under-recognized and inappropriately managed.
We aimed to look into phenomenology, predictors of reversibility, and its impact on the quality of life of DIMD patients.
We conducted the study in the Department of Neurology at a tertiary-care centre in India. The institutional ethics-committee approved the study. We assessed 55-consecutive DIMD patients at presentation to our movement disorder clinic. Subsequently, they followed up to evaluate improvement in severity-scales (UPDRS, UDRS, BARS, AIMS) and quality of life (EuroQol-5D-5L). Wilcoxan-signed-rank test compared the scales at presentation and follow-up. Binary-logistic-regrerssion revealed the independent predictors of reversibility.
Fourteen patients (25.45%) had acute-subacute DIMD and 41 (74.55%) had tardive DIMD. Tardive-DIMD occurred more commonly in the elderly (age 50.73±16.92 years, p<0.001). Drug-induced-Parkinsonism (DIP) was the most common MD, followed by tardivedyskinesia. Risperidone and levosulpiride were the commonest culprit drugs. Patients in both the groups showed a statistically significant response to drug-dose reduction /withdrawal based on follow-up assessment on clinical-rating-scales and quality of life scores (EQ-5D-5L). DIMD was reversible in 71.42% of acute-subacute DIMD and 24.40% of patients with chronic DIMD (p=0.001). Binary-logistic-regression analysis showed acute-subacute DIMDs and DIP as independent predictors of reversibility.
DIP is the commonest and often reversible drug-induced movement disorder. Levosulpiride is notorious for causing DIMD in the elderly, requiring strict pharmacovigilance.
To identify risk factors for mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) in Asia.
Prospective cohort study.
The study included 317 ICUs of 96 hospitals in 44 cities in 9 countries of Asia: China, India, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Patients aged >18 years admitted to ICUs.
In total, 157,667 patients were followed during 957,517 patient days, and 8,157 HAIs occurred. In multiple logistic regression, the following variables were associated with an increased mortality risk: central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI; aOR, 2.36; P < .0001), ventilator-associated event (VAE; aOR, 1.51; P < .0001), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI; aOR, 1.04; P < .0001), and female sex (aOR, 1.06; P < .0001). Older age increased mortality risk by 1% per year (aOR, 1.01; P < .0001). Length of stay (LOS) increased mortality risk by 1% per bed day (aOR, 1.01; P < .0001). Central-line days increased mortality risk by 2% per central-line day (aOR, 1.02; P < .0001). Urinary catheter days increased mortality risk by 4% per urinary catheter day (aOR, 1.04; P < .0001). The highest mortality risks were associated with mechanical ventilation utilization ratio (aOR, 12.48; P < .0001), upper middle-income country (aOR, 1.09; P = .033), surgical hospitalization (aOR, 2.17; P < .0001), pediatric oncology ICU (aOR, 9.90; P < .0001), and adult oncology ICU (aOR, 4.52; P < .0001). Patients at university hospitals had the lowest mortality risk (aOR, 0.61; P < .0001).
Some variables associated with an increased mortality risk are unlikely to change, such as age, sex, national economy, hospitalization type, and ICU type. Some other variables can be modified, such as LOS, central-line use, urinary catheter use, and mechanical ventilation as well as and acquisition of CLABSI, VAE, or CAUTI. To reduce mortality risk, we shall focus on strategies to reduce LOS; strategies to reduce central-line, urinary catheter, and mechanical ventilation use; and HAI prevention recommendations.
Megalithic cultures of central India provide important links between the southern Neolithic-Chalcolithic cultures and the early Historical period (∼500 BC to ∼AD 700) and reveal knowledge of ancient traditions of early inhabitants. Scientific dating of these Megalithic burial sites is a challenging task due to scarcity of dateable material and alterations. Here, we present multiple accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dates from equine tooth-enamel and organic food remains recovered from pots from Megalithic burials of the Vidarbha region. Using δ13CTOC and δ15N values of organic food remains recovered from pots, we deduced past-diet (palaeo-vegetation) that indicates C4 type of vegetation and thus arid climate during life-spans of these burials. We also analyzed stable δ13C and δ18O isotopes of equine tooth-enamel to investigate hydro-climatic conditions of Maharashtra (Vidarbha region). A total of 10 AMS 14C dates of tooth enamel provide a time range of AD 250–874 for two Megalithic burials. Two AMS 14C dates of organic food remains recovered from pots corroborated aforementioned time-range. The average δ13C and δ18O of equine tooth-enamel samples were −5.3 ± 2.1‰ and −2.9 ± 0.8‰, respectively, both significantly enriched compared to their modern counterparts (−13.7‰ ± 0.7 and −4.3‰ ± 1.1), indicating intense arid conditions in the past.
