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Substance use disorders are highly prevalent, affecting millions of Americans directly (social, occupational, and health problems) and indirectly (billions of dollars in health care costs and lost revenues due to disability). This section briefly introduces the chemical classification and neurobehavioral properties of the most commonly misused substances.
The multiphase simulations are conducted with the kinetic-magnetohydrodynamics hybrid code MEGA to investigate the spatial and the velocity distributions of lost fast ions due to the Alfvén eigenmode (AE) bursts in the Large Helical Device plasmas. It is found that fast ions are lost along the divertor region with helical symmetry both before and during the AE burst except for the promptly lost particles. On the other hand, several peaks are present in the spatial distribution of lost fast ions along the divertor region. These peaks along the divertor region can be attributed to the deviation of the fast-ion orbits from the magnetic surfaces due to the grad-B and the curvature drifts. For comparison with the velocity distribution of lost fast ions measured by the fast-ion loss detector (FILD), the ‘numerical FILD’ which solves the Newton–Lorentz equation is constructed in the MEGA code. The velocity distribution of lost fast ions detected by the numerical FILD during AE burst is in good qualitative agreement with the experimental FILD measurements. During the AE burst, fast ions with high energy (100–180 keV) are detected by the numerical FILD, while co-going fast ions lost to the divertor region are the particles with energy lower than 50 keV.
The rate of passage (ROP) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) influences the exposure time of food to the digestion and absorption processes. Consequently, ROP affects the efficiency of nutrient utilization and energy from the diet. This study aimed to determine the physiological parameters that characterize the digestive response, such as first appearance time (FAT), ROP, mean retention time (MRT) and transit time (TT) in adult Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), and to evaluate the effects of sex, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) content in the diet and different types of markers on these parameters. In the first trial, we investigated the effects of sex and AMEn level (high- and low-energy diet) on the FAT parameter. Thirty-two male and 32 female Japanese quail were randomly allocated to 8 battery cages and assigned to 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 4 replicates of 4 birds for each treatment. To determine the FAT, ferric oxide (1%) was added to the diet, and the excreta of the quail was monitored until the first appearance of the marker. The results indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) in the FAT between males (100 min) and females (56 min), regardless of the AMEn content. In the second trial, thirty-two 32-week-old female Japanese quail in the laying phase were assigned to four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, in which the main independent variables were type of marker (Cr or Ti) and AMEn level (high- and low-energy diets). In order to determine ROP (ET1%), MRT and TT (ET100%), the markers (0.5%: Cr2O3 and 0.5%: TiO2) were added to the diets, and the excreta were collected for 750 min. The excretion times for 1% (ET1%), 25% (ET25%), 50% (ET50%), 75% (ET75%) and 100% (ET100%) were estimated using cumulative excretion curves. No effect was detected for the AMEn level (P > 0.05); however, the effect of different marker types was significant (P < 0.05). This difference increased with time and ET100% was estimated to occur at 59 min. The ROP was estimated to be 68 min. The TT was estimated to be 540 min using Cr and 599 min using Ti, with an average MRT value of 0930 h. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that Japanese quail digestion through the GIT can be dynamic and differ based on sex or marker type.
Nutritionists have been discussing whether the dietary supplementation of cyst(e)ine is required as a part of the dietary methionine (Met) in the total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) requirement to achieve optimum performance in broilers. Part of Met is converted to cysteine (Cys) to meet the Cys requirement, especially for feather growth. The TSAA requirement has been determined by using graded levels of free Met in the diet, without supplementation of free cyst(e)ine. It has also been argued that the Met to Cys ratio (Met : Cys) changes with age and even with different Met sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the two sources of Met, while determining the proportion of Met and Cys in total dietary TSAA that optimize the performance of broilers. A performance assay was carried out in a factorial arrangement (5 × 2) using 1080 broilers from 42 to 56 days of age fed diets having different dietary proportions of Met and Cys (44 : 56, 46 : 54, 48 : 52, 50 : 50 or 52 : 48) while maintaining the same dietary TSAA in the diets. Two synthetic Met sources (dl-Met or l-Met) were used for each of the diets with different dietary Met : Cys ratios. Twenty-one broilers of the same age were fed the diets 44 : 56, 48 : 52 and 52 : 48 by supplementing the diet with L-(15N) Met or L-(15N2) Cystine to study the metabolism of TSAA. No differences were observed between Met sources for feed intake, BW gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR; P > 0.05); however, FCR was numerically improved at 50 : 50 Met : Cys. Regarding TSAA utilization, the conversion of Met to Cys increased with increase in Met : Cys ratios, but the concentration of Met intermediates decreased. Broiler chickens responded to different dietary proportions of sulfur amino acids by altering their sulfur amino acid metabolism, and diets containing 50 : 50 Met : Cys is recommended for broilers of age 42 to 56 days.
