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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged from a city in China and has now spread as a global pandemic affecting millions of individuals. The causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is being extensively studied in terms of its genetic epidemiology using genomic approaches. Andhra Pradesh is one of the major states of India with the third-largest number of COVID-19 cases with a limited understanding of its genetic epidemiology. In this study, we have sequenced 293 SARS-CoV-2 genome isolates from Andhra Pradesh with a mean coverage of 13324X. We identified 564 high-quality SARS-CoV-2 variants. A total of 18 variants mapped to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction primer/probe sites, and four variants are known to be associated with an increase in infectivity. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes revealed the circulating SARS-CoV-2 in Andhra Pradesh majorly clustered under the clade A2a (20A, 20B and 20C) (94%), whereas 6% fall under the I/A3i clade, a clade previously defined to be present in large numbers in India. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive genetic epidemiological analysis performed for the state of Andhra Pradesh.
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has stressed the US health care system in unprecedented ways. In March and April 2020, emergency departments (EDs) throughout New York City experienced high volumes and acuity related to the pandemic. Here, we present a structured after-action report of a coalition of 9 EDs within a hospital system in the New York City metropolitan area, with an emphasis on best practices developed during the prolonged surge as well as specific opportunities for growth. We report our experience in 6 key areas using a framework built around lessons learned. This report represents the most salient concepts related to our institutional after-action report, and those seemingly most relevant to our peer institutions dealing with similar circumstances.
This study examined the hypothesis that xanthosine (XS) treatment would promote mammary-specific gene expression and stem cell transcripts and have a positive influence on milk yield of dairy goats. Seven primiparous Beetal goats were assigned to the study. Five days after kidding, one gland (either left or right) was infused with XS (TRT) twice daily for 3 d and the other gland with no XS infusion served as a control (CON). Mammary biopsies were collected at 10 d and RNA was isolated. Gene expression analysis of milk synthesis genes, mammary stem/progenitor cell markers, cell proliferation and differentiation markers were performed using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Results showed that the transcripts of milk synthesis genes (BLG4, CSN2, LALBA, FABP3, CD36) and mammary stem/progenitor cell markers (ALDH1 and NR5A2) were increased in as a result of XS treatment. Average milk yield in TRT glands was increased marginally (approximately ~2% P = 0·05, paired t-test) per gland relative to CON gland until 7 wk. After 7 wk, milk yield of TRT and CON glands did not differ. Analysis of milk composition revealed that protein, lactose, fat and solids-not-fat percentages remained the same in TRT and CON glands. These results suggest that XS increases expression of milk synthesis genes, mammary stem/progenitor cells and has a small effect on milk yield.
An integrated reconfigurable antenna capable of spectrum sensing along with various reconfiguration features such as polarization, frequency, bandwidth, and radiation pattern is proposed here. The proposed antenna senses the spectrum by UWB antenna from 2 to 11 GHz to identify the spectrum conditions. After identifying the direction of maximum traffic or interference, the proposed antenna accordingly reconfigures its radiation pattern in order to mitigate the interference using switchable shorting posts. The antenna can reconfigure its polarization state using a switchable slot in the circular antenna. Frequency reconfigurability is obtained by using a varactor diode from 2 to 4 GHz. The antenna can reconfigure its bandwidth from UWB to NB by switching the active ports state. Measured and simulated results of the proposed antenna shows very good agreement, hence, validating the proposed design.
Food group guideline adherence is vital to prevent obesity and diabetes. Various studies have demonstrated that environmental variables influence food intake behaviour. In the present study we examined the effect of a portion design plate with food group portion guidelines demarcated by coloured lines (ETE Plate™). A two-group quasi-experimental design was used to measure proportions of carbohydrate, vegetable and protein portions and user experience in a hospital staff lounge setting in Singapore. Lunch was served on the portion design plate before 12.15 hours. For comparison, a normal plate (without markings) was used after 12.15 hours. Changes in proportions of food groups from 2 months before the introduction of the design plate were analysed in a stratified sample at baseline (859 subjects, all on normal plates) to 1, 3 and 6 months after (in all 1016 subjects on the design plate, 968 subjects on the control plate). A total of 151 participants were asked about their experiences and opinions. Between-group comparisons were performed using t tests. Among those served on the portion design plate at 6 months after its introduction, the proportion of vegetables was 4·71 % (P < 0·001) higher and that of carbohydrates 2·83 % (P < 0·001) lower relative to the baseline. No significant change was found for proteins (−1·85 %). Over 6 months, we observed different change patterns between the different food group proportions. While participants were positive about the portion design plate, they did not think it would influence their personal behaviour. A portion design plate might stimulate food group guideline adherence among hospital staff and beyond.
We studied three interplanetary coronal mass ejections associated with solar eruptive filaments. Filament plasma remnants embedded in these structures were identified using plasma, magnetic and compositional signatures. These features when impacted the Earth's terrestrial magnetosphere - ionosphere system, resulted in geomagnetic storms. During the main phase of associated storms, along with high density plasma structures, polarity reversals in the Y-component (dawn-to-dusk) of the interplanetary electric field seem to trigger major auroral substorms with concomitant changes in the polar ionospheric electric field. Here, we examine the cases where plasma dynamics and magnetic structuring in the presence of the prompt penetration of the electric field into the equatorial ionosphere affected the space weather while highlighting the complex geomagnetic storm-substorm relationship.
