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In different parts of the world, aphid populations and their natural enemies are influenced by landscapes and climate. In the Neotropical region, few long-term studies have been conducted, maintaining a gap for comprehension of the effect of meteorological variables on aphid population patterns and their parasitoids in field conditions. This study describes the general patterns of oscillation in cereal winged aphids and their parasitoids, selecting meteorological variables and evaluating their effects on these insects. Aphids exhibit two annual peaks, one in summer–fall transition and the other in winter-spring transition. For parasitoids, the highest annual peak takes place during winter and a second peak occurs in winter–spring transition. Temperature was the principal meteorological regulator of population fluctuation in winged aphids and parasitoids during the year. The favorable temperature range is not the same for aphids and parasitoids. For aphids, temperature increase resulted in population growth, with maximum positive effect at 25°C. Temperature also positively influenced parasitoid populations, but the growth was asymptotic around 20°C. Although rainfall showed no regulatory function on aphid seasonality, it influenced the final number of insects over the year. The response of aphids and parasitoids to temperature has implications for trophic compatibility and regulation of their populations. Such functions should be taken into account in predictive models.
Eating Disorders are a frequent pathology, particularly among teenagers, a group characterized by its vulnerability and body dissatisfaction. Social networks (SN) can be a gateway to ED, mainly with Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia resources. Despite the aforementioned, SN can also be helpful for professionals, either as a tool of approach to vulnerable groups or as a way of interaction in patients already diagnosed.
To study the relationship between ED and SN, using the open access evidence available in Pubmed over the last 5 years.
A single-phase computerised search was carried out in Pubmed. The search terms were: (“Anorexia Nervosa”[Mesh] OR “Bulimia Nervosa”[Mesh] OR “Feeding and Eating Disorders”[Mesh] OR “Eating Disorders”[Tiab] OR “Eating Disorder”[Tiab] OR “Disorder, Eating”[Tiab] OR “Disorders, Eating”[Tiab] OR “Anorexia”[Tiab] OR “Bulimia”[Tiab]) AND (“blogging”[Mesh] OR “social media”[Mesh]). The filters applied were: “free Full Text” and publications for the last 5 years.
36.84% studied SN as a positive tool for ED. 47.37% revealed negative influence, only 44.44% focused on Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia. 15.79% provided both positive and negative arguments. The most studied SN were Twitter and Facebook.
Despite the known negative effect that SN can have on ED, they can also be used as a supportive recovery framework. They can be used to identify dangerous behaviours and intervene or as a prevention tool.
The franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a coastal dolphin endemic to the western South Atlantic Ocean. The dolphin is listed as vulnerable in the IUCN Red List, with incidental catches in gillnet fisheries the greatest conservation concern for this species. Insights into the feeding habits of this dolphin are essential to understand its distribution, movements and use of habitat, which are fundamental for effective management of the species. The feeding habits of franciscana dolphins were investigated from analyses of stomach contents of animals incidentally caught by two fishing operations from southern and northern regions of the southern Brazilian coast. In this study we investigate the existence of intrapopulation (sexual maturity and sex-related) variation in the diet of the franciscana dolphin, evaluating the spatial (northern and southern geographic areas) and seasonal influences. The analyses were based on Linear and Generalized Linear Models (LM and GLM). The majority of identified prey species were bottom-dwelling teleosts and the squid Doryteuthis sanpaulensis. The most important prey differed spatially and seasonally between northern and southern regions of the study area, and our results revealed significant differences between sexes and sexual maturity stages, mainly related to prey species sizes. This variation might indicate differences in prey selection, availability or habitat use patterns among these groups. In any case, these dietary differences are likely to minimize intraspecific competition for food resources, and/or indicate spatio-temporal variation in prey availability.
