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Recent evidence from case reports suggests that a ketogenic diet may be effective for bipolar disorder. However, no clinical trials have been conducted to date.
To assess the recruitment and feasibility of a ketogenic diet intervention in bipolar disorder.
Euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder were recruited to a 6–8 week trial of a modified ketogenic diet, and a range of clinical, economic and functional outcome measures were assessed. Study registration number: ISRCTN61613198.
Of 27 recruited participants, 26 commenced and 20 completed the modified ketogenic diet for 6–8 weeks. The outcomes data-set was 95% complete for daily ketone measures, 95% complete for daily glucose measures and 95% complete for daily ecological momentary assessment of symptoms during the intervention period. Mean daily blood ketone readings were 1.3 mmol/L (s.d. = 0.77, median = 1.1) during the intervention period, and 91% of all readings indicated ketosis, suggesting a high degree of adherence to the diet. Over 91% of daily blood glucose readings were within normal range, with 9% indicating mild hypoglycaemia. Eleven minor adverse events were recorded, including fatigue, constipation, drowsiness and hunger. One serious adverse event was reported (euglycemic ketoacidosis in a participant taking SGLT2-inhibitor medication).
The recruitment and retention of euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder to a 6–8 week ketogenic diet intervention was feasible, with high completion rates for outcome measures. The majority of participants reached and maintained ketosis, and adverse events were generally mild and modifiable. A future randomised controlled trial is now warranted.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Adolescence represents a critical period for substance use initiation. Various factors may contribute to trying a sip or single puff of a substance, that could lead to more frequent use. However, less is known about how predictors from multiple domains converge to impact risk for general substance use initiation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study is a multi-site longitudinal study following youth into early adulthood. The present study included 7,644 ABCD children who reported no lifetime substance use (including any experimentation) at baseline (ages 9–10). Our primary aim was to use a random forest classification model to predict binary substance use initiation, defined as trying any non-prescribed substance (e.g., alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, non-prescribed medications), during a 2-year follow-up after baseline. A total of 402 variables from the following categories were examined as predictors: demographics, peer substance use and availability, mental and physical health, culture and environment, biospecimens, neurocognitive functioning, and structural neuroimaging variables. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Over a two-year follow-up, 751 (9.8%) of substance-naÃ¯ve children reported trying a substance by age 11. The most common substance was alcohol, followed by cannabis and tobacco. Mean Decrease Accuracy (MDA) values were used to assess the relative importance of each predictor. The overall accuracy of the model in accurately predicting group membership (no substance use initiation vs. substance use initiation) was 57.66%. Of the top 5 predictors, the most important predictor was intent to use alcohol (MDA = .002). The following top predictors were structural neuroimaging variables: volume and surface area of right lateral occipital lobe (MDA = .0009 and .0008, respectively), surface area of right inferior temporal lobe (MDA = .0007), and surface area of left superior frontal lobe (MDA = .0007). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A combination of intent to use alcohol and structural neuroimaging indices were among the top predictors of substance use initiation. Understanding predictors of early substance use experimentation is important for identifying at-risk youth that may require targeted intervention approaches.
Communities of color have faced disproportionate morbidity and mortality from COVID-19, coupled with historical underrepresentation in US clinical trials, creating challenges for equitable participation in developing and testing a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine.
To increase diversity, including racial and ethnic representation, in local Los Angeles County NIH-sponsored Phase 3 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine clinical trials, we used deliberative community engagement approaches to form a Community Consultant Panel (CCP) that partnered with trial research teams. Thirteen members were recruited, including expertise from essential workers, community-based and faith-based organizations, or leaders from racial and ethnic minority communities.
Working closely with local investigators for the vaccine studies, the CCP provided critical insight on best practices for community trust building, clinical trial participation, and reliable information dissemination regarding COVID-19 vaccines. Modifying recruitment, outreach, and trial protocols led to majority–minority participants (55%–78%) in each of the three vaccine clinical trials. CCP’s input led to cultural tailoring of recruitment materials, changes in recruitment messaging, and supportive services to improve trial accessibility and acceptability (transportation, protocols for cultural competency, and support linkages to care in case of an adverse event). Barriers to clinical trial participation unable to be resolved included childcare, requests for after-hours appointment availability, and mobile locations for trial visits.
