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The essence of so-called heterotaxy is the potential disharmony between the arrangement of the bronchuses, abdominal organs, and the atrial appendages. Accurate description of the heart, however, can only be provided by specific description of these features, all of which are readily discernible in the clinical setting. We argue that, when accurate description of the atrial and visceral arrangement is provided, along with appropriate description of the intracardiac findings, no further accuracy is gained by suggesting that an individual heart is “heterotaxic”.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Deutetrabenazine, a novel vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor, is approved by the FDA for treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in adults. Dopamine-receptor antagonists (DRAs) are associated with worsening of metabolic parameters, including weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and elevated blood glucose. This post hoc analysis assessed the short- and long-term effects of deutetrabenazine treatment on weight and metabolic parameters in individuals treated for TD.
Two 12-week, randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of deutetrabenazine for patients with TD evaluated either fixed dosing (AIM-TD; 12, 24, or 36 mg) or dose titration (ARM-TD; max dose, 48 mg/day). Patients completing ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in an open-label extension (OLE) study, in which all patients underwent response-driven titration of deutetrabenazine from 12 mg/day up to a maximum total dose of 48 mg/day. Weight, body mass index (BMI), serum glucose, serum total cholesterol, and serum triglycerides were evaluated at baseline and during treatment in the RCTs and in the OLE.
In the RCTs, 282 and 133 patients received deutetrabenazine or placebo. At baseline, 77% of patients used DRAs. At Week 12, no meaningful changes in weight were observed, with mean (standard error) weight changes of 0.9–1.2 (0.3–0.5) and 0.2 (0.3) kg in the deutetrabenazine and placebo groups, respectively, and mean BMI changes of 0.3–0.5 (0.1–0.2) and 0.1 (0.1) kg/m2. 337 patients were included in the analysis of the OLE study. No meaningful changes were observed in weight (mean change: 0.4 [0.4] kg at Week 54, –0.5 [0.6] kg at Week 106, and –1.1 [0.6] kg at Week 145) or BMI (mean change: 0.1 [0.2] kg/m2 at Week 54, –0.2 [0.2] kg/m2 at Week 106, and –0.3 [0.2] kg/m2 at Week 145). Across the studies, no meaningful changes were observed in triglyceride, cholesterol, or glucose levels.
Deutetrabenazine does not affect common metabolic parameters in patients with TD, even during long-term exposure.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel
The 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies in tardive dyskinesia (TD) patients showed statistically significant improvements in TD symptoms with deutetrabenazine. The completed open-label extension (OLE) study (SD-809-C−20) evaluated long-term efficacy and safety of deutetrabenazine in TD.
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD enrolled in the OLE study, with deutetrabenazine dose titrated based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. Change from baseline in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) score was assessed by local site raters. Treatment success was evaluated locally as patients being “much improved” or “very much improved” on Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC).
343 patients enrolled in the OLE study; 6 patients were excluded from analyses. At Week 54 (n=249; dose [mean±SE]: 38.7±0.66mg/day), mean change from baseline in AIMS score was –4.8±0.28; 66% of patients experienced treatment success. At Week 106 (n=194; dose: 39.3±0.75mg/day), mean change from baseline in AIMS score was –5.4±0.33; 65% of patients experienced treatment success. At Week 145 (n=160; dose: 39.4±0.83mg/day), mean change from baseline in AIMS score was –6.6±0.37; 73% of patients experienced treatment success. Treatment was generally well tolerated across 723 patient-years of exposure through Week 158, and exposure-adjusted incidence rates (incidence/patient-years) for akathisia/restlessness were 0.01, somnolence/sedation were 0.07, and symptoms which may represent parkinsonism or depression were 0.08 each.
Patients who received long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine achieved sustained improvement in AIMS scores. Findings from this open-label trial with response-driven dosing suggest the possibility of increasing benefit over time.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel
Manuscripts pertaining to paediatric cardiology and CHD have been published in a variety of different journals. Some of these journals are journals dedicated to paediatric cardiology, while others are focused on adult cardiology. Historically, it has been considered that manuscripts published in journals devoted to adult cardiology have greater citation potential. Our objective was to compare citation performance between manuscripts related to paediatric cardiology and CHD published in paediatric as opposed to adult cardiology journals.