On 5 January 2005, SoHO/LASCO observed two CMEs associated with eruptive filaments with different initial velocities and acceleration. The second CME accelerates much faster than the previous and the resulting interaction has been revealed in in-situ spacecraft measurements by the presence of magnetic holes at the border of the two distinct magnetic clouds. At their interface region, these magnetic clouds have embedded filament plasma that shows complex magnetic structures with a distinct magnetic flux rope configuration; these have been modeled by the Grad - Shafranov reconstruction technique. The geomagnetic consequences of these structures have been associated with substorms in recovery phase of a storm and detailed analysis is presented in Sharma et al. (2013). In the present paper, we highlight the comparison of shape and extent of two filament plasma remnants in magnetic clouds as revealed by three - dimensional (3D) reconstruction and analysis from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) data. The results provide an overview of the two eruptive filaments on 5 January 2005 and their interplanetary propagation.
The flow around six in-line square cylinders has been studied numerically and experimentally for and , where is the surface-to-surface distance between two cylinders, is the size of the cylinder and is the Reynolds number. The effect of spacing on the flow regimes is initially studied numerically at for which a synchronous flow regime is observed for , while quasi-periodic-I, quasi-periodic-II and chaotic regimes occur between , and , respectively. These regimes have been confirmed via particle-image-velocimetry-based experiments. A flow regime map is proposed as a function of spacing and Reynolds number. The flow is predominantly quasi-periodic-II or chaotic at higher Reynolds numbers. The quasi-periodic and chaotic nature of the flow is due to the wake interference effect of the upstream cylinders which becomes more severe at higher Reynolds numbers. The appearance of flow regimes is opposite to that for a row of cylinders. The Strouhal number for vortex shedding is the same for all the cylinders, especially for synchronous and quasi-periodic-I flow regimes. The mean drag () experienced by the cylinders is less than that for an isolated cylinder, irrespective of the spacing. The first cylinder is relatively insensitive to the presence of downstream cylinders and the is almost constant at 1.2. The for the second and third cylinders may be negative, with the value of increasing monotonically with spacing. The changes in root mean square lift coefficient are consistent with changes in . Interestingly, the instantaneous lift force can be larger than the instantaneous drag force on the cylinders. These results should help improve understanding of flow around multiple bluff bodies.
Sandeep Prabhu, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia,
Rahul Sharma, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia,
Karlheinz Peter, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Platelets are key blood components with a physiological role in the initiation of endogenous haemostasis and effective endothelial repair following vascular injury. Platelets are responsible for the initiation of a series of complex interactions culminating in platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. As such, key platelet functions, such as adherence, activation, aggregation and interaction with coagulation factors, operate in the context of a complex and balanced interplay of receptors and mediators that ensure this process is controlled and specifically targeted to areas of vascular injury. However, in disease states, such as atherosclerosis, the abnormal initiation of platelet functions also contributes to the pathogenesis and propagation of vascular disease. Consequently, targeted therapeutic inhibition of platelets has demonstrated an important clinical role in situations of both pathological and iatrogenic vascular injury, such as atherosclerosis and angioplasty. This chapter will firstly outline the relevant platelet receptors, their agonists and other important structural platelet components and their role in platelet function. Secondly, it will outline the role of these functions in the pathogenesis and propagation of vascular disease. Finally, the mechanism of therapeutic anti-platelet agents will be reviewed along with a description of currently used methods to assess platelet function.
PLATELET FUNCTION – ADHESION AND ACTIVATION
Platelets are enucleated cytoplasmic fragments of bone marrow megakaryocytes with a limited capacity for protein synthesis. Although lacking DNA, platelets do contain megakarocyte mRNA along with components necessary for protein synthesis, and are capable of performing nuclear functions such as pre-RNA splicing.
Zymography is an electrophoretic technique by which enzyme activity can be visualized directly on a polyacrylamide gel as discrete bands. A modified, more rapid technique for amylase zymography is described and compared with previously published methods. Whereas previous methods are based on 0.1 M acetate buffer as substrate buffer, our method utilizes 50mM Tris buffer containing Ca2+, Na+, NaN3 and Triton X-100 which helps rapid hydrolysis of the starch and stabilization of the enzyme. The staining procedure, previously requiring overnight incubation of the gel in iodine solution at 4 °C, has been reduced to 5 min at room temperature. Both methods gave rise to comparable levels of enzyme activity on polyacrylamide gels. Our modified method requires 8 h to complete the whole zymographical procedure instead of 18-20 h as in previous methods.
Name of fungi:Aphanoascus, Arthroderma, Auxarthron, Ctenomyces, Gymnoascus (Ascomycota: Onygenales)
Introduction: features of interest
Members of the order Onygenales produce asci within gymnothecia, which consist of a mesh of rigid interlinked hyphae. Highly characteristic appendages are often present; they may be straight or curved and branched or unbranched, and they are an important character for identification of species and genera (Currah, 1985). Despite the striking appearance of the gymnothecial appendages, their ecological role is poorly understood at present. Together with the rigid hyphae of the gymnothecium, they may protect the asci from attack by mites (Summerbell, 2000), and they may also aid dispersal by attaching the gymnothecium to the fur of small mammals. Many Onygenales producing appendages are found in the burrows of animals and feed on their hair (keratin).
High density, metal particle recording media consists of micron-sized iron particles in a polyurethane based polymer binder. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the particles, two new amine-quinone (AQ) polymers, AQPU15 and AQPU100, have been investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of iron substrates coated with two different thicknesses of each polymer. Results showed that the AQ polymers provide better protection compared with commercial polyurethane. The nature of the interaction at the polymer/metal interface has been investigated by FTIR-RA and XPS, which indicate that bonding probably occurs through the n system of the AQ functional group and the nitrogen of the soft segment, and through the quinone carbonyl functional group.
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