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Subglacial lake water-volume changes produce ice-elevation anomalies that provide clues about water flow beneath glaciers and ice sheets. Significant challenges remain in the quantitative interpretation of these elevation-change anomalies because the surface expression of subglacial lake activity depends on basal conditions, rate of water-volume change, and ice rheology. To address these challenges, we introduce an inverse method that reconstructs subglacial lake activity from altimetry data while accounting for the effects of viscous ice flow. We use a linearized approximation of a Stokes ice-flow model under the assumption that subglacial lake activity only induces small perturbations relative to a reference ice-flow state. We validate this assumption by accurately reconstructing lake activity from synthetic data that are produced with a fully nonlinear model. We then apply the method to estimate the water-volume changes of several active subglacial lakes in Antarctica by inverting data from NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite 2 (ICESat-2) laser altimetry mission. The results show that there can be substantial discrepancies (20% or more) between the inversion and traditional estimation methods due to the effects of viscous ice flow. The inverse method will help refine estimates of subglacial water transport and further constrain the role of subglacial hydrology in ice-sheet evolution.
A mathematical model for the effect of the spatial variation of the local evaporative flux on the evaporation of and deposition from a thin pinned particle-laden sessile droplet is formulated and solved. We then analyse the behaviour for a one-parameter family of local evaporative fluxes with the free parameter $n \, (>-1)$ that exhibits qualitatively different behaviours mimicking those that can be obtained by, for example, surrounding the droplet with a bath of fluid or using a mask with one or more holes in it to achieve a desired pattern of evaporation enhancement and/or suppression. We show that when $-1< n<1$ (including the special cases $n=-1/2$ of diffusion-limited evaporation into an unbounded atmosphere and $n=0$ of spatially uniform evaporation), all of the particles are eventually advected to the contact line, and so the final deposit is a ring deposit at the contact line, whereas when $n>1$ all of the particles are eventually advected to the centre of the droplet, and so the final deposit is at the centre of the droplet. In particular, the present work demonstrates that a singular (or even a non-zero) evaporative flux at the contact line is not an essential requirement for the formation of a ring deposit. In addition, we calculate the paths of the particles when diffusion is slower than both axial and radial advection, and show that in this regime all of the particles are captured by the descending free surface before eventually being deposited onto the substrate.
What motivates property owners to pay taxes in places where state enforcement is weak? Using an online experiment among property owners in Lagos, Nigeria, we evaluate the effectiveness of different appeals at increasing respondents’ tax morale—willingness to pay taxes absent enforcement—and attitudes about government enforcement of tax collection. Respondents were randomly assigned to read either a vignette emphasizing the role of property tax revenues in contributing to economic growth and increased property values or one highlighting that tax revenues are used for public goods and services benefiting all residents. The growth and property values message made respondents significantly more favorable toward enforcement of tax collection, but there was no difference in willingness to pay between the two conditions.
Precision Medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle. Autoimmune diseases are those in which the body’s natural defense system loses discriminating power between its own cells and foreign cells, causing the body to mistakenly attack healthy tissues. These conditions are very heterogeneous in their presentation and therefore difficult to diagnose and treat. Achieving precision medicine in autoimmune diseases has been challenging due to the complex etiologies of these conditions, involving an interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. However, recent technological and computational advances in molecular profiling have helped identify patient subtypes and molecular pathways which can be used to improve diagnostics and therapeutics. This review discusses the current understanding of the disease mechanisms, heterogeneity, and pathogenic autoantigens in autoimmune diseases gained from genomic and transcriptomic studies and highlights how these findings can be applied to better understand disease heterogeneity in the context of disease diagnostics and therapeutics.
Fontan baffle punctures and creation of Fontan fenestration for cardiac catheterisation procedures remain challenging especially due to the heavy calcification of prosthetic material and complex anatomy.
We sought to evaluate our experience using radiofrequency current via surgical electrocautery needle for Fontan baffle puncture to facilitate diagnostic, electrophysiology, and interventional procedures.
A retrospective chart review of all Fontan patients (pts) who underwent Fontan baffle puncture using radiofrequency energy via surgical electrocautery from three centres were performed from January 2011 to July 2021.