Despite several efforts by the Government of India, the national burden of anaemia remains high and its growing prevalence (between 2015–2016 and 2019–2021) is concerning to India’s public health system. This article reviews existing food-based and clinical strategies to mitigate the anaemia burden and why they are premature and insufficient. In a context where multiple anaemia control programmes are in play, this article proposes a threefold strategy for consideration. First, except the Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey, 2016–2018, which measured Hb concentration among children and adolescents aged 1–19 years using venous blood samples, all national surveys use capillary blood samples to determine Hb levels, which could be erroneous. The Indian government should prioritise conducting a nationwide survey for estimating the burden of anaemia and its clinical determinants for all age groups using venous blood samples. Second, without deciding the appropriate dose of Fe needed for an individual, food fortification programmes that are often compounded with layering of other micronutrients could be harmful and further research on this issue is needed. Same is true for the pharmacological intervention of Fe tablet or syrup supplementation programmes, which is given to individuals without assessing its need. In addition, there is a dire need for robust research to understand both the long-term benefit and side effects of Fe supplementation programmes. Third and final, the WHO is in process of reviewing the Hb threshold for defining anaemia, therefore the introduction of new anaemia control programmes should be restrained.
Recognising the importance of infant and young child feeding practices during the first 2 years of life, the World Health Organization's Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework developed a minimum dietary diversity (MDD) indicator for feeding children aged 6–23 months. MDD is defined as the consumption of food items from five or more groups out of a total of eight food groups. Food intake from less than five food groups is considered minimum dietary diversity failure (MDDF). Using the nationally representative National Family Health Survey (NFHS) dataset, the present study assessed the trend in MDDF between 2005–6 and 2015–16 and the factors associated with MDDF among children aged 6–23 months during 2015–16. The NFHS conducted in 2005–6 and 2015–16 covered a sample of 14 419 and 74 078 children aged 6–23 months, respectively. Overall, the MDDF reduced from 87⋅4 % (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 86⋅8 %, 87⋅9 %) in 2005–6 to 80⋅6 % (95 % CI 80⋅1 %, 81⋅0 %) in 2015–16. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that increased child's age, second and third birth order children, higher maternal age and education, mass media exposure of mothers and more than four antenatal care visits had a negative association with the MDDF. Children living in rural areas and residing in high-focus states of India were observed with higher odds of experiencing MDDF. Exposure to community healthcare services was negatively associated with MDDF, and anaemic children were more likely to have MDDF. Socioeconomic status of mothers and children and encouragement of maternal and child healthcare use could be helpful in devising context-specific intervention to mitigate MDDF.
The current study assessed intake of iron-and-folic-acid (IFA) tablet/syrup (grouped into none, < 100 d of IFA consumption or < 100 IFA and ≥ 100 d of IFA consumption or ≥ 100 IFA) among prospective mothers and its association with various stages of low-birth weight (ELBW, extremely low-birth weight; VLBW, very low-birth weight and LBW, low-birth weight) and neonatal mortality (death during day 0–1, 2–6, 7–27 and 0–27) in India.
The cross-sectional, nationally representative, 2015–2016 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) data were used. Weighted descriptive analysis and multiple binary logistic regression modelling were used.
NFHS-4 covered 640 districts from thirty-seven states and union territories of India.
A total of 120 374 and 143 675 index children aged 0–59 months were included to analyse LBW and neonatal mortality, respectively.
Overall, 30·7 % mothers consumed ≥ 100 IFA in 2015–2016, and this estimate ranged from 0·0 % in Zunheboto district of Nagaland state to 89·5 % in Mahe district of Puducherry of India. Multiple regression analysis revealed that children of mothers who consumed ≥ 100 IFA had lower odds of ELBW, VLBW, LBW and neonatal mortality during day 0–1, as compared with mothers who did not buy/receive any IFA. Consumption of IFA (< 100 IFA and ≥ 100 IFA) had a protective association with neonatal death during day 7–27 and 0–27. Consumption of IFA was not associated with neonatal death during day 2–6.
While ≥ 100 IFA consumption during pregnancy was found to be associated with preventing select types of LBW and neonatal mortality, a large variation in coverage of ≥ 100 IFA consumption across 640 districts is concerning.