Temperature may regulate seed dormancy and germination and determine the geographical distribution of species. The present study investigated the thermal limits for seed germination of Polygonum ferrugineum (Polygonaceae), an aquatic emergent herb distributed throughout tropical and subtropical America. Seed germination responses to light and temperature were evaluated both before (control) and after stratification at 10, 15 and 20°C for 7, 14 and 28 d. Germination of control seeds was ~50% at 10 and 15°C, and they did not germinate from 20 to 30°C. The best stratification treatment was 7 d at 10°C, where seed germination was >76% in the dark for all temperatures, except at 30°C, and < 60% in light conditions. A thermal time approach was applied to the seed germination results. Base temperature (Tb) was 6.3°C for non-dormant seeds and optimal temperature (To) was 20.6°C, ceiling temperature (Tc (<50)) was 32.8°C, and thermal time requirement for 50% germination was 44.4°Cd. We concluded that a fraction of P. ferrugineum seeds is dormant, has a narrow thermal niche to germinate (10 and 15°C) and that cold stratification (10°C) alleviated dormancy and amplified the thermal range permissive for germination of the species. Consequently, P. ferrugineum is expected to occur in colder environments, for example, at high altitudes. Higher temperatures decrease the probabilities of alleviate dormancy and the ability of their seeds to germinate.
Perceived discrimination is associated with worse mental health. Few studies have assessed whether perceived discrimination (i) is associated with the risk of psychotic disorders and (ii) contributes to an increased risk among minority ethnic groups relative to the ethnic majority.
We used data from the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions Work Package 2, a population-based case−control study of incident psychotic disorders in 17 catchment sites across six countries. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between perceived discrimination and psychosis using mixed-effects logistic regression models. We used stratified and mediation analyses to explore differences for minority ethnic groups.
Reporting any perceived experience of major discrimination (e.g. unfair treatment by police, not getting hired) was higher in cases than controls (41.8% v. 34.2%). Pervasive experiences of discrimination (≥3 types) were also higher in cases than controls (11.3% v. 5.5%). In fully adjusted models, the odds of psychosis were 1.20 (95% CI 0.91–1.59) for any discrimination and 1.79 (95% CI 1.19–1.59) for pervasive discrimination compared with no discrimination. In stratified analyses, the magnitude of association for pervasive experiences of discrimination appeared stronger for minority ethnic groups (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12–2.68) than the ethnic majority (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 0.65–3.10). In exploratory mediation analysis, pervasive discrimination minimally explained excess risk among minority ethnic groups (5.1%).
Pervasive experiences of discrimination are associated with slightly increased odds of psychotic disorders and may minimally help explain excess risk for minority ethnic groups.
The objective of this study was to analyse the dynamics of spatial dispersion of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Brazil by correlating them to socioeconomic indicators. This is an ecological study of COVID-19 cases and deaths between 26 February and 31 July 2020. All Brazilian counties were used as units of analysis. The incidence, mortality, Bayesian incidence and mortality rates, global and local Moran indices were calculated. A geographic weighted regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between incidence and mortality due to COVID-19 and socioeconomic indicators (independent variables). There were confirmed 2 662 485 cases of COVID-19 reported in Brazil from February to July 2020 with higher rates of incidence in the north and northeast. The Moran global index of incidence rate (0.50, P = 0.01) and mortality (0.45 with P = 0.01) indicate a positive spatial autocorrelation with high standards in the north, northeast and in the largest urban centres between cities in the southeast region. In the same period, there were 92 475 deaths from COVID-19, with higher mortality rates in the northern states of Brazil, mainly Amazonas, Pará and Amapá. The results show that there is a geospatial correlation of COVID-19 in large urban centres and regions with the lowest human development index in the country. In the geographic weighted regression, it was possible to identify that the percentage of people living in residences with density higher than 2 per dormitory, the municipality human development index (MHDI) and the social vulnerability index were the indicators that most contributed to explaining incidence, social development index and the municipality human development index contributed the most to the mortality model. We hope that the findings will contribute to reorienting public health responses to combat COVID-19 in Brazil, the new epicentre of the disease in South America, as well as in other countries that have similar epidemiological and health characteristics to those in Brazil.