We identified manuscripts related to paediatric cardiology and CHD published in five journals of interest during 2014. Of these journals, two were primarily concerned with adult cardiology, while the other three focused on paediatric cardiology. The number of citations for these identified manuscripts was gathered from Google Scholar. We compared the number of citations (median, mean, and 25th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles), the potential for citation, and the h-index for the identified manuscripts.
We identified a total of 828 manuscripts related to paediatric cardiology and congenital heart as published in the 5 journals during 2014. Of these, 783 (95%) were published in journals focused on paediatric cardiology, and the remaining 45 (5%) were published in journals focused on adult cardiology. The median number of citations was 41 in the manuscripts published in the journals focused on adult cardiology, as opposed to 7 in journals focused on paediatric cardiology (p < 0.001). The h-index, however, was greater for the journals dedicated to paediatric cardiology (36 versus 27).
Approximately one-twentieth of the work relating to paediatric cardiology and CHD is published in journals that focus predominantly on adult cardiology. The median number of citations is greater when manuscripts concerning paediatric cardiology and CHD are published in these journals focused on adult cardiology. The h-index, however, is higher when the manuscripts are published in journals dedicated to paediatric cardiology. While such publications in journals that focus on adult cardiology tend to generate a greater number of citations than those achieved for works published in specialised paediatric cardiology journals, the potential for citation is no different between the journals. Due to the drastically lower number of manuscripts published in journals dedicated to adult cardiology, however, median performance is different.
Care homes are vulnerable to widespread transmission of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with poor outcomes for staff and residents. Infection control interventions in care homes need to not only be effective in containing the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but also feasible to implement in this special setting which is both a healthcare institution and a home.
We developed an agent-based model that simulates the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 via contacts between individuals, including residents, staff members, and visitors in a care home setting. We explored a representative care home in Scotland in our base case and explore other care home setups in an uncertainty analysis. We evaluated the effectiveness of a range of intervention strategies in controlling the spread of COVID-19.
In the presence of the reference interventions that have been implemented in many care homes, including testing of new admissions, isolation of symptomatic residents, and restricted public visiting, routine testing of staff appears to be the most effective and practical approach. Routine testing of residents is no more effective as a reference strategy while routine testing of both staff and residents only shows a negligible additive effect. Modeling results are very sensitive to transmission probability per contact, but the qualitative finding is robust to varying parameter values in our uncertainty analysis.
Our model predictions suggest that routine testing should target staff in care homes in conjunction with adherence to strict hand hygiene and using personal protective equipment to reduce risk of transmission per contact.
In the accompanying article appearing in this issue of the Journal, Prabhu and his colleagues, from Bengalaru in India, describe their experience with patients having a right aortic arch. They discuss the fact that the anomalous arrangements they encountered can all be interpreted on the basis of the hypothetical double arch proposed by Edwards. They point to the fact that interpretation of the developmental changes underscoring the production of the double arch is currently confused by reference to the so-called Rathke diagram, in which six sets of arteries are shown extending through the mesenchyme of the pharyngeal arches. As the authors point out, Graham and his associates have now shown that the alleged fifth set of pharyngeal arches do not exist. Based on our own observations, we endorse this statement. It means that new explanations must now be provided for the lesions previously described on the basis of persistence of the alleged artery of the fifth pharyngeal arch. We have previously claimed to have observed such an artery in a human fetus. We now believe, on the basis of our latest findings, that our earlier observation is better explained on the basis of presence of a collateral channel. We suggest that the so-called “fifth arch arteries” are themselves then best explained either on the basis of existence of such collateral channels, or remodelling of the aortic sac, which is the manifold, during development, that gives rise to the pharyngeal arch arteries.
