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Parents of children with eczema or psoriasis experience high levels of parenting stress, which can negatively impact their child’s mental and physical health.
We aimed to investigate the effectiveness, feasibility and acceptability of a mindful parenting intervention for parents of children with eczema or psoriasis.
Seven parents of children (4–12 years old) with eczema or psoriasis took part in an 8-week mindful parenting group intervention. A single-case experimental design was adopted, whereby parents completed daily idiographic measures of parenting stress related to their child’s skin condition. Parents also completed standardised questionnaires measuring their parenting stress, depression, anxiety and quality of life, and children completed a quality of life measure, at four time points: baseline, pre-intervention, post-intervention and 6-week follow-up. Parents provided qualitative feedback after the intervention.
All parents completed the intervention and showed improvements in idiographic measures of parenting stress from baseline to follow-up. Improvements in parenting stress were larger at follow-up than post-intervention, suggesting the benefits of intervention continue beyond the intervention. Six of seven parent–child dyads showed improvement in at least one of the wellbeing measures, from pre-intervention to post-intervention or follow-up. Feasibility was demonstrated through good participant retention, adherence to home practice, and treatment fidelity. Acceptability was demonstrated through positive parent evaluations of the intervention.
Mindful parenting can be an effective, feasible and acceptable intervention for parents of children with eczema or psoriasis. Future studies should attempt to replicate the findings through randomised controlled trials.
Recent interest in the evolution of the social contract is extended by providing a throughly naturalistic, evolutionary account of the biological underpinnings of a social contract theory of morality. This social contract theory of morality (contractevolism) provides an evolutionary justification of the primacy of a moral principle of maximisation of the opportunities for evolutionary reproductive success (ERS), where maximising opportunities does not entail an obligation on individuals to choose to maximise their ERS. From that primary principle, the moral principles of inclusion, individual sovereignty (liberty) and equality can be derived. The implications of these principles, within contractevolism, are explored through an examination of patriarchy, individual sovereignty and copulatory choices, and overpopulation and extinction. Contractevolism is grounded in evolutionary dynamics that resulted in humans and human societies. The most important behavioural consequences of evolution to contractevolism are reciprocity, cooperation, empathy, and the most important cognitive consequences are reason and behavioural modification.
In March 2020, New York City (NYC) became the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (US). As healthcare facilities were overwhelmed with patients, the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center was transformed into the nation’s largest alternate care site (ACS): Javits New York Medical Station (Javits). Protecting healthcare workers during a global shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) in a non-traditional healthcare setting posed unique challenges. We describe components of the healthcare worker safety program implemented at Javits.
Javits, a large convention center transformed into a field hospital, with clinical staff from the US Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (USPHS) and the Department of Defense (DoD).
Healthcare Worker Safety Methods:
Key strategies included ensuring one-way flow of traffic on and off the patient floor; developing a matrix detailing PPE required for each work activity and location; PPE extended use and reuse protocols; personnel training; and monitoring adherence to PPE donning/doffing protocols when entering or exiting the patient floor. Javits staff who reported COVID-19 symptoms were immediately isolated, monitored, and offered a SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test.
