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Psychiatry draws widely upon insights from many realms ranging from public health, the social sciences, and the humanities. As psychiatric disorders affect mood, cognition, perception, emotion, and behavior, brain science is recognized as foundational to understanding their pathophysiology. Along with the disciplines of neurology, neurosurgery, and neuroradiology, psychiatry is often regarded as one of the clinical neurosciences.
The number of people over the age of 65 attending Emergency Departments (ED) in the United Kingdom (UK) is increasing. Those who attend with a mental health related problem may be referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. Improving responsiveness and integration of liaison psychiatry in general hospital settings is a national priority. To do this psychiatry teams must be adequately resourced and organised. However, it is unknown how trends in the number of referrals of older people to liaison psychiatry teams by EDs are changing, making this difficult.
We performed a national multi-centre retrospective service evaluation, analysing existing psychiatry referral data from EDs of people over 65. Sites were selected from a convenience sample of older peoples liaison psychiatry departments. Departments from all regions of the UK were invited to participate via the RCPsych liaison and older peoples faculty email distribution lists. From departments who returned data, we combined the date and described trends in the number and rate of referrals over a 7 year period.
Referral data from up to 28 EDs across England and Scotland over a 7 year period were analysed (n = 18828 referrals). There is a general trend towards increasing numbers of older people referred to liaison psychiatry year on year. Rates rose year on year from 1.4 referrals per 1000 ED attenders (>65 years) in 2011 to 4.5 in 2019 . There is inter and intra site variability in referral numbers per 1000 ED attendances between different departments, ranging from 0.1 - 24.3.
To plan an effective healthcare system we need to understand the population it serves, and have appropriate structures and processes within it. The overarching message of this study is clear; older peoples mental health emergencies presenting in ED are common and appear to be increasingly so. Without appropriate investment either in EDs or community mental health services, this is unlikely to improve.
The data also suggest very variable inter-departmental referral rates. It is not possible to establish why rates from one department to another are so different, or whether outcomes for the population they serve are better or worse. The data does however highlight the importance of asking further questions about why the departments are different, and what impact that has on the patients they serve.
Early assessment, diagnosis and management for people living with dementia is essential, both for the patient and their carers. We recognised delays in established local pathways when patients had unplanned acute hospital admissions preventing them from attending memory diagnostic appointments. The Psychiatric Liaison Team (PLT) Memory Pathway was introduced as we had the skills and expertise to resume the process and to find new undetected patients.
Our aim was to determine how well the newly implemented PLT Memory Pathway follows the standards outlined in the National Institute of Health & Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline 97 (CG97): Assessment, management and support for people living with dementia and their carers.
A retrospective analysis of all PLT referrals from July 2018 to February 2020 (20 months) was performed to identify patients on the community memory pathway and those with possible undetected cognitive impairment. Data were collected from electronic patient records which included demographics, primary and collateral history, cognitive testing and imaging, dementia type among others. Results were analysed using Microsoft Excel.
41 patients were included (59% female). 80% of patients were referred for memory problems or confusion. 63% had previous referrals to a memory service and was on the community memory pathway at the time of the referral. 34% were on anticholinergic medication but in only 14% were this documented as reviewed. 100 % were offered and had head imaging. A finding worthy of note was the absence of any from the ethnic minority background. 63% of patients were given a memory diagnosis and 34% had anti-dementia medication started. Patients’ families were made aware of the diagnosis in 83% of cases, due to the absence of next of kin details in the patient record. Primary Care was made aware in 100% of cases; post-diagnostic support was 100%.
The PLT is well placed to bridge the service gap between the acute care trust and established community memory services when dealing with patients with dementia. A dedicated Memory Pathway has helped to close this gap and adherence to NICE CG97 standards was good, but there is room for improvement. A particular focus will be on improving documentation of anticholinergic medication review and exploration for the absence of ethnic minority patients. Aiming to achieve 100% family involvement is also recommended.
This study has been submitted to the Royal College of Psychiatrists' Faculty of Old Age Annual Conference 2021.
The Σ-invariants of Bieri–Neumann–Strebel and Bieri–Renz involve an action of a discrete group G on a geometrically suitable space M. In the early versions, M was always a finite-dimensional Euclidean space on which G acted by translations. A substantial literature exists on this, connecting the invariants to group theory and to tropical geometry (which, actually, Σ-theory anticipated). More recently, we have generalized these invariants to the case where M is a proper CAT(0) space on which G acts by isometries. The “zeroth stage” of this was developed in our paper [BG16]. The present paper provides a higher-dimensional extension of the theory to the “nth stage” for any n.
Lee and Schwarz interpret meta-analytic research and replication studies as providing evidence for the robustness of cleansing effects. We argue that the currently available evidence is unconvincing because (a) publication bias and the opportunistic use of researcher degrees of freedom appear to have inflated meta-analytic effect size estimates, and (b) preregistered replications failed to find any evidence of cleansing effects.