Previous studies have shown that the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is involved in the characterization of personality traits. FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51 or FKBP5) is a co-chaperone of heat-shock protein 90, and plays an important role in the negative feedback regulation of HPA axis function. It has been reported that a C/T single nucleotide polymorphism in the intron 2 of FKBP5 gene (rs1360780) affects FKBP5 protein levels and cortisol response to dexamethasone and psychological stress tests. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the FKBP5 polymorphism affects personality traits. In the present study, we studied the association between this polymorphism and personality traits in healthy subjects.
Subjects were 826 Japanese healthy volunteers. Personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the FKBP5 genotype was detected by a real-time PCR and cycling probe technology for SNP typing.
In total subjects, the group with the T allele predictive of impaired negative feedback regulation of the HPA axis had higher scores of harm avoidance (p = 0.043) and lower scores of cooperativeness (p = 0.019) compared to that without the T allele. The T allele was associated with higher scores of harm avoidance in females (p = 0.020) and lower scores of cooperativeness in males (p = 0.015).
The present study thus suggests that the FKBP5 polymorphism affects harm avoidance and cooperativeness in healthy subjects, with gender specificity.
Previous studies have shown that the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is involved in the characterization of personality traits. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is the most important regulator of the HPA axis negative feedback system, and several polymorphisms of the GR gene are associated with altered glucocorticoid sensitivity. In the present study, we examined the associations between the GR polymorphisms and personality traits in healthy subjects.
Subjects were 880 Japanese healthy volunteers. Personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Two polymorphisms of the GR gene, i.e., G/C SNP in the intron 2 (BcII polymorphism, rs41423247) and A/G SNP in the exon 9β (9β polymorphism, rs6198), were detected by a real-time PCR and cycling probe technology for SNP typing.
The genotype distributions were G/G = 614, G/C = 240, and C/C = 26 for the BcII polymorphism, and A/A = 879 and A/G = 1 for the 9β polymorphism, respectively. There were no significant associations between the BcII genotype groups in any TCI dimension score.
The present study suggests that these two GR polymorphisms (BcII and 9β polymorphism) are not involved in the characterization of personality traits in healthy subjects.
In 2005, the Medical Treatment and Supervision (MTS) Act was enacted in Japan to hospitalize the criminally insane and to promote a self-supporting lifestyle after deinstitutionalization. As of October 2010, 490 patients remain hospitalized in 23 highly secure forensic hospitals. Most patients are diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and exhibit symptoms of drug resistance. Battering is the most common criminal act they have committed.
The increased prevalence of the combination of criminal insanity with drug dependence is a common problem in other countries as well. It is a serious problem that diversity in prison medical care has not been achieved.
A characteristic feature of care for criminally insane patients in Japan is that they must live in a residential district where a public health center is located and close to forensic hospitals after deinstitutionalization. Although there may be concerns about social prejudice against psychiatric disorders, this limited area would help support rehabilitation of patients because medical staff can easily know the whereabouts, psychiatric condition and aspects, of daily life for each patient through frequent reports obtained from home-visiting nurses. As a result, patients who have been successfully deinstitutionalized lead a self-supporting lifestyle without treatment interruption or repetition of similar criminal acts.
In this presentation, we will show the current status of forensic care in Japan, analyze its characteristics and problems described above, and make suggestions for the treatment of the criminally insane in countries with a small national land area such as Japan.
There is a growing body of data suggesting the gene-environment interaction in the characterization of personality traits, but variation in ordinary parental rearing among environmental factors has not been focused yet. We examined the effects of the interaction between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and parental rearing on personality traits.
Subjects were 710 Japanese healthy volunteers. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which consists of the care and protection factors. Personality assessment was performed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which has 7 dimensions, i.e., novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was detected by the PCR-RFLP method.
