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In this presentation, results of our recent investigations on the role of Ga on Al site in Zr69.5Al7.5-xGaxCu12Ni11 and Ce75Al25-xGax metallic glass compositions will be discussed. Ga like Al is normally expected to be in trivalent state. However, it may go in monovalent state depending on other alloying elements. The rapidly solidified melt spun ribbons of above two alloys gave rise to two important conclusions. The Zr69.5Al7.5-xGaxCu12Ni11 system displayed metallic glass formation in the range of x=0 to 7.5. In this process, we have come out with a new composition of glass without Al corresponding to x=7.5. In contrast to the above, for Ce-Al(Ga) system, we have observed phase separation in glass after dilute substitution of Ga. It seems that such a phase separation in this system cannot be understood in terms of summation of enthalpy of mixing of the various possible binaries in this system. The substitution of Ga in different valence states might have created chemical pressure leading to creation of two types of distinct major clusters. The phase separation may be due to this. This has also given rise to excursion of Ce 4f-states of the alloy. This and aforesaid ‘chemical pressure’ will be corroborated based on results of binary Ce-Al system under pressure by other investigators.
In vitro trials investigating the effects of albendazole and triclabendazole anthelmintics on the growth profiles of the egg-parasitic fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium were undertaken. In addition, in vivo trials were conducted in goats fed on millet grain cultures of each fungus and administered albendazole and triclabendazole anthelmintics. In vitro growth revealed V. chlamydosporium to be more sensitive to albendazole compared to P. lilacinus. In contrast, triclabendazole had the least inhibitory effect on in vitro growth of both P. lilacinus and V. chlamydosporium. Similar to albendazole, growth of P. lilacinus was more vigorous at 0.5 ppm concentration of triclabendazole. Efforts to re-isolate these egg-parasitic fungi from faeces of goats fed on fungal millet grain cultures before and following single intraruminal administration of albendazole and triclabendazole showed that P. lilacinus was not able to be re-isolated from the faeces at any sampling period. In contrast, V. chlamydosporium was able to be re-isolated from the faeces at all of the sampling periods except for the samples taken at 8–18 h and 18–24 h after administration of albendazole and triclabendazole, respectively. Lack of fungal activity at these times coincided with peak plasma availability of anthelmintics and suggests faecal levels of drugs were also high at these times and impacted negatively on fungal viability.
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