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Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality worldwide, and childhood excess weight/obesity are strong correlators of accumulated risk in later life. A relationship between maternal preeclampsia and offspring’s childhood obesity is recognized, but most studies fail to control for strong confounders. Our goal is to analyze the association between preeclampsia and childhood excess weight/obesity, after accounting for important confounders. We recruited 5133 women with singleton pregnancies during admission for delivery. Sixty-seven pregnancies were complicated by preeclampsia. Maternal and children outcomes were assessed at 10 years of age. We analyzed the association between preeclampsia and childhood excess weight/obesity by fitting a linear regression model (using offspring body mass index (BMI) z-score at 10 years of age) and a logistic regression model (using excess weight/obesity status). We then controlled both models for known confounders, namely maternal prepregnancy BMI, parity, and smoking during pregnancy. At 10 years of age, offspring of preeclamptic mothers had a higher BMI z-score and were more likely classified as overweight/obese, but these differences were not statistically significant. After controlling for maternal prepregnancy BMI, parity, and smoking during pregnancy, there was a high magnitude change in the beta coefficient of preeclampsia in the linear (0.175; −0.014) and the logistic regression models (1.48; 1.23) suggesting that the association between preeclampsia and childhood excess weigh/obesity is significantly confounded by these variables. These confounders also showed a significant association with childhood obesity. This finding suggests that in utero exposure to preeclampsia seems to have less impact in childhood obesity than the previously described confounders.
“Rite of passage” is an etnographic concept developed by VanGennep that defines the vital transition of an individual between two different status. It is divided in three stages: separation, liminal/threshold and aggregation. Turner described the liminal phase, and the terms of “communitas” and “liminoid” (structure of a rite without religious/spiritual elements). One widely-known Rite of Passage is the initiation of the shamans.
Study the elements of a rite of passage present in Psychiatric Trainning.
• Field study (observational, descriptive, non-experimental).
• Preliminary Sample=10trainees (5man+5women); last year of Psychiatric Trainning.
• “ad hoc” semi-structured interview (21items subdivided in open questions). 10interviews (average duration=75mins). Permanent register:digital recorder.
• Summary and analysis of the answers. Review of the literature.
- Psychiatric Trainning shared the elements and tri-phasic structure of VanGennep's “rite of passage” concept
- Trainees saw themselves as more empathic(7/10) and humanistic(8/10) than other specialties colleagues. Stigma towards mental illness(8/10) and fear of suicide(9/10) were also considered as their distinctives.
- The collective behaved as a communitas(10/10)
- No spiritual elements(0/10): liminoid process
- Resemblances of the ancestral shamans' Initiation: Despite bloody practices were over, suffering was also present(7/10), but was seen as necessary(6/10) and well tolerated(7/10).
- Trainees felt that they grew spiritual and mentally(7/10) during the trainning years
Results suggest that Psychiatric Trainning has stable phenomena that:
• are compatible with the Rite of Passage schema
• Are considered exclusive of Psychiatry by trainees
• Have not been systematically studied as a whole, which could help to improve the training.
Serotonin Syndrome (SS) is an adverse drug reaction that drives mental-status changes, autonomic hyperactivity and neuromuscular abnormalities.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is an idiopathic reaction to dopamine-antagonist that consists of extra-pyramidal symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, hyperthermia, diaphoresis and fluctuating consciousness.
Differential diagnosis is sometimes difficult for their overlapping clinical features. Potentially lethal, both require heightened clinical awareness for prevention, recognition and prompt treatment.
Caucasian 59 years-old woman with Catatonic profile (Scored: severity-17points/ 5 screening in Bush-Francis Catatonia-Rating-Scale).
Past Medical History
- Bipolar Disorder type-2 (25 years of evolution)
15 days before hospitalization, anafranil and fluoxetine treatment was replaced by Trazodone 200 mg/day and venlafaxine 150mg/day. She was also on valpromida and lorazepam 15 mg/day.
Mutism, negativism. No reaction to painful stimuli, stuporous. Diaphoresis, pallor, tremor, axial rigidity without pyramidalism (>lower limbs), high fever (40°C), tachycardia (>100lpm), rhabdomyolysis (CPK reached 17.000, 48 hours after the admission), leukocytosis, upper transaminasas, hiponatremia with hiperpotasemia.
-NMS: Intensity, duration and high CPK are suggestive (Sternbach). This syndrome has been described due to Venlafaxine.
-SS: Combination of Venlafaxine and Trazodone favors but she doesn't have acatisia, hiperreflexia, diarrhea and it wasn't resolved after 96 hours.