Parental rearing has significant main effects on all TCI dimensions except novelty seeking, while no significant main effects of the BDNF genotype on the TCI scores were found. The interaction between the BDNF genotype and maternal care of the PBI had significant effects on harm avoidance and self-directedness of the TCI. Post-hoc analyses showed that decreased maternal care was correlated with increased harm avoidance and decreased self-directedness in most of the genotype groups, and for both personality traits the correlation was highest in the Met/Met genotype and lowest in the Val/Val genotype and that for the Val/Met genotype was in between the two values.
The present study suggests that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the effects of parenting rearing, especially maternal care, on harm avoidance and self-directedness in healthy subjects.
It has been shown that certain personality traits are related to mortality and disease morbidity, but the biological mechanism linking them remains unclear. Telomeres are tandem repeat DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes, and shorter telomere length is a predictor of mortality and late-life disease morbidity. Thus, it is possible that personality traits influence telomere length. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with personality traits in healthy subjects.
Subjects and methods:
The subjects were 209 unrelated healthy Japanese who were recruited from medical students at 4th–5th grade. Assessment of personality traits was performed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Leukocyte relative telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method for a ratio of telomere/single copy gene.
In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, shorter telomere length was related to lower scores of neuroticism (P < 0.01) and conscientiousness (P < 0.05) of the NEO-PI-R, and lower scores of harm avoidance (P < 0.05) and reward dependence (P < 0.05) of the TCI.
The present study suggests that leukocyte telomere length is associated with some personality traits, and this association may be implicated in the relationship between personality traits and mortality.
It has been reported that certain personality traits are related to mortality and disease morbidity, but the biological mechanism linking them remains unclear. Telomeres are tandem repeat DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes, and shorter telomere length is a predictor of mortality and late-life disease morbidity. Thus, it is possible that personality traits influence telomere length. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with personality traits in healthy subjects. The subjects were 209 unrelated physically healthy Japanese who were recruited from medical students at 4th-5th grade. None had psychiatric disorders. 128 subjects were males, and 81 were females. The mean±SD (range) of age was 23.3±1.7 (20-30) years. Personality traits were assessed by the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Leukocyte relative telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method for a ratio of telomere/single copy gene. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, shorter telomere length was related to lower scores of Neuroticism (β=0.208, p< 0.01) and Conscientiousness (β=0.146, p< 0.05) of the NEO-PI-R, and lower scores of Harm avoidance (β=0.144, p< 0.05) and Reward dependence (β=0.170, p< 0.05) of the TCI. The present study suggests that leukocyte telomere length is associated with some personality traits, and this association may be implicated in the relationship between personality traits and mortality.
Interpersonal sensitivity is defined as undue and excessive awareness of, and sensitivity to, the behavior and feelings of others and is one of the vulnerable factors to depression. In a twin study, it was suggested that this personality trait was characterized by both genetic and environmental factors. In the present study, we examined the effects of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and parental rearing on interpersonal sensitivity. The subjects were 725 unrelated healthy Japanese volunteers (mean age±SD=27.1±8.5, 405 males and 320 females). Assessment of interpersonal sensitivity was performed by the Japanese version of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which consists of the care and protection factors. The BDNF polymorphism was detected by the PCR-RFLP method. There was no main effect of the BDNF genotype on the IPSM score, while the PBI factors except maternal care had significant main effect on the IPSM score. There was significant interaction effect between the BDNF genotype and maternal care of the PBI on the IPSM score. Post-hoc analysis of simple slopes showed that the negative relationship between the IPSM score and maternal care was strongest and significant in the Met/Met genotype group, intermediate in the Val/Met genotype group, and weakest in the Val/Val genotype group. The present study suggests that the interaction between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and parental rearing, especially maternal care, influences interpersonal sensitivity in healthy subjects.
P-glycoprotein, which is encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, serves as a barrier to entry and as an active elimination for xenobiotics and cellular metabolites including cortisol, which is implicated in multiple brain functions. Meanwhile, previous studies suggested that genetic factors and cortisol are involved in formation of interpersonal sensitivity, a personality trait predisposing to depression. In the present study, we examined the effects of the C3435T MDR1 polymorphism on interpersonal sensitivity. The subjects were 842 healthy Japanese volunteers. The mean age ±SD of the subjects was 26.7±8.1 (490 males and 352 females). The C3435T polymorphism of MDR1 gene was detected by a PCR method, and interpersonal sensitivity was assessed by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). In total subjects, the C allele of the C3435T MDR1 polymorphism was associated with higher scores of the IPSM. In females the C/C genotype group had higher IPSM scores than the C/T genotype group and the T/T genotype group, and the C/T genotype group had higher IPSM scores than the T/T genotype group. In males no significant association was found between the MDR1 genotype and the IPSM scores. The present study suggests that the C3435T polymorphism of the MDR1 gene affects formation of a depression-prone personality trait in Japanese females.