A well-designed and implemented healthcare worker safety plan can minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection for healthcare workers. The lessons learned from operating the nation’s largest COVID-19 ACS can be adapted to other environments during public health emergencies.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: MiaA is a highly conserved prenyl transferase that catalyzes synthesis of the i6A37 tRNA modification in E. coli. While transcriptional regulation of MiaA is well characterized, there is no information on the MiaA post-transcriptional regulation. The aim of this study is to characterize the post-transcriptional regulation of the MiaA gene in E. coli. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To characterize the post-transcriptional regulation of miaA, we executed a targeted genetic screen of an E. coli small RNA library on a miaA-lacZ translational reporter fusion strain to identify small RNAs (sRNAs) that modulate MiaA translation or transcription termination. We also measured MiaA mRNA levels and miaA-lacZ activity in the absence or over-expression of candidate sRNA regulators of MiaA. We also measured MiaA mRNA levels in the absence of RNaseE and PNPase, two enzymes involved in mRNA turnover. Finally, we measured the ability of purified recombinant CsrA to bind to the MiaA mRNA transcript in vitro. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified the carbon sensing sRNA CsrB and its cognate protein interaction partner CsrA, as potential post-transcriptional regulators of MiaA. Over-expression of CsrB fully repressed miaA-lacZ activity and MiaA mRNA levels. The absence of CsrA resulted in a defective miaA-lacZ activity and a 10-fold decrease in MiaA mRNA levels. We also identified an increase in the MiaA mRNA half-life particularly in the absence of RNaseE. Our results demonstrate an additional layer of regulation for the miaA operon by the CsrA/CsrB protein-sRNA system. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: MiaA is a highly conserved bacterial protein. Our data may represent phenomena in an array of bacteria that could be targeted by novel antibiotics. The human MiaA homologue, TRIT1, plays a role in mitochondrial disorders. We anticipate that information garnered from MiaA studies will elucidate TRIT1 function and its role in mitochondrial disorders.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Whole-genome viral sequencing is vital to inform public health and study evolution. Arboviruses evolve in vectors, reservoir hosts, and humans, and require surveillance at all points. We developed a new rigorous method of sequencing that captures whole viral genomes in field-collected and clinical samples. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: ClickSeq is a novel method of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) library synthesis using azido-nucleotides to terminate reverse transcription. The cDNA generated can be ligated to sequencing and indexing primers at room temperature using copper (Cu I) and vitamin C. With this approach, we designed primers located ~250 bp apart along the genomes of the arboviruses Chikungunya 37797, Zika Dakar, Yellow Fever Asibi, Dengue serotype 2, West Nile 385-99, and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLEV) clade II. We tested this method with varying viral titers: lab-infected mosquito pools, field-collected mosquito pools from a Texas West Nile and SLEV outbreak, and patient isolates from a Pakistani CHIKV outbreak. The cDNA was sequenced in the UTMB NGS Core and aligned using bowtie. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The use of a single protocol to capture whole viral genomes including UTRs for multiple viruses from different sample collection styles is ideal for arboviruses. Primers for multiple viruses were pooled and used to sequence mosquito pools. The Tiled ClickSeq method captured whole viral genomes without the need for host depletion. UTRs were captured even when the viral strain used for primer design differed from the resulting strain. Discreet variants were captured in both the hypervariable nsP3 region and the UTR in the patient isolates from the CHIKV outbreak compared to the 2017 outbreak. Texas WNV and SLEV outbreaks are now defined from the 2020 outbreak and can be further tracked to update public health measures and understand viral evolution. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: UTRs impact both human and mosquito fitness, leading to further outbreaks. Tiled ClickSeq aims to capture whole viral genomes with a method and cost that can be implemented by public health researchers to understand disease evolution as it happens to update both public health and basic virology to the effects of evolution on arboviruses.
The fossil record is notoriously imperfect and biased in representation, hindering our ability to place fossil specimens into an evolutionary context. For groups with fossil records mostly consisting of disarticulated parts (e.g., vertebrates, echinoderms, plants), the limited morphological information preserved sparks concerns about whether fossils retain reliable evidence of phylogenetic relationships and lends uncertainty to analyses of diversification, paleobiogeography, and biostratigraphy in Earth's history. To address whether a fragmentary past can be trusted, we need to assess whether incompleteness affects the quality of phylogenetic information contained in fossil data. Herein, we characterize skeletal incompleteness bias in a large dataset (6585 specimens; 14,417 skeletal elements) of fossil squamates (lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians, and mosasaurs). We show that jaws + palatal bones, vertebrae, and ribs appear more frequently in the fossil record than other parts of the skeleton. This incomplete anatomical representation in the fossil record is biased against regions of the skeleton that contain the majority of morphological phylogenetic characters used to assess squamate evolutionary relationships. Despite this bias, parsimony- and model-based comparative analyses indicate that the most frequently occurring parts of the skeleton in the fossil record retain similar levels of phylogenetic signal as parts of the skeleton that are rarer. These results demonstrate that the biased squamate fossil record contains reliable phylogenetic information and support our ability to place incomplete fossils in the tree of life.