A total of 19 pts underwent 22 successful Fontan baffle puncture. The median age and weight were 17 (3–36 years) and 55 (14–88) kg, respectively. The procedural indications for Fontan fenestration creation included: diagnostic study (n = 1), atrial septostomy and stenting (n = 1), electrophysiology study and ablation procedures (n = 8), Fontan baffle stenting for Fontan failure including protein-losing enteropathy (n = 7), and occlusion of veno-venous collaterals (n = 2) for cyanosis. The type of Fontan baffles included: extra-cardiac conduits (n = 12), lateral tunnel (n = 5), classic atrio-pulmonary connection (n = 1), and intra-cardiac baffle (n = 1). A Fontan baffle puncture was initially attempted using traditional method in 6 pts and Baylis radiofrequency trans-septal system in 2 pts unsuccessfully. In all pts, Fontan baffle puncture using radiofrequency energy via electrocautery needle was successful. The radiofrequency energy utilised was (10–50 W) and required 1–5 attempts for 2–5 seconds. There were no vascular or neurological complications.
Radiofrequency current delivery using surgical electrocautery facilitates Fontan baffle puncture in patients with complex and calcified Fontan baffles for diagnostic, interventional, and electrophysiology procedures.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To assess barriers and recommendations for improving delivery of care for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rural clinics, we assessed COPD care metrics and obtained perspectives of primary care providers (PCPs) who practice in rural clinics. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Quantitative retrospective analysis of patients with COPD using VA data. We included patients whose primary care clinic is located in a rural VA Midwest Health Care Network (HCN) facility and quantified binary measures for receipt of: spirometry, pulmonary specialty care, and optimal inhaler therapy (regimen with LAMA or LABA monotherapy) Qualitative semi-structured individual interviews of PCPs (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) whose clinics are located in a rural VA Midwest HCN facility. We elicited perceived barriers to and recommendations for receiving spirometry, pulmonary specialty care, and optimal inhaler therapy from PCPs. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 6,350 rural patients had a new diagnosis of COPD in 2016-2019. 48.4% had spirometry, 14.4% had pulmonary encounters, and among patients who were prescribed long-acting inhaler therapy, 48.8% received optimal inhaler regimens. Rural PCPs (n=14) highlighted lack of access to spirometry, pulmonary specialty care, and clinic staff support in local clinics and suggested: 1) leveraging the expertise of pharmacists in COPD management and 2) improving access to resources, including use of telehealth technologies. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Less than 50% of rural COPD patients received recommended diagnostic testing and therapy. Resource limitations in rural clinics were the main barrier. The main recommendation was to leverage pharmacists’ expertise in COPD care. These findings provide a pathway forward to improving rural COPD care.
The optimum parameters for the generation of synchrotron radiation in ultraintense laser pulse interactions with planar foils are investigated with the application of Bayesian optimization, via Gaussian process regression, to 2D particle-in-cell simulations. Individual properties of the synchrotron emission, such as the yield, are maximized, and simultaneous mitigation of bremsstrahlung emission is achieved with multi-variate objective functions. The angle-of-incidence of the laser pulse onto the target is shown to strongly influence the synchrotron yield and angular profile, with oblique incidence producing the optimal results. This is further explored in 3D simulations, in which additional control of the spatial profile of synchrotron emission is demonstrated by varying the polarization of the laser light. The results demonstrate the utility of applying a machine learning-based optimization approach and provide new insights into the physics of radiation generation in laser–foil interactions, which will inform the design of experiments in the quantum electrodynamics (QED)-plasma regime.
Some physiological variables which could aid in assessing the welfare of beef cattle in feedlots were screened in this exploratory study. In two experiments, each of 42 days duration, the physiological responses of Bos taurus steers to three treatments were investigated: pasture (rotation between 1.5 hectare paddocks); a feedlot yard stocked at 12.0 m2 per head with a dry, firm pen surface; and a ‘high-density’ feedlot yard stocked at 6.0 m2 per head with a wet and muddy pen surface. Fourteen steers were used per group per experiment. Relative adrenal mass in both feedlot groups was 8-10% higher than in the pasture group, and this finding was supported by morphological measurements of the adrenal glands. Out of 17 immune variables examined, only serum IgA and the T-cell lymphocytes subpopulation WC+1 showed consistent differences between the feedlot and pasture groups. Interestingly, no differences were observed between the two feedlot treatments. It was concluded that although there may have been some disruption of epithelial/mucosal immunity, more support was required from other immune variables before it could be stated that the immune system was depressed and that pre-pathological states existed in the feedlot groups. However, measures of relative adrenal weight, adrenal index, serum IgA and WC1+ lymphocytes are good candidates for use in future welfare investigations of feedlot cattle.