Fast pixelated detectors incorporating direct electron detection (DED) technology are increasingly being regarded as universal detectors for scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), capable of imaging under multiple modes of operation. However, several issues remain around the post-acquisition processing and visualization of the often very large multidimensional STEM datasets produced by them. We discuss these issues and present open source software libraries to enable efficient processing and visualization of such datasets. Throughout, we provide examples of the analysis methodologies presented, utilizing data from a 256 × 256 pixel Medipix3 hybrid DED detector, with a particular focus on the STEM characterization of the structural properties of materials. These include the techniques of virtual detector imaging; higher-order Laue zone analysis; nanobeam electron diffraction; and scanning precession electron diffraction. In the latter, we demonstrate a nanoscale lattice parameter mapping with a fractional precision ≤6 × 10−4 (0.06%).
This is a secondary analysis of clinical trial data collected in 12 European countries. We examined changes in weight and weight-related quality of life among community patients with schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole (ARI) versus standard of care (SOC), consisting of other marketed atypical antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone).
Five-hundred and fifty-five patients whose clinical symptoms were not optimally controlled and/or experienced tolerability problems with current medication were randomized to ARI (10–30 mg/day) or SOC. Weight and weight-related quality of life (using the IWQOL-Lite) were assessed at baseline, and weeks 8, 18 and 26. Random regression analysis across all time points using all available data was used to compare groups on changes in weight and IWQOL-Lite. Meaningful change from baseline was also assessed.
Participants were 59.7% male, with a mean age of 38.5 years (SD 10.9) and mean baseline body mass index of 27.2 (SD 5.1). ARI participants lost an average of 1.7% of baseline weight in comparison to a gain of 2.1% by SOC participants (p < 0.0001) at 26 weeks. ARI participants experienced significantly greater increases in physical function, self-esteem, sexual life, and IWQOL-Lite total score. At 26 weeks, 20.7% of ARI participants experienced meaningful improvements in IWQOL-Lite score, versus 13.5% of SOC participants. A clinically meaningful change in weight was also associated with a meaningful change in quality of life (p < 0.001). A potential limitation of this study was its funding by a pharmaceutical company.
Compared to standard of care, patients with schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole experienced decreased weight and improved weight-related quality of life over 26 weeks. These changes were both statistically and clinically significant.
Given the evidence of multi-parameter risk factors in shaping cognitive outcomes in aging, including sleep, inflammation, cardiometabolism, and mood disorders, multidimensional investigations of their impact on cognition are warranted. We sought to determine the extent to which self-reported sleep disturbances, metabolic syndrome (MetS) factors, cellular inflammation, depressive symptomatology, and diminished physical mobility were associated with cognitive impairment and poorer cognitive performance.
This is a cross-sectional study.
Participants with elevated, well-controlled blood pressure were recruited from the local community for a Tai Chi and healthy-aging intervention study.
One hundred forty-five older adults (72.7 ± 7.9 years old; 66% female), 54 (37%) with evidence of cognitive impairment (CI) based on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score ≤24, underwent medical, psychological, and mood assessments.
CI and cognitive domain performance were assessed using the MoCA. Univariate correlations were computed to determine relationships between risk factors and cognitive outcomes. Bootstrapped logistic regression was used to determine significant predictors of CI risk and linear regression to explore cognitive domains affected by risk factors.
The CI group were slower on the mobility task, satisfied more MetS criteria, and reported poorer sleep than normocognitive individuals (all p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that sleep disturbances, but no other risk factors, predicted increased risk of evidence of CI (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–4.87, 99% CI: 1.08–7.48). Further examination of MoCA cognitive subdomains revealed that sleep disturbances predicted poorer executive function (β = –0.26, 95% CI: –0.51 to –0.06, 99% CI: –0.61 to –0.02), with lesser effects on visuospatial performance (β = –0.20, 95% CI: –0.35 to –0.02, 99% CI: –0.39 to 0.03), and memory (β = –0.29, 95% CI: –0.66 to –0.01, 99% CI: –0.76 to 0.08).
Our results indicate that the deleterious impact of self-reported sleep disturbances on cognitive performance was prominent over other risk factors and illustrate the importance of clinician evaluation of sleep in patients with or at risk of diminished cognitive performance. Future, longitudinal studies implementing a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and objective sleep measurement are warranted to further explore these associations.
Transcatheter stent implantation has been employed to treat re-coarctation of the aorta in adolescents and young adults. The aim of this work is to use computational fluid dynamics to characterise haemodynamics associated with re-coarctation involving an aneurysmal ductal ampulla and aortic isthmus narrowing, which created minimal pressure drop, and to incorporate computational fluid dynamics’s findings into decision-making concerning catheter-directed treatment.
Computational fluid dynamics permits numerically solving the Navier–Stokes equations governing pulsatile flow in the aorta, based on patient-specific data. We determined flow-velocity fields, wall shear stresses, oscillatory shear indices, and particle stream traces, which cannot be ascertained from catheterisation data or magnetic resonance imaging.