Strenuous physical activity, sleep deprivation and psychological stress are common features of military field training. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with a synbiotic ice cream on salivary IgA, gastrointestinal symptoms, well-being indicators and gut microbiota in young military participants undergoing field training. Sixty-five military completed the study: one group was supplemented for 30 d with synbiotic ice cream containing: 2·1 × 108 CFU/g for Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and 2·7 × 109 CFU/g for Bifidobacterium animalis BB-12 and 2·3 g of inulin in the 60 g of ice cream at manufacture, and the other with a placebo ice cream. Volunteers were evaluated at pre-supplementation (baseline), post-supplementation and after a 5-d military training. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera were measured in stool samples and both showed a higher differential abundance post-supplementation and training. Salivary IgA and gastrointestinal symptoms decreased at post-training in both groups (P < 0·05; main effect of time); however, supplementation with synbiotic did not mitigate this effect. Tenseness and sleepiness were decreased in the synbiotic-treated group, but not in the placebo group at post-military training (P = 0·01 and 0·009, respectively; group × time effect). The other well-being indicators were not affected by the synbiotic supplementation. In conclusion, 30 d of synbiotic ice cream supplementation containing inulin, L. acidophilus LA-5 and B. animalis BB-12 favourably modulated gut microbiota and improved tenseness and sleepiness in healthy young military undergoing a 5-d field training. These improvements may be relevant to this population as they may influence the decision-making process in an environment of high physical and psychological stress.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
Aggressive behaviour is a highly prevalent and devastating condition in autism spectrum disorder resulting in impoverished quality of life. Gold-standard therapies are ineffective in about 30% of patients leading to greater suffering. We investigated cortical thickness in individuals with autism spectrum disorder with pharmacological-treatment-refractory aggressive behaviour compared with those with non-refractory aggressive behaviour and observed a brain-wide pattern of local increased thickness in key areas related to emotional control and overall decreased cortical thickness in those with refractory aggressive behaviour, suggesting refractoriness could be related to specific morphological patterns. Elucidating the neurobiology of refractory aggressive behaviour is crucial to provide insights and potential avenues for new interventions.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cactus (Opuntia spp) levels in total mixed ration silages based on Cactus and Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud) on the fermentation profile, microbial populations, aerobic stability and taxonomic diversity. The completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 4 factorial design with four replications, being four rations with different levels of Cactus (15, 30, 45, 60% based on the dry matter) and four opening periods (0, 15, 30 and 60 days of fermentation). An interaction effect (P < 0.050) was observed among the diets and opening times for mould and yeast populations. An interaction effect for the levels of acetic acid was observed, where the diets 15, 30, 45 and 60% showed higher values at 60 days (0.44, 0.41, 0.35 and 0.40 g/kg DM, respectively). A significant difference was observed for the richness and diversity index (Chao1 and Shannon). The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the genera Lactobacillus and Weissella. Cactus can be added in total mixed ration silages up to the level of 60% in a way that it positively affects the qualitative indicators of the silages, modulating the taxonomic communities and allowing the predominance of important groups for preservation of the ensiled mass.
The farrowing process is one of the most energy-demanding activities for the modern hyperprolific sow. This study evaluated the effects of supply of energy on the expected date of farrowing on the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance during the first 24 h after birth. A total of 80 sows were used. The sows and their respective litters were considered as the experimental unit. On the expected day of farrowing, the sows were allocated to one of the following groups: sows that did not have access to feed from farrowing induction until the end of the farrowing process (CON, n = 40); sows fed 500 g of energetic supplement, which consisted of 250 g of the basal lactation diet plus 250 g of cane sugar, 18 h after farrowing induction (SUP, n = 40). The farrowing duration, farrowing assistance, birth interval, number of total born, stillborn and mummified piglets were recorded for each sow. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and 24 h later. The interval from birth to first suckle was evaluated individually for each piglet in 16 randomly selected litters (eight litters per treatment group). Blood glucose concentrations of six sows were measured shortly after expulsion of the first piglet. Farrowing duration, farrowing assistance and stillborn rate tended to be greater (P = 0.06, P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively) in sows from the CON group compared to sows from the SUP group. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05) between the groups for birth interval. Colostrum intake was greater (P < 0.05) for piglets from the SUP group compared to piglets from the CON group. Additionally, BW gain of the piglets suckling the SUP group was greater (P < 0.05) than those suckling the CON group at 24 h after birth. The blood glucose concentrations during the expulsive stage of farrowing were greater (P < 0.05) in the SUP group than for sows from the CON group. In conclusion, supplying modern hyperprolific sows energy on the expected day of farrowing is a valuable nutritional intervention to improve the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance in early life.
