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The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
In this study, we fabricated Mg2Si from metal Mg and Si with different particle sizes (425 - 300, 300 - 180, and 75 μm or less) using spark plasma sintering (SPS) equipment. Additionally, the Mg2Si formation was investigated. A sieved Si powder was mixed with metal Mg powder in an inert gas (Ar) atmosphere. The mixture was placed in a graphite die while still in an Ar atmosphere and subjected to SPS at 923 K and 1113 K. The obtained sintering bodies were Mg2Si particles with a size of about 5 μm. Then, the sintered bodies were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). As a result, it was confirmed that generation of Mg2Si increased with decreasing Si particle size.
Magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) has attracted much interest as an n-type thermoelectric material because it is eco-friendly, non-toxic, light, and relatively abundant compared with other thermoelectric materials. In this study, we tried to improve the thermoelectric performance by doping Sb and Ge in the Mg2Si, as well as further optimizing x in the carrier concentration to cause phonon scattering. A high purity Mg2Si was synthesized from metal Mg and Sb doped Si-Ge alloy by using spark plasma sintering (SPS) equipment. The sintered samples were cut and polished. They were evaluated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. The carrier concentration of the samples was measured by using Hall measurement equipment. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured by using a standard four-probe method in a He atmosphere. The thermal conductivity was measured by using a laser-flash system. We succeeded in obtaining a Sb doped Mg2Si0.95Ge0.05 sintered body easily without any impurities with the SPS equipment. The electrical conductivity of the sample was increased, and thermal conductivity was decreased by increasing the amount of doped Sb. The dimensionless figure of merit ZT became 0.74 at 733 K in the Mg2Si0.95-xGe0.05Sbx sample with x = 0.0022.
Optical pump-probe studies of cubic crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5/GaSb(001) have previously shown that the amplitude of a coherent optical phonon (COP) with frequency of 3.4 THz observed in the anisotropic reflectance (AR) signal exhibits a four-fold dependence upon the polarization of the probe beam. The appearance of the mode in the AR signal but not the reflectance (R) signal, and the dependence upon probe polarization, both suggest a three-dimensional mode character. Confirmation that this mode indeed has three-dimensional character, similar to the Raman inactive T2 mode in the pristine rock salt structure, is highly important in understanding the structure of the crystalline phase of Ge2Sb2Te5 that has important applications within data storage technology. A phonon of the same frequency has been observed in an epitaxial Ge2Sb2Te5/InAs(111) structure, suggesting that this phonon is indeed characteristic of epitaxial cubic GST. A theory, which considers the symmetry of the Raman tensor for a particular phonon mode, is used to predict the dependence of R and AR signal amplitude upon pump and probe polarization for the T2 mode of a (111) facet of the putative rock-salt structure.
Both Ni and alkaline earth metal oxide (MO: CaO, SrO, and BaO)-impregnated SDC powders were prepared as an SOFC anode material. The averaged Ni particle size on SDC was affected by the kind of alkaline earth metal oxide added. The addition of SrO and BaO to Ni/SDC anode enhanced power densities of both H2-SOFC and CH4-SOFC and the addition of CaO lowered them. The maximum power density increased with decreasing the averaged Ni particle size of Ni-MO/SDC anode.
In order to evaluate the long-term behaviour of the engineered barriers in geological disposal sites for transuranic element-bearing (TRU) waste, an evaluation by numerical analysis is required. Although chemical and hydraulic/mechanical analyses have been conducted independently until now, essentially both type of phenomena occur simultaneously and produce synergistic effects. Therefore, we focused attention on the buffer (bentonite) engineered barrier and conducted a study of which involved incorporating hydraulic/mechanical phenomena into the chemical analysis of bentonite alteration. The simulations employed weakly-coupled chemical and hydraulic/mechanical effects to study the behaviour in one dimension.
The results showed that the dissolution of the montmorillonite is suppressed in the buffer section nearest the cement material. Moreover, in order to achieve a fully coupled analysis in future, the present study also identifies issues that need to be resolved.
Nanoscale superlattice-like (SLL) dielectric was employed to reduce the power consumption of the Phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cells. In this study, we have simulated and found that the cells with the SLL dielectric have a higher peak temperature compared to that of the cells with the SiO2 dielectric after constant pulse activation, due to the interface scattering mechanism. Scaling of the SLL dielectric has resulted in higher peak temperatures, which can be even higher after material/structural modifications. Furthermore, the SLL dielectric has good material properties that enable the cells to have high endurance. This shows the effectiveness of the SLL dielectric for advanced memory applications.