Drugs were removed and Lorazepam on high doses (5mg/day) was prescribed. One month later the patient was totally recovered of the episode.
If unsure diagnoses it's priority to remove the causing drugs and supportive care. Afterwards, it can be used benzodiacepines, also dantroleno in SNM.
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis defends the existance of factors that would cause an early impairment on the normal brain development. The neurodegenerative hypothesis proposes the existance of later and progressive pathological phenomena, responsible of the appearance of clinical manifestations and changes on neuroimaging. Both hypotheses would be complementary. Neurodevelopment is completed during adolescence. Within this period, these deficts on executive functions would become apparent, reflecting a neurodevelopmental impairment. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter, present throughout the normal postnatal brain development and maduration. In schizophrenic patients and unaffected relatives, a glutamatergic hypofunction has been found and so, an alteration of the dopaminergic mesocortical limbic and nigrostriatal pathways.
Usage of molecules that are capable of reversing the glutamatergic hypofunction would be potentially benefitial for either positive or negative symptomathology in schizophrenia.
We have performed a review of several clinical trials (on humans and animals) using glutamatergic drugs alone and combined with neuroleptics to diminish behavioural disturbances related to NMDA blockage.
Usage of glycine binding site agonists (glycine, D- cicloserine, D-serine) has been proposed. D-serine is effective both as monotherapy and combined with neuroleptics. D-cicloserine is not effective on negative symptoms. Usage of high doses of oral glycine (30–60 mg a day) on its own has not shown any clinical change but there is an improvement on negative and positive symptoms if combined with neuroleptics.
Nowadays, there is no glutamatergic agonist used in schizophrenia treatment. Out of the three previously mentioned drugs, only D-serine has shown some efficacy.
Psychotic diseases in the elderly are underdiagnosed due to the limited use of medical resources. Advanced age makes psychoses of any cause less pure and differentiated, since old age adds a cognitive-impairment component to the basal psychotic defect.
We intend to estimate the prevalence of paranoid symptoms in older patients, and to study the many medical conditions associated with psychosis.
We conducted a literature review and we have performed a review of several clinical trials.
We found 12.1% of paranoid symptoms in the elderly with cognitive impairment. In absence of this factor, we found a prevalence of 14.1% for suspicion tendencies, 6.9% for paranoid thoughts and 5.5% for evident delusions. These figures were significantly higher in old black people.
We present a table of the main medical conditions that can produce psychotic symptoms. Some cases of apparently typical delusional disorder can appear as a long-term complication of some of these diseases. If organic factors are subtle and long lasting, the clinical may reproduce a fairly typical delusional disorder and may respond to treatment with neuroleptic drugs.
It seems possible that organic brain factors are more common that we believe, becoming essential a comprehensive study of the old psychotic patient. We should pay more attention to psychotic symptoms in elderly patients and avoid conclusions based on cross-evaluations. Diagnosis will be defined by evolution in most of the cases.
Late psychoses are a heterogeneous group of disorders whose nosology has been controversial throughout history. The concept of dementia praecox introduced by Kraepelin, and based on the progressive deterioration and early onset, has been so dominant in the last decades that few issues have created as much controversy as that schizophrenia can begin in late age. Our purpose is to identify the different obstacles in the research in late psychoses to be able to overcome these limitations and improve the study in this area.
A literature review was achieved using the National Library of Medicine and PubMed search system.
We found historical limitations, because over the last century, different schools of psychiatry have used different nomenclatures and age limits to define late-onset psychotic disorders. Prevailing beliefs in the low frequency of these diseases or in the association of the onset of psychotic symptoms in the elderly with cognitive impairment have interfered with epidemiological research in this area. Moreover, older psychotic patients are often excluded from epidemiological and pharmacological research. Lack of insight and social isolation determine sampling bias and reliability problems.
Seemengly strong knowledge on late-onset schizophrenia is based, in fact, in samples from patients with late paraphrenia or mixed samples. It becomes mandatory to define concepts and establish diagnostic criteria, and to conduct multicenter studies to increase the size of our samples.
Four psychotherapies have been recognized as effective with scientific evidence for the treatment of BPD, but are long term techniques. It is necessary to explore new time limited psychotherapies in order to be more accessible.
We have developed a specific manualized psychotherapy for BPD named Psychic Representation focused Psychotherapy (PRFP)
To assess the efficacy of the PRFP in BPD in an outpatient care setting compared to a control group receiving psychiatric treatment “as usual” in several specific symptoms and in diminishing the disability due to the illness.
