In response to perceived, but unknown variation among the size selection of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) by artisanal gillnetters off Iran, and the need for such data to control exploitation as a precursor to balanced harvesting, the effects of two common mesh sizes (130 and 140 mm stretched mesh opening made from multifilament twine) on catches were investigated over one fishing year (nine months encompassing autumn to spring). Both mesh sizes mostly caught S. commerson at fork lengths (FL) larger than mean sizes at maturity (>67 cm), with the mean size selection incrementally increasing in the 130-mm mesh gillnet from autumn, and especially during spring. The greater selection occurred concurrent with an increasing condition factor (CF) among S. commerson, which typically spawn in late spring/early summer. Conversely, the relative size-selection of the 140-mm mesh gillnet decreased in spring, attributed to increasing CF precluding the capture of larger fish. Such seasonal variation in size selection might be countered by increasing mesh size to ~145 or 150 mm in spring. However, the existing 140-mm mesh might positively affect stock biomass by allowing larger, more fecund fish to avoid capture during spawning. The data support the strong influence of biological and environmental factors on gillnet size selection, which might also extend to other migratory, pelagic species.