Nanoindentation test is known as instrumented indentation test (IIT) in the nano range for hardness and material parameters (ISO14577). It is a simple and effective method for evaluating the mechanical properties such as elasticity/stiffness, hardness and adhesion. Generally IIT is the method that doesn’t have to observe the residual impression. However, it is necessary to observe the residual impression and surface of test piece to obtain the material behavior such as pile-up/sink-in, crack. In past work, the phase shifting interferometric scanning confocal microscope (PSISCM)-nanoindenataion combined system was developed to obtain the tilt of surface and the geometrical shape of residual impression that are deeper than one micron. This system is useful to obtain the geometrical shape of the surface of test piece in macro and micro range. However, it is well known that the results of nanoindentation test become unstable in the nano range.
In this work, authors focused the geometry observation system for nanoindentation system. Confirmation the capability of PSISCM system and development of objective type atomic force microscopy to obtain the geometrical shape in nano range are examined. The AFM that has an excellent performance is developed by SII nanotechnology Inc. Japan, and it built into system. In many cases, it performs enough to observe the residual impression and the surface of the test piece. This system uses three methods to obtain the geometrical shape of surface in each range. Generally, AFM has the observation range at about several microns. It is difficult to search the small residual impression by only AFM. Before the observation of AFM, the observation area should be selected by using PSISCM. New measurement tool using PSISCM and AFM to obtain the surface geometry from macro range to nano range is proposed. This tool is very simple, quick and useful tool.
Due to remoteness and high altitude, only a few ground-based glacier change studies are available in high-mountain areas in the Himalaya. However, digital elevation models based on remotely sensed data (RS-DEMs) provide feasible opportunities to evaluate how fast Himalayan glaciers are changing. Here we compute elevation changes in glacier surface (total area 183.3 km2) in the Khumbu region, Nepal Himalaya, for the period 1992-2008 using multitemporal RS-DEMs and a map-derived DEM calibrated with differential GPS survey data in 2007. Elevation change is calculated by generating a weighted least-squares linear regression model. Our method enables us to provide the distribution of uncertainty of the elevation change. Debris-covered areas show large lowering rates. The spatial distribution of elevation change shows that the different wastage features of the debris-covered glaciers depend on their scale, slope and the existence of glacial lakes. The elevation changes of glaciers in the eastern Khumbu region are in line with previous studies. The regional average mass balance of -0.40 ± 0.25 m w.e.a-1 for the period 1992-2008 is consistent with a global value of about -0.55 m w.e. a-1 for the period 1996-2005.
Renewable energy can provide a host of benefits to society. In addition to the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, governments have enacted renewable energy (RE) policies to meet a number of objectives including the creation of local environmental and health benefits; facilitation of energy access, particularly for rural areas; advancement of energy security goals by diversifying the portfolio of energy technologies and resources; and improving social and economic development through potential employment opportunities. Energy access and social and economic development have been the primary drivers in developing countries whereas ensuring a secure energy supply and environmental concerns have been most important in developed countries.
An increasing number and variety of RE policies–motivated by a variety of factors–have driven substantial growth of RE technologies in recent years. Government policies have played a crucial role in accelerating the deployment of RE technologies. At the same time, not all RE policies have proven effective and efficient in rapidly or substantially increasing RE deployment. The focus of policies is broadening from a concentration almost entirely on RE electricity to include RE heating and cooling and transportation.
RE policies have promoted an increase in RE capacity installations by helping to overcome various barriers. Barriers specific to RE policymaking (e.g., a lack of information and awareness), to implementation (e.g., a lack of an educated and trained workforce to match developing RE technologies) and to financing (e.g., market failures) may further impede deployment of RE.
We present the initial results of a spectral line survey of L1157 B1 with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. So far, we have covered the frequencey range of 13.7 GHz (82.0–94.5 GHz and 96.3–97.5 GHz), and have detected 22 species including CH3CHO, HCOOH, HCOOCH3, HNCO, NH2CHO, CH3CN, and CCS. We have also detected the line of CH2DOH. These results demonstrate rich chemistry in this shocked region, which would mainly originate from evaporation of ice mantles by means of shocks.
Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a major cause of severe community-acquired pneumonia but the source and mode of transmission are not always apparent, especially in sporadic cases. We hypothesized that LD can be acquired from the air-conditioning systems of motor cars. Swabs were taken from the evaporator compartments of the air-conditioning system of scrapped cars. Healthy subjects who were mainly employees of regional transportation companies were tested for antibody to Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1–6; they also completed a questionnaire. Legionella species were detected in 11/22 scrapped cars by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. The prevalence of microplate agglutination titres ⩾1:32 was significantly higher in subjects who sometimes used car air-conditioning systems. Although we did not prove a direct link between Legionella spp. in the car evaporator and LD, our findings point to a potential risk of car air-conditioning systems in LD, which needs further investigation.