To reduce children’s sugar-sweetened beverage intake, California’s Healthy-By-Default Beverage law (SB1192) mandates only unflavoured dairy/non-dairy milk or water be the default drinks with restaurant children’s meals. The objective of this study is to examine consistency with this law for meals sold through online platforms from restaurants in low-income California neighbourhoods.
This observational, cross-sectional study examines beverage availability, upcharges (additional cost) and presentation of beverage options consistent with SB1192 (using four increasingly restrictive criteria) within a random sample of quick-service restaurants (QSR) in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education eligible census tracts selling children’s meals online from November 2020 to April 2021.
Low-income California neighbourhoods (n 226 census tracts).
QSR that sold children’s meals online via a restaurant-specific platform, DoorDash, GrubHub and/or UberEats (n 631 observations from 254 QSR).
Seventy percent of observations offered water; 63 % offered unflavoured milk. Among all beverages, water was most likely to have an upcharge; among observations offering water (n 445), 41 % had an upcharge (average $0·51). Among observations offering unflavoured milk (n 396), 11 % had an upcharge (average $0·38). No observations upcharged for soda (regular or diet). Implementation consistency with SB1192 ranged from 40·5 % (using the least restrictive criteria) to 5·6 % (most restrictive) of observations.
Based on observations from restaurant websites and three of the most popular online ordering platforms, most California QSR located in low-income neighbourhoods are not offering children’s meal beverages consistent with the state’s Healthy-By-Default Beverage law. As the popularity of online ordering increases, further work to ensure restaurants offering healthy default beverages with children’s meals sold online is necessary.
An important part of biomedical research is the translation of discoveries into clinical or community applications that impact patient health. For a vast majority of clinical applications and sustainable community interventions, a time-tested way to get innovations to patients is through licensing of the technology and commercial development, often through startups. While biomedical scientists and trainees are schooled in discovery research, the processes of commercialization are foreign or intimidating. Further, many trainees will not aspire to a faculty position, and other avenues of advancement are desirable.
At Case Western Reserve University, we developed and launched a Translational Fellows Program to provide such training for the community, focusing specifically on graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. The goals of this program include familiarizing our trainees with the principles of entrepreneurship, product development, and startups. This is accomplished through study of their laboratory’s technology to identify points of translational focus and to increase awareness to potentially move ideas and products toward societal impact. This program leverages much of our existing infrastructure and provides a mechanism for the prioritization of the translation of the technology as well as “release-time” to promote effort.
Launched in summer 2020, our first cohort had 3 of the 12 fellows launching startups based on their technology and submitting an National Institutes of Health Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) proposal. At least 80% reported increased knowledge and confidence in five of six key translational competencies.
We are now continuing and improving the program and searching for sustainable support to stabilize the program for a long-term productive future.
Dietary pattern analysis is typically based on dimension reduction and summarises the diet with a small number of scores. We assess ‘joint and individual variance explained’ (JIVE) as a method for extracting dietary patterns from longitudinal data that highlights elements of the diet that are associated over time. The Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study, in which participants completed an FFQ at ages 3·5 (n 549), 7 (n 591) and 11 (n 617), is used as an example. Data from each time point are projected onto the directions of shared variability produced by JIVE to yield dietary patterns and scores. We assess the ability of the scores to predict future BMI and blood pressure measurements of the participants and make a comparison with principal component analysis (PCA) performed separately at each time point. The diet could be summarised with three JIVE patterns. The patterns were interpretable, with the same interpretation across age groups: a vegetable and whole grain pattern, a sweets and meats pattern and a cereal v. sweet drinks pattern. The first two PCA-derived patterns were similar across age groups and similar to the first two JIVE patterns. The interpretation of the third PCA pattern changed across age groups. Scores produced by the two techniques were similarly effective in predicting future BMI and blood pressure. We conclude that when data from the same participants at multiple ages are available, JIVE provides an advantage over PCA by extracting patterns with a common interpretation across age groups.
