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The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent, magnetized plasmas. Turbulent plasma is a major constituent of active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere, just to mention a few examples. Energy dissipation of turbulent fluctuations plays a key role in plasma heating and energization, yet we still do not understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved. THOR is a mission designed to answer the questions of how turbulent plasma is heated and particles accelerated, how the dissipated energy is partitioned and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence. THOR is a single-spacecraft mission with an orbit tuned to maximize data return from regions in near-Earth space – magnetosheath, shock, foreshock and pristine solar wind – featuring different kinds of turbulence. Here we summarize the THOR proposal submitted on 15 January 2015 to the ‘Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESAs Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4)’. THOR has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) for the study phase.
Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is said to be associated with obesity. We studied the association between C. pneumoniae infection and inflammation and increased BMI in 891 Finnish military recruits. IgG seropositivity in arrival and departure serum samples during 6–12 months of military service was considered as persistence of antibodies and a possible indication of chronic infection. Persistently high C-reactive protein (CRP) level (elevated on arrival and departure) (OR 2·2, 95% CI 1·3–3·9), and persistent C. pneumoniae antibodies (OR 2·1, 95% CI 1·5–2·8) were significant risk factors for overweight (BMI ⩾25 kg/m2). In addition, those who had persistent antibodies and persistently elevated CRP levels, or those who had either of them, had a significantly higher BMI (kg/m2) compared to those who had neither of them (25·8 vs. 24·6 vs. 23·5, respectively; P<0·001). These results provide new information about the association between possible chronic C. pneumoniae infection and obesity in young men.
In the interstellar medium (ISM), a broad range of turbulent plasmas can be observed by using radio waves. However, only density fluctuations are directly measurable with these radio astronomic tools. If one wants to deduce the underlying features of the turbulence, it is necessary to calculate the relation between density and magnetic fluctuations. Here a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-ansatz is taken into account for the ISM turbulence to calculate the fluctuations for the three low-frequency MHD waves.
Let L be a lattice and q a convergence structure (or a topology) finer than the interval topology of L. In case of compact maximal chains and continuous lattice translations, the connected components of the space (L,q) are characterized using lattice conditions only. Moreover, lattice conditions of L are related to connectedness conditions of the order convergence space (L, o). Throughout this note, maximal chain conditions and maximal chain techniques play an important role.
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