Computational fluid dynamics showed that, as flow entered the isthmus, it separated from the aortic wall, and created vortices leading to re-circulating low-velocity flow that induced low and multidirectional wall shear stress, which could sustain platelet-mediated thrombus formation in the ampulla. In contrast, as flow exited the isthmus, it created a jet leading to high-velocity flow that induced high and unidirectional wall shear stress, which could eventually undermine the wall of the descending aorta.
We used computational fluid dynamics to study re-coarctation involving an aneurysmal ductal ampulla and aortic isthmus narrowing. Despite minimal pressure drop, computational fluid dynamics identified flow patterns that would place the patient at risk for: thromboembolic events, rupture of the ampulla, and impaired descending aortic wall integrity. Thus, catheter-directed stenting was undertaken and proved successful. Computational fluid dynamics yielded important information, not only about the case presented, but about the complementary role it can serve in the management of patients with complex aortic arch obstruction.
The traditional living donor was very healthy. However, as the supply-demand gap continues to expand, transplant programs have become more accepting of less healthy donors. This paper focuses on the other extreme, asking whether and when individuals who have life-limiting conditions (LLC) should be considered for living organ donation. We discuss ethical issues raised by 1) donation by individuals with progressive severe debilitating disease for whom there is no ameliorative therapy; and 2) donation by individuals who are imminently dying or would die by the donation process itself.
To describe the epidemiology of surgical site infections (SSIs) after pediatric ambulatory surgery.
Observational cohort study with 60 days follow-up after surgery.
The study took place in 3 ambulatory surgical facilities (ASFs) and 1 hospital-based facility in a single pediatric healthcare network.
Children <18 years undergoing ambulatory surgery were included in the study. Of 19,777 eligible surgical encounters, 8,502 patients were enrolled.
Data were collected through parental interviews and from chart reviews. We assessed 2 outcomes: (1) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN)–defined SSI and (2) evidence of possible infection using a definition developed for this study.
We identified 21 NSHN SSIs for a rate of 2.5 SSIs per 1,000 surgical encounters: 2.9 per 1,000 at the hospital-based facility and 1.6 per 1,000 at the ASFs. After restricting the search to procedures completed at both facilities and adjustment for patient demographics, there was no difference in the risk of NHSN SSI between the 2 types of facilities (odds ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.2–2.3). Within 60 days after surgery, 404 surgical patients had some or strong evidence of possible infection obtained from parental interview and/or chart review (rate, 48 SSIs per 1,000 surgical encounters). Of 306 cases identified through parental interviews, 176 cases (57%) did not have chart documentation. In our multivariable analysis, older age and black race were associated with a reduced risk of possible infection.
The rate of NHSN-defined SSI after pediatric ambulatory surgery was low, although a substantial additional burden of infectious morbidity related to surgery might not have been captured by standard surveillance strategies and definitions.
To integrate electronic clinical decision support tools into clinical practice and to evaluate the impact on indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) use and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs).
Design, Setting, and Participants
This 4-phase observational study included all inpatients at a multicampus, academic medical center between 2011 and 2015.
Phase 1 comprised best practices training and standardization of electronic documentation. Phase 2 comprised real-time electronic tracking of IUC duration. In phase 3, a triggered alert reminded clinicians of IUC duration. In phase 4, a new IUC order (1) introduced automated order expiration and (2) required consideration of alternatives and selection of an appropriate indication.
Overall, 2,121 CAUTIs, 179,070 new catheters, 643,055 catheter days, and 2,186 reinsertions occurred in 3·85 million hospitalized patient days during the study period. The CAUTI rate per 10,000 patient days decreased incrementally in each phase from 9·06 in phase 1 to 1·65 in phase 4 (relative risk [RR], 0·182; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0·153–0·216; P<·001). New catheters per 1,000 patient days declined from 53·4 in phase 1 to 39·5 in phase 4 (RR, 0·740; 95% CI, 0·730; P<·001), and catheter days per 1,000 patient days decreased from 194·5 in phase 1 to 140·7 in phase 4 (RR, 0·723; 95% CI, 0·719–0·728; P<·001). The reinsertion rate declined from 3·66% in phase 1 to 3·25% in phase 4 (RR, 0·894; 95% CI, 0·834–0·959; P=·0017).
The phased introduction of decision support tools was associated with progressive declines in new catheters, total catheter days, and CAUTIs. Clinical decision support tools offer a viable and scalable intervention to target hospital-wide IUC use and hold promise for other quality improvement initiatives.
Singh's cultural evolutionary theory of shamanism is impressive, but it does not explain why some people become shamans while others do not. We propose that individual differences in where people lie on a “psychosis continuum” could play an important causal role.
Boyer & Petersen (B&P) argue that folk-economic beliefs are widespread – shaped by evolved cognitive systems – and they offer exemplar beliefs to illustrate their thesis. In this commentary, we highlight evidence of substantial variation in one of these exemplars: beliefs about immigration. Contra claims by B&P, we argue that the balance of this evidence suggests the “folk” may actually hold positive beliefs about the economic impact of immigration.