Poor mental health is a state of psychological distress that is influenced by lifestyle factors such as sleep, diet, and physical activity. Compulsivity is a transdiagnostic phenotype cutting across a range of mental illnesses including obsessive–compulsive disorder, substance-related and addictive disorders, and is also influenced by lifestyle. Yet, how lifestyle relates to compulsivity is presently unknown, but important to understand to gain insights into individual differences in mental health. We assessed (a) the relationships between compulsivity and diet quality, sleep quality, and physical activity, and (b) whether psychological distress statistically contributes to these relationships.
We collected harmonized data on compulsivity, psychological distress, and lifestyle from two independent samples (Australian n = 880 and US n = 829). We used mediation analyses to investigate bidirectional relationships between compulsivity and lifestyle factors, and the role of psychological distress.
Higher compulsivity was significantly related to poorer diet and sleep. Psychological distress statistically mediated the relationship between poorer sleep quality and higher compulsivity, and partially statistically mediated the relationship between poorer diet and higher compulsivity.
Lifestyle interventions in compulsivity may target psychological distress in the first instance, followed by sleep and diet quality. As psychological distress links aspects of lifestyle and compulsivity, focusing on mitigating and managing distress may offer a useful therapeutic approach to improve physical and mental health. Future research may focus on the specific sleep and diet patterns which may alter compulsivity over time to inform lifestyle targets for prevention and treatment of functionally impairing compulsive behaviors.
Two introduced carnivores, the European red fox Vulpes vulpes and domestic cat Felis catus, have had extensive impacts on Australian biodiversity. In this study, we collate information on consumption of Australian birds by the fox, paralleling a recent study reporting on birds consumed by cats. We found records of consumption by foxes on 128 native bird species (18% of the non-vagrant bird fauna and 25% of those species within the fox’s range), a smaller tally than for cats (343 species, including 297 within the fox’s Australian range, a subset of that of the cat). Most (81%) bird species eaten by foxes are also eaten by cats, suggesting that predation impacts are compounded. As with consumption by cats, birds that nest or forage on the ground are most likely to be consumed by foxes. However, there is also some partitioning, with records of consumption by foxes but not cats for 25 bird species, indicating that impacts of the two predators may also be complementary. Bird species ≥3.4 kg were more likely to be eaten by foxes, and those <3.4 kg by cats. Our compilation provides an inventory and describes characteristics of Australian bird species known to be consumed by foxes, but we acknowledge that records of predation do not imply population-level impacts. Nonetheless, there is sufficient information from other studies to demonstrate that fox predation has significant impacts on the population viability of some Australian birds, especially larger birds, and those that nest or forage on the ground.
Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in inflammatory biomarkers are important in depression. However, previous meta-analyses disagree on these associations, and errors in data extraction may account for these discrepancies.
PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to 14 January 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies examining the association between depression and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were eligible. Errors were classified as follows: incorrect sample sizes, incorrectly used standard deviation, incorrect participant inclusion, calculation error, or analysis with insufficient data. We determined their impact on the results after correction thereof.
Errors were noted in 14 of the 15 meta-analyses included. Across 521 primary studies, 118 (22.6%) showed the following errors: incorrect sample sizes (20 studies, 16.9%), incorrect use of standard deviation (35 studies, 29.7%), incorrect participant inclusion (7 studies, 5.9%), calculation errors (33 studies, 28.0%), and analysis with insufficient data (23 studies, 19.5%). After correcting these errors, 11 (29.7%) out of 37 pooled effect sizes changed by a magnitude of more than 0.1, ranging from 0.11 to 1.15. The updated meta-analyses showed that elevated levels of TNF- α, IL-6, CRP, but not IL-1β, are associated with depression.