Strain, temperature and strain rate are crucial factors governing the development of crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in ice. To better understand how CPO patterns change in response to these variables, we performed quantitative analyses on neutron diffraction data between 2010 and 2019, collected in situ during uniaxial compression experiments on deuterium ice. At strains >10% and temperatures <−10°C, the c-axis pattern switches from a single maximum (‘cluster’) to small circle (‘cone’), both oriented parallel to shortening. The diameter and mean width of the cone pattern decrease as strain and/or strain rate increases. Prismatic axis (a and m) patterns are characterised by great circles parallel to the pole figure margin and may be distinguishable from the patterns in ice deformed under simple shear. While strain has the main influence on the degree of preferred orientation (or CPO ‘strength’), both temperature and strain rate have minor influences, which limits the extent to which CPOs can be used to measure strain. As cluster patterns can be observed in the c-axes of ice deformed under both pure and simple shear settings, this may complicate interpretations of flow geometry in terrestrial ice unless the prismatic axis patterns are also considered.
The updated vancomycin guideline for treatment of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections prompted institutions to convert from trough to area-under-the-curve monitoring. The physician perception of the transition, coupled with that of pharmacists, was measured by pre- and postimplementation surveys. Both groups believed safety would be increased without efficacy changes.
To evaluate the effect of templated microbiology reporting comments on antifungal utilization in patients with candiduria.
In this retrospective, quasi-experimental study, we evaluated a preimplementation cohort (June 2018–January 2019) compared with a postimplementation cohort (June 2019–January 2020).
A multisite health system including 1 academic hospital and 4 community hospitals.
Patients were aged ≥18 years, were hospitalized, and had candiduria documented at least once during their admission. The study included 156 patients in the preimplementation period and 141 patients in the postimplementation period.
In June 2019, Saint Luke’s Health System implemented the use of templated comments for urine cultures with Candida spp growth. When Candida is isolated, the following comment appears in the microbiology result section: “In the absence of symptoms, Candida is generally considered normal flora. No therapy indicated unless high risk (pregnant, neonate, or neutropenic) or undergoing urologic procedure. If Foley catheter present, remove or replace when able.” The primary outcome was rate of antifungal prescribing.
Antifungal administration within 72 hours of a culture identifying a Candida spp occurred in 75 patients in the preimplementation group and 48 patients in the postimplementation group (48.1% vs 34.0%; P = .02). We did not detect a difference between groups in antifungal administration between 73 and 240 hours (1.3% vs 3.5%; P = .26), nor did we detect a difference in median antifungal duration (4 vs 3 days; P = .43).
Using a templated comment with urine cultures reduced antifungal prescription rates in hospitalized patients with candiduria. This strategy is a low-resource technique to improve antimicrobial stewardship.
Monitoring the prevalence and abundance of parasites over time is important for addressing their potential impact on host life histories, immunological profiles and their influence as a selective force. Only long-term ecological studies have the potential to shed light on both the temporal trends in infection prevalence and abundance and the drivers of such trends, because of their ability to dissect drivers that may be confounded over shorter time scales. Despite this, only a relatively small number of such studies exist. Here, we analysed changes in the prevalence and abundance of gastrointestinal parasites in the wild Soay sheep population of St. Kilda across 31 years. The host population density (PD) has increased across the study, and PD is known to increase parasite transmission, but we found that PD and year explained temporal variation in parasite prevalence and abundance independently. Prevalence of both strongyle nematodes and coccidian microparasites increased during the study, and this effect varied between lambs, yearlings and adults. Meanwhile, abundance of strongyles was more strongly linked to host PD than to temporal (yearly) dynamics, while abundance of coccidia showed a strong temporal trend without any influence of PD. Strikingly, coccidian abundance increased 3-fold across the course of the study in lambs, while increases in yearlings and adults were negligible. Our decades-long, intensive, individual-based study will enable the role of environmental change and selection pressures in driving these dynamics to be determined, potentially providing unparalleled insight into the drivers of temporal variation in parasite dynamics in the wild.
This quality improvement project was a collaboration between an adult, inpatient female psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) in South London and the Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights, Inclusion and Empowerment (SHRINE) programme. SHRINE is a London-based programme delivering SRH care to any individual with serious mental illness, substance misuse and/or learning disability.