Glacier basal motion is responsible for the majority of ice flux on fast-flowing glaciers, enables rapid changes in glacier motion and provides the means by which glaciers shape alpine landscapes. In an effort to enhance our understanding of basal motion, we investigate the evolution of glacier velocity and ice-marginal lake stage on Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, during the spring–summer transition, a time when subglacial drainage is undergoing rapid change. A complicated record of > 50 m fill-and-drain sequences on a hydraulically-connected ice-marginal lake likely reflects the punctuated establishment of efficient subglacial drainage as the melt season begins. The rate of change of lake stage generally correlates with diurnal velocity maxima, both in timing and magnitude. At the seasonal scale, the up-glacier progression of enhanced summer basal motion promotes uniformity of daily glacier velocity fluctuations throughout the 10 km study reach, and results in diurnal velocity patterns suggesting increasingly efficient meltwater delivery to and drainage from the subglacial channel system. Our findings suggest the potential of using an ice-marginal lake as a proxy for subglacial water pressure, and show how widespread basal motion affects bulk glacier behavior.
Deutetrabenazine (Austedo) is approved by the FDA for treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in adults. In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, deutetrabenazine showed clinically significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores compared with placebo, and there were low rates of overall adverse events (AEs) and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of deutetrabenazine in patients with TD at 3 years.
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12 mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48 mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration period and a long-term maintenance phase. Safety measures included incidence of AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), and AEs leading to withdrawal, dose reduction, or dose suspension. Exposure-adjusted incidence rates (EAIRs; incidence/patient-years) were used for calculating AE frequencies. This analysis reports results up to Week 158.
A total of 343 patients were enrolled (111 received placebo and 232 received deutetrabenazine in the parent studies). At the time of this analysis, 183 patients were still receiving treatment; 259 completed 1 year, 172 completed 2 years, and 41 completed 3 years. There were 623 patient-years of exposure. More than 40% of patients reached the maximum dose. EAIRs of AEs were comparable to or lower than those observed in the ARM-TD and AIM-TD short-term randomized trials of deutetrabenazine vs. placebo. The frequency of SAEs (EAIR 0.10) was similar to that observed with short-term placebo (0.33) and short-term deutetrabenazine (range 0.06–0.33) treatment. AEs leading to withdrawal (0.06), dose reduction (0.10), and dose suspension (0.05) were uncommon.
These results support the safety outcomes observed in the ARM-TD and AIM-TD parent studies and the safety of deutetrabenazine for long-term use in patients with TD.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was funded by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies evaluating deutetrabenazine for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD), the percentage of patients achieving ≥50% response was higher in the deutetrabenazine-treated group than in the placebo group. These studies also showed low rates of overall adverse events (AEs) and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine. The current open-label study evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of deutetrabenazine in patients with TD.
Patients with TD who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD could enroll in this open-label, single-arm extension study, titrating up over 6 weeks to a maximum total daily dose of deutetrabenazine 48 mg/day on the basis of dyskinesia control and tolerability. The proportion of Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS; items 1-7) responders was assessed based on response rates for achieving ≥50% improvement from baseline in the open-label extension study. AlMS score was assessed by local site raters for this analysis.
343 patients enrolled in the extension study. At Week 54 (n=249; total daily dose [mean ± standard error]: 38.6±0.66 mg), the mean percentage change from baseline in AIMS score was –40%; 48% of patients achieved a ≥50% response and 59% of those had already achieved a ≥50% response at Week 15. Further, 34% of those who had not achieved a ≥50% response at Week 15 achieved a ≥50% response at Week 54. At Week 106 (n=169; total daily dose: 39.6±0.77 mg), the mean percentage change from baseline in AIMS score was –45%; 55% of patients achieved a ≥50% response, 59% of those patients had already achieved a ≥50% response at Week 15, and 41% of those who had not achieved a ≥50% response at Week 15 but who reached Week 106 achieved a ≥50% response. At Week 132 (n=109; total daily dose: 39.7±0.97 mg), the mean percentage change from baseline in AIMS score was –61%; 55% of patients achieved a ≥50% response, 61% of those patients had already achieved a ≥50% response at Week 15, and 43% of those who had not achieved a ≥50% response at Week 15 but who reached Week 132 achieved a ≥50% response. Completer analysis suggests that long-term efficacy was not due to dose increases over time. Treatment with deutetrabenazine was generally well tolerated. There were 623 patient-years of exposure through Week 158, and exposure-adjusted incidence rates (incidence/patient-years) of adverse events of special interest were 0.01 for akathisia and restlessness, 0.07 for somnolence and sedation, 0.04 for parkinsonism, and 0.05 for depression.