Spontaneous abortion is considered a public health problem having several causes, including infections. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the vaginal microbiota and Ureaplasma parvum have been associated with abortion, but their participation needs to be further elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Mollicutes on the development of spontaneous abortion. Women who underwent spontaneous abortion and those with normal birth (control) were studied. Samples of cervical mucus (CM) and placental tissue were collected to identify Mollicutes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Eighty-nine women who had a miscarriage and 20 women with normal pregnancies were studied. The presence of Mollicutes in placental tissue increased the chance of developing miscarriage sevenfold. The prevalence of U. parvum in women who experienced spontaneous abortion was 66.3% in placental tissue. A positive association was observed between the detection of U. parvum in samples of placental tissue and abortion. There was a significant increase in microbial load in placental tissue for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum compared to the control group. Detection of U. parvum in CM in pregnant women can ascend to the region of the placental tissue and trigger a spontaneous abortion.
This research communication describes the influence of diet, mammary quarter position and milking process on the temperature of teats and udder of cows fed diets containing different lipid sources. Five primiparous cows were fed diets containing cottonseed, sunflower seed, soybeans or soybean oil as a source of lipids and a reference diet without the inclusion of lipid sources in a 5 × 5 Latin Square design. Milk yield was determined in the last five days of each period. Milk samples were collected for SCC analysis on the last two days of each experimental period. The images of the mammary gland were obtained using an infrared camera and were analyzed with appropriate computer software. Milk yield was 14.8% higher for cows fed soybeans as a source of lipids. Diets and somatic cell counts did not influence the temperature of teats and udder. The milking process reduced the temperature of teats and udder by 0.79°C. Rear teats and rear quarters had higher surface temperatures than front teats and fore quarters. Changes in temperature of teats and mammary quarters occurred as a function of the milking process and quarter position. However, the diet and the SCC did not influence the temperature of teats and mammary quarters in this experiment.
Although several electrophysiological studies have demonstrated the role of theta band during the execution of different visuospatial attention tasks, this study is the first to directly investigate the role of theta power during the planning, execution and cognitive control of SEM.
Saccadic eye movements (SEMs) represent the first stage of visual sensorimotor integration and are relevant for the visuospatial attention. The current study aims to address this issue by investigating absolute theta power over the frontal cortex during the execution of stimulus- and memory-driven SEMs.
12 healthy volunteers (3 male; mean age: 26.25), performed two tasks involving different conditions in the planning, execution and cognitive control of SEMs while their brain activity pattern is recorded using quantitative electroencephalography.
We found an interaction between SEM condition (memory- vs stimulus-driven) and electrode (F3, F4, Fz), and a main effect of time point and electrode. Our key finding revealed that the stimulus presentation induces different patterns over frontal theta power increase between the left and right hemisphere.
We conclude that right and left frontal regions are an important factor to discriminate between memory- versus stimulus-driven SEMs, and speculate on their role for different levels within the visuospatial attention.
Depression is the world’s most debilitating disease, more prevalent in association with chronic diseases. We studied two different patient groups: with chronic renal failure in hemodialysis (H), responsible for 100 procedures/day and oncologic patients under chemotherapy (Q), with an admission rate of 659,788/year in Brazil. This study aims at investigating the presence of depression symptoms in both (H) and (Q). We associated sociodemographic and clinical variants with depression symptoms, measured the number of symptomatic patients under treatment and detected the group with the higher symptom scores. It is a cross-sectional study of the reference services in Barbacena, with 200 sample patients, prevalence 15%, power 80%, error 4%, significance 5%. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and a sociodemographic one. Both were analyzed by the software SPSS-17, descriptive statistics, CHI Square Test, Fischer and Student’s t-Tests, 5% significance. Following data analysis we found 16,4% (H) and 12,2% (Q) with low or moderate symptoms; 1,5% (H) and 8,2% (Q) with serious depression symptoms. We observed that smoking and depression symptoms are linked, 66,7% (H). Weight, somatization, tiredness, sleep deprivation and decreased libido were found to be the most associated among the clinical variants. Although mental scores in both H and Q are similar it is necessary to differentiate symptoms caused by the underlying disease or depression, once none of the symptomatic patients received treatment; in (H), 8,96% of patients revealed suicidal thoughts and 60% of men suffered from erectile dysfunction.
This study investigates the factors associated with the impairment of awareness in mild dementia.
Using a longitudinal design, 69 people with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and their family caregivers were interviewed and reassessed after one year. The dyads completed the Assessment Scale of Psychosocial Impact of the Diagnosis of Dementia (ASPIDD), the Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease Scale (QoL-AD), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Univariate and ordinal regression analyses were conducted to examine the contribution of the various factors.