We report our recent progress on extragalactic spectroscopic and continuum observations,
including HCN(J=1–0), HCO+(J=1–0), and CN(N=1–0) imaging surveys
of local Seyfert and starburst galaxies
using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array,
high-J CO observations (J=3–2 observations
using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE)
and J=2–1 observations with the Submillimeter Array) of galaxies,
and λ 1.1 mm continuum observations of high-z violent starburst galaxies
using the bolometer camera AzTEC mounted on ASTE.
Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are considered to be due to the death of massive stars. Therefore, GRBs are closely associated with the star formation of host galaxies. Since GRBs can be detected at cosmological distances, they are expected to be probes of the star formation history of the Universe. In order to determine the use of GRBs, it is essential to understand the star formation of their hosts. Multi-wavelength observations have shown that the star formation rates (SFRs) of GRB hosts derived from submillimeter/radio observations are generally higher than those from optical/UV observations (Berger et al. 2003). This implies that GRB hosts have a large amount of molecular gas and massive star formation obscured by dust. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to derive the SFRs in a method which is independent of existing methods and not affected by dust extinction.
We observed 12CO (J = 3–2) line emission from the host galaxy of GRB 980425 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). Five points were observed covering the entire region of the galaxy, and we find possible emission features (S/N ~ 3 σ) at the velocity range corresponding to the redshift of the galaxy. By combining all spectra of five points, we obtain a global spectrum with a ~4 σ emission feature. If the features are real, this is the first detection of CO among GRB hosts. We derive the total gas mass of M(H2)=7 ± 2× 108M⊙ assuming a CO-to-H2 conversion factor of αCO = 8.0M⊙ (K km s−1 pc2)−1, which is deduced using the correlation between the αCO and the metallicity. The dynamical mass is calculated to be Mdyn=2× 1010M⊙, and M(H2)/Mdyn~3% is consistent with those of nearby dwarfs and normal spirals. The derived SFR is 0.5 ± 0.1 M⊙ yr−1 based on the Schmidt law. This SFR agrees with the results of previous Hα observations, suggesting that there is no significant obscured star formation in this host galaxy. This result implies that there is a variety of GRB hosts in terms of the presence of obscured star formation.
Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) is a joint project between Japan and Chile for installing and operating a 10 m high precision telescope in the Atacama Desert in order to explore the southern sky through the submillimeter wavelength. We have achieved an accuracy of 19 μm (rms) for the main reflector surface and a stable radio pointing accuracy of about 2 arcsec (rms). A 350 GHz cartridge type SIS mixer receiver achieves good performance with a typical system noise temperature of 150 ~ 250 K in DSB and a main beam efficiency of 0.6 ~ 0.7 during winter nights.
A large scale CO(3-2) imaging survey of nearby galaxies using ASTE is now in progress. One of our goals is to compare our wide area CO(3-2) images with existing CO(1-0) data as well as distributions of massive star formation tracers (i.e., Hα and radio continuum emission) in order to understand the physical mechanism which controls the global star formation properties such as star formation efficiency. Initial CO(3-2) maps of some sample galaxies (M 83, NGC 604 in M 33, NGC 1672, & NGC 7130) are reported.
Electric field of less than 5 V/μm is enough to extract electrons from diamond, whereas field of one to two orders of magnitude higher is needed to extract electrons from metal emitter tips. Despite such low-threshold field, the difficulty in clarification of electron emission mechanism is the factor preventing diamond from being used in a practical use. Quite a few numbers of possible mechanisms were proposed to better understand the origin and properties of the observed emission. Most of these mechanisms were, however, based on the conventional I (Emission current)-V (Anode voltage) characteristics. Energy distribution of the field-emitted electrons is essential in direct clarification of the mechanism. In this study, combined XPS/UPS/FES system was used to characterize the electron emission mechanism of doped chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond. The results indicated successful observation of the origin of field-emitted electrons from doped CVD diamond comparison with natural diamond, used as a reference.
The layered niobium oxysulfide was synthesized by the heat treatment of K4Nb6O17 · 3H2O layered oxide in the mixture of H2S/N2 gases. The layered oxysulfide had the large plate-like shape, and the total ratio of compound was estimated KxNbS2-yOy (The number of x was from 0.2 to 0.4, y was from about 0.5 to 1.0). According to the XPS measurement, the oxidation state of Nb was estimated for +2, +4, +5, and oxidation state of S was -2. It was confirmed that the layered oxysulfide has ion exchange, and intercalation capabilities as proton exchange reactions take place in H2SO4 solution and bulky amine molecules can be intercalated in an amine solution.