The primary aim of this quality improvement project was to assess patients’ sexual and reproductive (SRH) needs, and the acceptability of providing SRH assessments in a female PICU setting. Secondary aims were to explore the barriers to access and the feasibility of providing SRH assessments and SHRINE interventions in the PICU.
A bi-monthly SRH in-reach clinic and a nurse led SRH referral pathway were implemented on the PICU over a seven-month period. Within a quality improvement framework, a staff training needs assessment was performed, training delivered, a protocol developed, staff attitudes explored, and patient and carer engagement sought.
30% of women were identified as having unmet SRH needs and proceeded to a specialist appointment, representing a 2.5-fold increase in unmet need detection. 42% of women were assessed, representing a 3.5-fold increase in uptake. 21% of women initiated SRH interventions of which 14% had all their SRH needs met.
Results identified SRH needs for PICU admissions are greater than realised. Staff highlighted the acceptability and importance of SRH care, if interventions are appropriately timed and the patient’s individual risk profile considered. Providing a nurse-led referral pathway for an SRH in-reach clinic is acceptable, feasible and beneficial for PICU patients.
The physical and mental health of women prior to conception can have a significant impact on pregnancy and child outcomes. Given the rising burden of non-communicable diseases, the aim of this analysis was to explore the relationship between mental health, physical health and health behaviour in women planning a pregnancy.
To investigate the association between indices of physical and mental health in a large population of women in the UK planning a pregnancy.
Responses to a preconception health digital education tool provided data on the physical and mental health and health behaviour of 131,182 women planning pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to explore associations between mental health and physical health variables. Multiple imputation by chained equations was implemented to handle missing data.
There was evidence for an association between physical and mental health conditions (OR 2.22; 95% CI 2.14, 2.3). There was also an association between having a mental disorder and physical inactivity (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.11, 1.18), substance misuse (OR 2.4; 95% CI 2.25, 2.55) and less folic acid use (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.86,0.92).
There is a need for greater integration of physical and mental healthcare for women in the preconception period, which could support women, including those who wish to conceive, to optimise their health during this time.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental health condition characterized by emotion dysregulation, interpersonal impairment, and high suicidality. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is the most widely studied psychotherapeutic treatment for BPD. To date, the vast majority of DBT research has focused on cisgender women, with a notable lack of systematic investigation of sex and/or gender differences in treatment response. In order to encourage effective, equitable treatment of BPD, further investigation into treatment targets in this population is critical. Here, we employed a systematic strategy to delineate gaps in the DBT literature pertaining to sex and gender differences and propose directions for future research. Findings demonstrate a significant discrepancy in measurement of sex and gender, particularly among gender-diverse individuals. Exploring DBT treatment response across the full spectrum of genders will facilitate the provision of more tailored, impactful care to all individuals who suffer from BPD.
Key learning aims
(1) To date, DBT treatment literature has focused almost exclusively on cisgender women, with only two of 253 DBT studies in current literature accounting for transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals.
(2) Recognize how gender minority stress may impact the prevalence of BPD among TGD individuals.
(3) Learn how future research initiatives can be employed to rectify this gap in the DBT literature.
To describe the genomic analysis and epidemiologic response related to a slow and prolonged methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak.
Prospective observational study.
Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
We conducted an epidemiologic investigation of a NICU MRSA outbreak involving serial baby and staff screening to identify opportunities for decolonization. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on MRSA isolates.
A NICU with excellent hand hygiene compliance and longstanding minimal healthcare-associated infections experienced an MRSA outbreak involving 15 babies and 6 healthcare personnel (HCP). In total, 12 cases occurred slowly over a 1-year period (mean, 30.7 days apart) followed by 3 additional cases 7 months later. Multiple progressive infection prevention interventions were implemented, including contact precautions and cohorting of MRSA-positive babies, hand hygiene observers, enhanced environmental cleaning, screening of babies and staff, and decolonization of carriers. Only decolonization of HCP found to be persistent carriers of MRSA was successful in stopping transmission and ending the outbreak. Genomic analyses identified bidirectional transmission between babies and HCP during the outbreak.
In comparison to fast outbreaks, outbreaks that are “slow and sustained” may be more common to units with strong existing infection prevention practices such that a series of breaches have to align to result in a case. We identified a slow outbreak that persisted among staff and babies and was only stopped by identifying and decolonizing persistent MRSA carriage among staff. A repeated decolonization regimen was successful in allowing previously persistent carriers to safely continue work duties.