The level of awareness of disease presented a significant difference (p<0.001) between baseline and after one year. After one year, there was no change in the level of awareness of disease in 61.8%, whereas 25.4% worsened. However, the level of awareness improved in 12.3%. At baseline, ordinal regression showed that impaired awareness was associated with cognitive function (p<0.05) and ADL (p<0.001). After one year, the predictors of impaired awareness were ADL (p<0.001), low levels of PwD QoL-AD reported by caregivers (p<0.05) and higher levels of caregivers’ formal education (p<0.05).
At least in the earlier stages of dementia, it should not be assumed that awareness will inevitably decrease as dementia progresses. The results confirmed that awareness and cognition are relatively independent, and showed that in mild PwD awareness is mainly manifested by poor recognition of changes in ADLs.
This study aimed to 1) determine changes over time in PwD and caregiver ratings of PwD QoL 2) to identify the factors associated with any changes in QoLratings and 3) to identify any discrepancies between PwD and caregiver ratings of PwD QoL.
Using a longitudinal design, we investigated QoL of 69 people with mild Alzheimer’s disease and their caregivers. We examined the influence of awareness of disease, cognitive status, mood, functionality, neuropsychiatric symptoms and burden. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the contribution of the various co-factors.
At baseline, we observed that caregivers’s QoL was associated to PwD QoL (t= 3.557, p< 0.001) and mood (t = −3.673, p < 0.001). PwD QoL was associated to caregivers’s QoL (t= 5.087, p<0.001). After one year, caregiver’s QoL was associated to awareness of disease (t=-2.196, p< 0.05) and PwD mood (t=-2.242, p< 0.05) and QoL (t=3.696, p<0.001). PwD QoL was associated to caregivers’ QoL (t=4.596, p<0.001).
In mild dementia, the cognitive impairment and functionality were not the primary factors that accounted in PwD and family caregivers’ ratings of QoL. Our findings suggested that there was an association between PwD and caregivers’ QoL over time. In addition, non-cognitive factors, such as awareness of disease and mood played an important role in PwD and caregivers’ QoL ratings.
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.) is an important crop for rainfed production systems and can play a significant role as a feed source for ruminants owing to its high yield and drought tolerance. It is well-established that the maturity stage can influence the chemical composition as well as the nutritional value of crops traditionally used for silage production, although quantitative evidence that this occurs with pearl millet under rainfed conditions is lacking. The current research assessed the agronomic characteristics, ensilability, intake and digestibility of a Brazilian pearl millet cultivar (IPA BULK1-BF) harvested at four different growth stages. Forage was harvested at 35, 50, 65 and 80 days after sowing and ensiled under laboratory and farm conditions. Apparent digestibility of the silages was determined using 24 male lambs. The results showed that dry matter (DM) and panicle and stem proportions increased with the advancement maturity. The silage evaluations showed that DM, total and non-fibrous carbohydrates and lignin concentrations increased, while crude protein, ADF and in vitro DM digestibility decreased with the increase in plant maturity. Additionally, the fermentation characteristics were improved with the increasing maturity. The digestion study showed that intake of DM and N as well as digestibility of DM and fibre fractions decreased, while lignin intake increased. The results obtained for the production of dry and digestible DM, the ratio of plant fractions and fermentation parameters indicate the possibility of harvesting pearl millet forage after 50 days after sowing for silage production in the Brazilian semi-arid region.
To review the current knowledge about Diogenes symptoms and organic personality disorder through systematic review of the literature and the analysis of a case.
Case report. Review. Literature sources were obtained through electronic search in PubMed.gov database of 10 last years.
Background: Diogenes syndrome is a behavioral disorder characterized by severe self-neglect, hoarding, domestic dirt, and lack of shame regarding one's living state. Patients may present due to a range of reasons, few studies has been described hoarding symptoms secondary to brain injury. Early management could reduce their high-mortality condition.
We present a case of a 67-year-old Caucasian female known with a organic personality disorder secondary to a head trauma with obsessive hoarding symptoms. After being hospitalizated, we were authorized to explore her personal items trough photographs. Her handbag and her house were filled with rubbish and rotting food. Our patient had no insight into any self-hygiene or public health problems.
Information of the characteristics of Diogenes syndrome can help in earlier recognition of such persons, in order to decrease their morbidity and mortality.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.