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In this project, an attempt is made to estimate the costs and benefits of managing forested catchments in Malaysia. Three land use options are simulated for four selected catchments in the Hulu Langat Forest Reserves (HLFR), Selangor, Malaysia. These options are no logging or catchment protection (CP), reduced impact logging (RIL) and conventional logging (CL). The potential sedimentation impacts of each option on the dam and water intake ponds in the catchments are calculated. The benefits derived from logging, hydro-electric power (HEP) generation and the water regulatory dam for water treatment and the external costs emanating from the sedimentation under the three options are estimated. The computations are based on data collected from previous studies conducted in adjacent areas with similar hydrological parameters, secondary data from published reports by various departmental agencies and from on-site personnel surveys.
mechanism of general flowering in Dipterocarpaceae in the Malay
Peninsula is revealed through field survey and meteorological data
analyses. The regions of general flowering coincide with those which
experienced a low night-time temperature (LNT) c. 2 mo before
flowering. This supports the hypothesis that low air temperature induces
the development of floral buds of dipterocarps. LNT was found to be
caused by radiative cooling during dry spells in winter when the
northern subtropical ridge (STR) occasionally migrates southwards with a
dry air mass into the equatorial region. LNT events usually occur in La
Niña episodes, not in El Niño episodes as believed
previously. This is because the southward migration of the STR is
associated with the intensification of local meridional Hadley
Circulation in the western Pacific, which is strengthened in a La
Niña episode. Results suggest that El Niño-like climate
change in increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations may be
critical for the tropical rain forest biome in south-east Asia.
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