Using deliberative community engagement can provide critical and timely insight into the community-centered barriers to COVID-19 vaccine trial participation, including addressing social determinants of health, trust, clinical trial literacy, structural barriers, and identifying trusted messenger and reliable sources of information.
To undertake a technical review of the search interface of the ISPOR Presentations Database. By technical review, we mean an evaluation of the technical aspects of the search interface and functionality, which a user must navigate to complete a search.
A validated checklist (Bethel and Rogers, 2014, Health Info Libr J, 31, 43-53) was used to identify where the interface performed well, where the interface was adequate, where the interface performed poorly, where functionality available in core biomedical bibliographic databases does not exist in the ISPOR database, and to establish a list of any issues arising during the review. Two researchers independently undertook the technical review in October 2021.
The ISPOR database scored 35 of a possible 165 (27/111 essential criteria and 8/54 desirable criteria). Two issues arising were identified, both of which will cause searchers to miss potentially eligible abstracts: (i) that search terms, which include * or ? as truncation or wildcard symbols should not be capitalized (e.g., cost* not Cost*; organi?ation not Organi?ation) and (ii) that quotation marks should be straight sided in phrase searching (e.g., “cost analyses” not “cost analyses”).
The ISPOR database is a promising and free database to identify abstracts/posters presented at ISPOR. We summarize two key issues arising, and we set out proposed changes to the search interface, including: adding the ability to export abstracts to a bibliographic tool, exporting search strategies, adding a researcher account, and updating the help guide. All suggestions will further improve this helpful database.
We surveyed healthcare workers at an urban academic hospital in the United States about their confidence in and knowledge of appropriate personal protective equipment use during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Among 461 respondents, most were confident and knowledgeable about use. Prescribers or nurses and those extremely confident about use were also the most knowledgeable.
We surveyed the shallow-water sponges of Ascension Island using scuba diving. In total, we collected 58 sponge specimens from 17 locations at depths of 0.5–30 m. In addition, we compiled historical records of sponges. We describe nine species new to science: Niphates verityae sp. nov., Petrosia (Petrosia) ernesti sp. nov., Monanchora downesae sp. nov., Svenzea weberorum sp. nov., Erylus williamsae sp. nov., Ircinia nolanae sp. nov., Ircinia richardsoni sp. nov., Ircinia simae sp. nov. and Chondrosia browningorum sp. nov. We provide molecular sequences for three of the new species. We have added 50% to the number of known species and added two new genera and one family to the known Ascension Island sponge fauna. Twenty-six species, from 16 genera, and 13 families, are now reported from Ascension's shallow waters. Many of these may be endemic to the island. We discuss the biogeographic affinities of Ascension Island and emphasize the need for additional survey of the sponge fauna of remote islands such as Ascension.
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted and transformed the lives of many people across the globe. An accurate understanding of the nature of these changes will take a number of years to materialize. What is clear, however, is the way housing has been elevated by the pandemic, not only in the way housing has been utilized by governments mandating populations to remain in their homes, but also in the role our homes play in our lives. It is clear that experiences of lockdown, and associated measures, will have been acutely influenced by housing. In particular, there will be distinct differences in experiences of lockdown depending on the availability of safe, secure, and decent accommodation. It is evident that people most at risk of experiencing the worst impacts of the pandemic, and the steps taken to mitigate the spread of the virus, are those already living with some form of pre-existing vulnerability, inequality, or precarity; in particular those in receipt of benefits, living with long-term conditions, in precarious employment, or those living in insecure housing or with poor housing conditions. As such, it is clear the experiences of people affected by multiple vulnerabilities should be documented and exposed (Gurney, 2020; Holmes et al, 2020; see also Tunstall, Chapter Two; Warnock, Chapter Twelve; Perry et al, Chapter Thirteen).
This chapter presents key findings from new rapid empirical research undertaken within the UK. Drawing on interviews with residents and professionals, we present the concerns, impacts, and lived experiences of respondents dealing with poor-quality housing.