These findings show that data extraction errors in meta-analyses can impact findings. Efforts to reduce such errors are important in studies of the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers, for which high heterogeneity and conflicting results have been continuously reported.
Tinnitus is associated with a variety of cognitive, psychosocial and psychiatric disorders, and may contribute to suicidality. However, the prevalence of suicidal ideation (SI) in tinnitus populations has not previously been systematically reviewed.
Medline, Embase and PsychInfo were searched in August 2020 to identify studies that assessed suicidal ideation in people aged 16 years and above with subjective tinnitus.
Six cross-sectional studies were included, representing 7192 tinnitus sufferers across 4 countries. The pooled prevalence of suicidal ideation in tinnitus populations was 20.6 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval, 10.8–30.3 per cent; I2 = 88 per cent). Two studies included a control population, in which the prevalence of suicidal ideation was significantly lower. The quality of included studies was variable.
It is not possible to arrive at any reasonable conclusion given the lack of quality studies, meaning the pooled prevalence should be interpreted very cautiously. Suicidal ideation may be more prevalent in tinnitus populations. Further large-scale epidemiological research investigating this relationship is needed, which may help psychiatric risk stratification.
The purpose of this study was to pilot safety and tolerability of a 1-week aerobic exercise program during the post-acute phase of concussion (14–25 days post-injury) by examining adherence, symptom response, and key functional outcomes (e.g., cognition, mood, sleep, postural stability, and neurocognitive performance) in young adults.
A randomized, non-blinded pilot clinical trial was performed to compare the effects of aerobic versus non-aerobic exercise (placebo) in concussion patients. The study enrolled three groups: 1) patients with concussion/mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) randomized to an aerobic exercise intervention performed daily for 1-week, 2) patients with concussion/mTBI randomized to a non-aerobic (stretching and calisthenics) exercise program performed daily for 1-week, and 3) non-injured, no intervention reference group.
Mixed-model analysis of variance results indicated a significant decrease in symptom severity scores from pre- to post-intervention (mean difference = −7.44, 95% CI [−12.37, −2.20]) for both concussion groups. However, the pre- to post-change was not different between groups. Secondary outcomes all showed improvements by post-intervention, but no differences in trajectory between the groups. By three months post-injury, all outcomes in the concussion groups were within ranges of the non-injured reference group.
Results from this study indicate that the feasibility and tolerability of administering aerobic exercise via stationary cycling in the post-acute time frame following post-concussion (14–25 days) period are tentatively favorable. Aerobic exercise does not appear to negatively impact recovery trajectories of neurobehavioral outcomes; however, tolerability may be poorer for patients with high symptom burden.
Healthcare personnel with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were interviewed to describe activities and practices in and outside the workplace. Among 2,625 healthcare personnel, workplace-related factors that may increase infection risk were more common among nursing-home personnel than hospital personnel, whereas selected factors outside the workplace were more common among hospital personnel.
Women with underlying cardiac conditions have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Counselling reproductive age women with heart disease is important to assist them in deciding whether to pursue pregnancy, to ensure their best cardiovascular status prior to pregnancy, and that they understand the risks of pregnancy for them and baby. This also provides an opportunity to explore management strategies to reduce risks. For this growing cohort of women, there is a great need for pre-conceptual counselling.
This retrospective comparative audit assessed new referrals and pre-conceptual counselling of women attending a joint obstetric–cardiology clinic at a tertiary maternity centre in a 12-month period of 2015–2016 compared with 2018–2019. This reflected the timing of the introduction of a multidisciplinary meeting prior to clinics and assessed the impact on referrals with the introduction of the European Society of Cardiology guidelines.
Data were reviewed from 56 and 67 patients in respective audit periods. Patient’s risk was stratified using modified World Health Organization classification.
Less than 50% of women with pre-existing cardiac conditions had received pre-conceptual counselling, although half of them had risks clearly documented. The majority of patients had a recent electrocardiograph and echocardiogram performed prior to counselling, and there was a modest improvement in the number of appropriate functional tests performed between time points. One-third of patients in both cohorts were taking cardiac medications during pregnancy.