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC), is a rare lysosomal storage disorder, which has a variable presentation based on the age of onset. We describe five adult/adolescent-onset NPC cases presenting with a range of movement disorders along with vertical supranuclear gaze palsy as part of the clinical presentation. A diagnostic delay of 4–17 years from the symptom onset was found in this case series. A high index of clinical suspicion in adult/adolescent patients presenting with vertical supranuclear gaze palsy along with various movement disorder phenomenology can help in the early diagnosis of NPC.
To assess the outcome of severe wasting in infants below 6 months of age.
A prospective observational study conducted between January 2017 and October 2018.
A medical college-affiliated hospital in Eastern Delhi, catering mainly to the urban poor population.
All children with severe wasting (weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) < −3 sd) between 1 and 6 months of age, requiring hospitalisation.
Out of fifty children enrolled, during hospitalisation, forty-two (84 %) recovered (WLZ > −3 sd) and discharged; the median (interquartile range (IQR)) duration of stay was 9·5 (6·5, 13·0) d. After 100 d of enrolment, sustained cure (WLZ > −2 SD) could be achieved in only fifteen (30 %) infants, while another fourteen (28 %) recovered from severe wasting, but remained in moderately wasted state (WLZ between −2 and −3 sd). Overall, there were three (6 %) deaths (all during first week of hospitalisation); three (6 %) relapses and fifteen (30 %) defaulters (5, 5, 2, 1 and 2 defaulted during hospitalisation at day 15, day 60, day 75 and day 90, respectively).
The overall recovery rate from severe wasting in infants below 6 months of age was below the acceptable levels. In order to achieve better long-term outcome, community linkage services after discharge from hospital are required for supervised feeding, close monitoring and supportive care.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged from a city in China and has now spread as a global pandemic affecting millions of individuals. The causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is being extensively studied in terms of its genetic epidemiology using genomic approaches. Andhra Pradesh is one of the major states of India with the third-largest number of COVID-19 cases with a limited understanding of its genetic epidemiology. In this study, we have sequenced 293 SARS-CoV-2 genome isolates from Andhra Pradesh with a mean coverage of 13324X. We identified 564 high-quality SARS-CoV-2 variants. A total of 18 variants mapped to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction primer/probe sites, and four variants are known to be associated with an increase in infectivity. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes revealed the circulating SARS-CoV-2 in Andhra Pradesh majorly clustered under the clade A2a (20A, 20B and 20C) (94%), whereas 6% fall under the I/A3i clade, a clade previously defined to be present in large numbers in India. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive genetic epidemiological analysis performed for the state of Andhra Pradesh.
A dual-band 10-port multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antenna array for 5G smartphone is proposed. Each antenna in the MIMO system can work from 3.4 to 3.6 GHz and 5 to 6 GHz with 10 dB (2:1 VSWR) impedance bandwidth. Nevertheless, for a 3:1 VSWR, the antenna operates from 3.3 to 3.8 GHz and 4.67 to 6.24 GHz. The MIMO system is formed by making 10 seven-shaped coupled fed slot antenna elements excited at two different resonant modes and integrated into the system circuit board. By implementing the spatial and polarization diversity techniques, high isolation better than 28 dB between any pair of antenna elements is achieved. The proposed 10-port MIMO antenna array is fabricated and measured. Significant radiation efficiency is obtained, ranging from 65 to 82% for both bands. The antenna gain in the required operating band is substantial, around 3–3.8 dBi. Further, the MIMO parameters such as envelope correlation co-efficient, channel capacity, and total active reflection co-efficient are calculated. The antenna's robustness is estimated by analyzing the user hand effects and specific absorption rate (SAR). The measured results are well agreed with the simulated results.
This chapter considers the importance of evaluation in understanding the effectiveness of your health promotion program and highlights the value of knowing why something does or does not work. It outlines basic evaluation methods used in health promotion, and considers the benefits and weaknesses of qualitative and quantitative methods respectively.
This chapter explores the different models and theories used in health promotion, and considers whether they are aimed at individuals, families, communities or multiple target audiences. The chapter looks at how these theories and models are communicated in health promotion and provides a brief overview of how these can be put into practice in a health promotion setting.
With over 1·3 million Anganwadi centres (AWC) (meaning ‘courtyard shelter’), the Indian government runs a nationwide intervention providing nutrition supplement to pregnant mothers to improve the health of their children. Using two successive rounds of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Family Health Survey data (collected during 2005–2006 and 2015–2016) of India, we assessed whether nutrition supplements given to pregnant mothers through AWC were associated with select child health indicators – extremely low birth weight (ELBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), low birth weight (LBW) and neonatal mortality (death during day 0–27) stratified by death during day 0–1, day 2–6 and day 7–27. A total of 148 019 children and 205 593 children were eligible for analysing birth weight and neonatal mortality, respectively. OR with 95% CI, estimated from multivariate logistic regression models, suggest that receipt of nutrition supplements was associated with decreased risk of VLBW (OR: 0·73, 95% CI 0·63, 0·83, P < 0·001), LBW (OR: 0·92, 95% CI 0·88, 0·96, P < 0·001), but not ELBW (OR: 0·80, 95% CI 0·56, 1·15, P = 0·226). Women who always received nutrition supplements during their pregnancy saw lower risk of death of their neonates (OR: 0·67, 95% CI 0·61, 0·73, P < 0·001), including death on day 0–1 (OR: 0·66, 95% CI 0·58, 0·74, P < 0·001), day 2–6 (OR: 0·69, 95% CI 0·58, 0·82, P < 0·001) and day 7–27 (OR: 0·68, 95% CI 0·53, 0·87, P = 0·002). Therefore, nutritional supplementation to pregnant mothers appears to be helpful in deterring various stages of neonatal mortality, VLBW and LBW, though it might not be effective in mitigating ELBW. Findings were discussed considering possible limitations of the study.
Cable-driven parallel manipulators (CDPMs) offer advantages over traditional parallel manipulators. Though their ability to accelerate is higher than the traditional motion platforms, the capabilities are often not used optimally. The issues of cable slackening (especially at higher accelerations) and the emergence of singularity poses have traditional limitations. This paper analyzes and generates manipulator configurations that reduce the effect of these two essential hindrances of deploying CDPMs. A methodology, inspired by rigid body dynamics of multiple contact problems, used to optimize the positions of attachment points, is shown to be effective.
This study aimed to evaluate and compare simultaneous integrated boost-based volumetric modulated arc therapy (SIB-VMAT) of head-and-neck plans optimised using segmented and non-segmented intermediate-risk target volumes.
Materials and methods:
CT data of 20 patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer treated with radical chemoradiation were included retrospectively. Both segmented [planning target volume (PTV) IR!] and non-segmented PTV (PTV IR) volumes were created for the intermediate-risk volume. Correspondingly, two VMAT plans were generated for every CT dataset. Dosimetry parameters obtained from cumulative dose volume histogram and the quality indices such as conformity and homogeneity indices were evaluated for both plans and were statistically analysed.
Maximum dose of PTV IR! was observed to be higher in the non-segmented plans (7281·45 versus 7075·75 cGy) and was statistically significant (p = 0·002). Homogeneity index (HI) of PTV IR! in segmented plans fared better compared to non-segmented plans (0·1 versus 0·12, p = 0·01). All other dosimetry parameters were found to be similar in both plans.
This study shows that using segmented volumes for planning will lead to more homogenous plans with regard to intermediate- and low-risk volumes, especially under controlled settings.
This study assessed the prevalence and predictors of receiving iron-and-folic-acid (IFA) supplement by male and female adolescents in two north Indian states.
The UDAYA (Understanding the lives of adolescents and young adults in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh) survey dataset was used. Conducted during 2015–2016, UDAYA was a state representative cross-sectional survey. To recruit sample, UDAYA adopted a multi-stage systematic sampling method with a household selection probability proportional to size. Weighted bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were deployed. The variance inflation factor was estimated to check the presence of multicollinearity among variables included in regression model.
The state of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India.
A total of 10 433 individuals from Bihar and 10 161 individuals from Uttar Pradesh were included, totalling 20 594 individuals (male: 5969, female: 14 625) aged 10–19 years.
Overall, 3·6 % (95 % CI: 2·7, 4·7) of males and 4·8 % (95 % CI: 4·0, 5·7) of female adolescents received IFA supplement in preceding 1 year of survey date. Multivariate results indicate that IFA receipt varied with age, and state of residence among males, whereas religion and mother’s education were associated with IFA receipt among females. Irrespective of sex, adolescents living in rural areas had higher odds of receiving IFA supplement than adolescents in urban setting.
Low coverage in receiving IFA supplement among adolescents is a serious concern for the success of anaemia reduction programme. While designing interventions for overall increase in IFA distribution, the socio-economic factors influencing IFA receipt must be considered.