Housing quality in the UK and its impacts
The quality of housing in the UK is variable across tenures and localities. The nature of the poorest-quality housing in the UK has been well established in the literature with data on its prevalence routinely collected as part of annual housing surveys. We are able to ascertain the proportion of dwellings which meet the Decent Homes Standard as recognized by indicators that assess homes for safety, state of repair, access and quality of facilities, and thermal comfort (Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG), 2006). Housing quality issues tend to reside in the private-rented sector (PRS) followed by owner-occupation. Although there are shortcomings in the social housing sector, as a whole social housing is of high quality with the vast majority meeting the Standard.
In March 2020, COVID-19 and its associated restrictions forced a halt to in-person teaching and assessment. To try and mitigate this disruption, the psychiatry undergraduate teaching faculty developed a knowledge based remote curriculum. However, it became clear that our students sorely missed clinical and consultation experience. Prior to the pandemic we had delivered a mock Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to those undertaking their psychiatry block. In Somerset Academy, we wanted to deliver a distanced alternative: the remote mock OSCE (ReMO). We hoped to demonstrate this would be a feasible and valuable learning experience.
In keeping with other OSCEs, ReMO had active stations (4) and a rest station. Four simultaneous Skype meetings were set up as clinical stations, each with an examiner and actor. To test the technology, students and facilitators were emailed links to each meeting in advance, and invited to sign in. Students were given individualised timings to rotate between stations. Stations involved history taking, risk assessment, and management discussions of common psychiatric presentations.
The students then rotated again, receiving personalised feedback about their performance, enabling immediate reflection and consideration of areas for development. This was followed up with written feedback, using examiner completed mark schemes.
After ReMO we invited feedback from medical students and facilitators. 7 out of the 8 medical students that participated completed a post-ReMO survey. 100% of students found ReMO “useful”, with 71% (5/7) rating it an “extremely valuable” experience and 29% (2/7) rating it “fairly valuable”. Students felt it was well organised, realistic, and increased their confidence in remote consultations and OSCE practice. 6 out of 8 facilitators completed feedback on ReMO. 100% felt that ReMO was reproducible and 83% (5/6) rated it as “fairly realistic” when compared to the face-to-face standard.
Firstly, ReMO was feasible. However, it was logistically difficult, requiring extensive organisation to ensure this relatively small group were in the right place at the right time. In future, we would consider alternative platforms such as Zoom, or specific consultation software, such as Attend Anywhere, to reduce the logistics burden and utilise features such as ‘breakout rooms’. We would recommend an allocated co-ordinator to troubleshoot any problems in real time via a group messaging service.
In conclusion, ReMO is achievable and a valuable student learning experience. Since the pilot it has become an integral part of our curriculum. We recommend that all undergraduate Psychiatry faculties consider adding it to their programme.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among patients in a female forensic psychiatric in-patient medium-secure unit, and to analyse the link between ACEs, adulthood self-harm and associated comorbidities and risk factors. The study used a cross-sectional design, with data gathered from the anonymised electronic health records of patients.
It was found that there was a high prevalence of both ACEs and self-harm among this patient group, and that there was a relationship between the two; those with more ACEs were more likely to have self-harmed during adulthood. Of the individual ACE categories, it was also demonstrated that emotional abuse had a significant association with adulthood self-harm.
In medium-secure settings for women, implementation of trauma-informed care will be beneficial because of the high number of those with mental disorders who have experienced adversity during their childhood.
Introduction to Education provides pre-service teachers with an overview of the context, craft and practice of teaching in Australian schools as they commence the journey from learner to classroom teacher. Each chapter poses questions about the nature of teaching students, and guides readers though the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Incorporating recent research and theoretical literature, Introduction to Education presents a critical consideration of the professional, policy and curriculum contexts of teaching in Australia. The book covers theoretical topics in chapters addressing assessment, planning, safe learning environments, and working with colleagues, families, carers and communities. More practical chapters discuss professional experience and building a career after graduation. Rigorous in conception and practical in scope, Introduction to Education welcomes new educators to the theory and practical elements of teaching, learning, and professional practice.