There was a significant increase in the number of pregnant women with cardiac disease and in complexity according to modified World Health Organization risk classification. While there have been improvements, it is clear that further work to improve availability and documentation of pre-pregnancy counselling is needed.
Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak of the temporal bone is an emerging clinical entity for which prompt and accurate diagnosis is difficult given the subtle signs and symptoms that patients present with. This study sought to describe the key temporal bone abnormalities in patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted of adult patients with biochemically confirmed spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak. Demographics and radiological features identified on computed tomography imaging of the temporal bones and/or magnetic resonance imaging were analysed.
Sixty-one patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak were identified. Fifty-four patients (88.5 per cent) underwent both temporal bone computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Despite imaging revealing bilateral defects in over 75 per cent of the cohort, only two patients presented with bilateral spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Anterior tegmen mastoideum defects were most common, with an average size of 2.5 mm (range, 1–10 mm).
Temporal bone computed tomography is sensitive for the identification of defects when suspicion exists. In the setting of an opacified middle ear and/or mastoid, close examination of the skull base is crucial given that this fluid is potentially cerebrospinal fluid.
Regular physical activity is safe and effective therapy for adults with CHD and is recommended by European Society of Cardiology guidelines. The COVID-19 pandemic poses enormous challenges to healthcare teams and patients when ensuring guideline compliance. We explored the implications of COVID-19 on physical activity levels in adult CHD patients.
Materials and methods:
A data-based questionnaire was distributed to adult CHD patients at a regional tertiary centre from October to November 2020.
Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, 96 (79.3%) of 125 respondents reported participating in regular physical activity, with 66 (52.8%) meeting target levels (moderate physical activity for at least 150 minutes per week). Commonest motivations for physical activity were general fitness (53.6%), weight loss (36.0%), and mental health benefits (30.4%). During the pandemic, the proportion that met target levels significantly decreased from 52.8% to 40.8% (p = 0.03). The commonest reason was fear of COVID-19 (28.0%), followed by loss of motivation (23.2%) and gym/fitness centre closure (15.2%).
The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted exercise levels of adult CHD patients. Most do not meet recommended physical activity levels, mainly attributable to fear of COVID-19. Even before the pandemic, only half of respondents met physical activity guidelines. Availability of online classes can positively impact exercise levels so could enhance guideline compliance. This insight into health perceptions and behaviours of adult CHD patients may help develop quality improvement initiatives to improve physical activity levels in this population.
The extent to which obsessive–compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) are impulsive, compulsive, or both requires further investigation. We investigated the existence of different clusters in an online nonclinical sample and in which groups DSM-5 OCRDs and other related psychopathological symptoms are best placed.
Seven hundred and seventy-four adult participants completed online questionnaires including the Cambridge–Chicago Compulsivity Trait Scale (CHI-T), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), and a series of DSM-5 OCRDs symptom severity and other psychopathological measures. We used K-means cluster analysis using CHI-T and BIS responses to test three and four factor solutions. Next, we investigated whether different OCRDs symptoms predicted cluster membership using a multinomial regression model.
The best solution identified one “healthy” and three “clinical” clusters (ie, one predominantly “compulsive” group, one predominantly “impulsive” group, and one “mixed”—“compulsive and impulsive group”). A multinomial regression model found obsessive–compulsive, body dysmorphic, and schizotypal symptoms to be associated with the “mixed” and the “compulsive” clusters, and hoarding and emotional symptoms to be related, on a trend level, to the “impulsive” cluster. Additional analysis showed cognitive-perceptual schizotypal symptoms to be associated with the “mixed” but not the “compulsive” group.
Our findings suggest that obsessive–compulsive disorder; body dysmorphic disorder and schizotypal symptoms can be mapped across the “compulsive” and “mixed” clusters of the compulsive–impulsive spectrum. Although there was a trend toward hoarding being associated with the “impulsive” group, trichotillomania, and skin picking disorder symptoms did not clearly fit to the demarcated clusters.