Children with Learning Disorders (LD) are susceptible to decreased self-esteem and willingness because of their difficulty learning, which can lead to exacerbation of the learning difficulty in a vicious cycle. Appropriate learning supports may help not only in terms of learning, but also psychologically.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological effect of learning supports for children with LD.
The aims are to make clear that psychological changes occur for children by the learning supports.
We conducted 10 learning support sessions for 12 children (age 8–11 years) diagnosed as LD. Afterward, we gave a questionnaire on motivation and self-efficacy in learning to the children and their parents, and a questionnaire on positive participation in class to the children's teachers.
The children's responses showed increased intrinsic motivation with high autonomy, and decreased extrinsic motivation with low autonomy and self-efficacy after supports. the parents’ responses indicated increased self-efficacy and decreased motivation overall after supports, while the teachers’ responses indicated increased positive class participation after supports.
Parents and teachers see that willingness for learning improve through learning supports, but the children themselves feel decreased efficacy. At the same time, the children came to have more autonomous intrinsic motivation for learning. Both of motivation and willigness increased through learning supports, but conversely the children came to notice their own weaknesses (true abilities), which is thought to have led to decreased self-efficacy. with continuing support improvement of true efficacy may be expected.
The Keio Twin Research Center (KoTReC) was established in 2009 at Keio University to combine two longitudinal cohort projects — the Keio Twin Study (KTS) for adolescence and adulthood and the Tokyo Twin Cohort Project (ToTCoP) for infancy and childhood. KoTReC also conducted a two-time panel study of self-control and psychopathology in twin adolescence in 2012 and 2013 and three independent anonymous cross-sectional twin surveys (ToTcross) before 2012 — the ToTCross, the Junior and Senior High School Survey and the High School Survey. This article introduces the recent research designs of KoTReC and its publications.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
To investigate the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in the matrix of human acquired cholesteatoma compared to the deep meatal skin. This topic does not appear to have been fully investigated before.
An immunochemical study was conducted. Cholesteatoma tissues from adult patients were collected during surgery (n = 19). Control specimens were taken from the deep meatal skin (n = 8) and compared.
A highly significant difference in basic fibroblast growth factor expression was identified between cholesteatoma and skin (mean ± standard error = 58.53 ± 3.6 per cent in cholesteatoma vs 40.6 ± 3.5 per cent in skin; p = 0.005). Both basal and parabasal keratinocytes were stained positive with basic fibroblast growth factor. Additionally, there was specific staining in the basal columnar middle-ear epithelium and mast cell membrane.
Basic fibroblast growth factor plays an active role in proliferative activity of cholesteatoma through its overexpression in basal and parabasal layers of cholesteatoma matrix. Moreover, its expression in the mast cell membrane supports its role in bone resorption activity.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Because of a lack of gold standard diagnostics, a combination of multiple diagnostic tests, or composite diagnostic standard, has been used to measure pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) in pneumococcal vaccine trials. We estimated the accuracy of composite diagnostic standards for PP used in previous randomised controlled trials by simple formulas. A systematic literature review identified five eligible trials and all trials had used different combinations of diagnostic tests for PP. The estimated values of sensitivity and minimum specificity of composite diagnostic standards varied substantially between trials: 48.4% to 98.1% and 71.0% to 97.3%, respectively. Without standardizing the outcome measurements, pneumococcal vaccine efficacy estimates against PP are not comparable between trials and their pooled estimates are biased.
In this work we have conducted a study on the radiative and spectroscopic properties of the radiative precursor and the post-shock region from experiments with radiative shocks in xenon performed at the Orion laser facility. The study is based on post-processing of radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the experiment. In particular, we have analyzed the thermodynamic regime of the plasma, the charge state distributions, the monochromatic opacities and emissivities, and the specific intensities for plasma conditions of both regions. The study of the intensities is a useful tool to estimate ranges of electron temperatures present in the xenon plasma in these experiments and the analysis performed of the microscopic properties commented above helps to better understand the intensity spectra. Finally, a theoretical analysis of the possibility of the onset of isobaric thermal instabilities in the post-shock has been made, concluding that the instabilities obtained in the radiative-hydrodynamic simulations could be thermal ones due to strong radiative cooling.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.