Patients who received long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine achieved response rates that were indicative of clinically meaningful long-term benefit. Results from this open-label trial suggest the possibility of increasing benefit over time with individual dose titration of deutetrabenazine.
This study was funded by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) results from exposure to dopamine-receptor antagonists (DRAs), such as typical and atypical antipsychotics. Clinicians commonly manage TD by reducing the dose of or stopping the causative agent; however, this may cause psychiatric relapse and worsen quality of life. In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD trials, deutetrabenazine demonstrated statistically significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores versus placebo and was generally well tolerated, regardless of baseline DRA use or comorbidities.
To evaluate the impact of underlying disease and current DRA use on efficacy and safety of long-term therapy of deutetrabenazine in patients with TD.
Patients with TD who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were eligible to enter this open-label, single-arm, long-term extension after completing the 1-week washout period and final evaluation in the blinded portion of the trial. Change in AIMS scores from baseline to Week 54 and patients “Much Improved” or “Very Much Improved” (treatment success) on the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) and Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) at Week 54 were analyzed by baseline psychiatric illness type, including mood disorders (bipolar disorder/depression/other) or psychotic disorders (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder), and presence or absence of current DRA use.
At Week 54, meaningful improvements from baseline in mean (standard error) AIMS scores were observed for patients with baseline mood disorders (–5.2[0.93]) and psychotic disorders (–5.0[0.63]), and in patients currently using DRAs (–4.6[0.54]) or not using DRAs (–6.4[1.27]). Most patients with mood disorders (73%) and psychotic disorders (71%) were “Much Improved” or “Very Much Improved” on CGIC at Week 54, similar to patients currently using (71%) or not using (74%) DRAs. The majority of patients with mood disorders (62%) and psychotic disorders (57%), as well as patients currently using (58%) or not using (63%) DRAs, were also “Much Improved” or “Very Much Improved” on PGIC at Week 54. Prior treatment in ARM-TD and AIM-TD did not impact the long-term treatment response. Underlying psychiatric disorder and concomitant DRA use did not impact the occurrence of adverse events (AEs). The frequencies of dose reductions, dose suspensions, and withdrawals due to AEs were low, regardless of baseline psychiatric comorbidities and DRAuse.
Long-term deutetrabenazine treatment demonstrated meaningful improvements in abnormal movements in TD patients, which were recognized by clinicians and patients, regardless of underlying psychiatric illness or DRAuse.
Presented at: American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting; May 5–9, 2018, New York, New York, USA
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel.
To evaluate long-term efficacy of deutetrabenazine in patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) by examining response rates from baseline in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores. Preliminary results of the responder analysis are reported in this analysis.
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, the odds of response to deutetrabenazine treatment were higher than the odds of response to placebo at all response levels, and there were low rates of overall adverse events and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine.
Patients with TD who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration and a long-term maintenance phase. The cumulative proportion of AIMS responders from baseline was assessed. Response was defined as a percent improvement from baseline for each patient from 10% to 90% in 10% increments. AlMS score was assessed by local site ratings for this analysis.
343 patients enrolled in the extension study (111 patients received placebo in the parent study and 232 patients received deutetrabenazine). At Week 54 (n=145; total daily dose [mean±standard error]: 38.1±0.9mg), 63% of patients receiving deutetrabenazine achieved ≥30% response, 48% of patients achieved ≥50% response, and 26% achieved ≥70% response. At Week 80 (n=66; total daily dose: 38.6±1.1mg), 76% of patients achieved ≥30% response, 59% of patients achieved ≥50% response, and 36% achieved ≥70% response. Treatment was generally well tolerated.
Patients who received long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine achieved response rates higher than those observed in positive short-term studies, indicating clinically meaningful long-term treatment benefit.
Presented at: American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting; April 21–27, 2018, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel.