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This paper reviews the status of hollow cathode sputtering as an evolving technology for production of thin-film transparent conducting oxides for PV applications. A large market segment for PV TCOs is represented by thin-film a-Si:H and tandem a-Si:H/nc-Si:H modules. For superstrate devices, textured SnO2:F produced on-line by APCVD is currently the market leader, although alternative off-line methods and materials are now emerging. In particular, zinc oxide can be produced by LPCVD, APCVD, magnetron sputtering, and hollow cathode sputtering (HCS). HCS is a stable process featuring low-cost metal targets and a soft deposition process. We discuss the deposition principles and the film results obtained using linear hollow cathodes 0.5 m and 1.0 m in length. We report the direct deposition of highly textured doped ZnO having an electron mobility in excess of 50 cm2/Vs. The production cost of textured ZnO is estimated for several competing techniques.
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