60 subjects with BPD were randomized to one of the two treatment groups. The study group has received PRFP with 20 sessions on a weekly basis; the control group has received treatment “as usual”. Both groups may receive psychopharmacological treatment. The assessment is done in four time-points: at baseline, after the psychotherapy or conventional treatment (six months), and at a six and twelve month's follow-up period.
Preliminary results of the first 30 patients (control group 17, experimental group 13, without significant differences, Age 18–35 years; 70% women) assessed at the baseline and at the end of the intervention (six months). Experimental group reached a statistically significant clinical improvement over the controls in all measured variables: Scales: SCL-90; Zanarini ; MDRS; Barrat; STAI anxiety state; Rosemberg self-esteem and SASS social adaptation.
The preliminary results are encouraging and reveal that this method could be effective. This study state the interest in develop more studies about time limited psychotherapy for BPD.
Migratory mourning has specific features and migration is itself a risk factor for mental health. Basic grieving relate to seven areas: family and friends, language, culture, land, social status, contact with the national group and physical risks, as well as general mourning the failure of the migration project.
We intend to trace the process of acculturation seeking to distinguish its symptoms from those of most common psychiatric disorders.
We conducted a literature review using the National Library of Medicine and PubMed search system.
Adaptation process traces a U-shaped curve. In the second stage called crisis stage may appear rejection or isolation, sadness, crying, sleeplessness, irritability, distrust, recurrent and intrusive thoughts, psychosomatic symptoms (headaches, fatigue, musculoskeletal pain), dissociative and somatoform symptoms. Stress reactions can occur with cognitive fatigue, role and personal shocks.
Ulysses syndrome has features in common with acute stress disorder or adjustment disorder. Differential aspects regarding DSM-IV are: multiple identifiable stressors of high intensity, long duration, cultural interpretations and association of dissociative and somatoform symptoms.
Main observed pathologies are: PTSD, schizophrenia and paranoia, somatization and affective disorders, whose clinical expression is primarily determined by cultural factors.
Professionals should know the different manifestations of mental illness in immigrant population to distinguish them from experiential reactions and to avoid upset psychiatrization and therapeutic nihilism. Ulysses syndrome seems closer to preventive health and psychosocial support areas.
The studies about the comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have increased in the last years. The comorbidity with Axis I psychiatric disorders complicates the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.
To analyze the prevalence of affective disorders associated with another Axis I psychiatric disorders to treat correctly from the beginning of the diagnosis and to improve the course of the disorder and the quality of life of these patients
The subjects who participated in the study were diagnosed of bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder and MDD, according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. The sample (n = 114) was divided into three groups: MDD (n = 58), BD (n = 31) and a control group of healthy subjects (n = 25). The diagnosis and stability were assessed using the MINI International Neuropsyquiatric Interview and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS).
BD had a significantly association with risk of suicide (38%), anxiety disorder (3.3%) and social phobia (12.9%). It was also reported a significant association between MDD and risk of suicide (71%), manic/hypomanic episodes (25.9%), anxiety disorder (37.9%), social phobia (25.9%) and generalized anxiety disorder (37.9%).
It is necessary for clinical practice an integrative model which takes into account the comorbidity of affective disorders to improve the response to treatment and the prognosis of these mental disorders
Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the prevalence of bipolar disorder might be misdiagnosed initially as unipolar depression due to the difficulty to detect episodes of hypomania. The Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32), validated in Spanish, is a self-report questionnaire with 32 hypomania items designed to screen for hypomanic episodes.
To examine the prevalence of hypomania in patients with unipolar depression. Corroborate the efficacy of the HCL-32 to detect symptoms of hypomania.
The presence of hypomanic symptoms was assessed by the HCL-32 in a sample of 128 subjects diagnosed with bipolar I disorder (n = 30), bipolar II disorder (n = 1), unipolar depression (n = 57), and anxiety disorder (n = 15) according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. A control group of healthy subjects was selected (n = 25).
The discriminative capacity was analyzed by the ROC curve. The AUC was 0.65 which did not indicate a good capacity. The sensitivity (S), specificity (E) and prevalence (P) of hypomania in unipolar patients for the following cut-off points were :14: S = 81.6%,95%CI(69.8, 93.5); E = 30.1%,95%CI(19.7,40.6); P = 74.1%; 15: S = 77.6%,95%CI(64.9,90.3); E = 37.4%,95%CI(26.3,48.4); P = 67.2%; 16: S = 59.2%,95%CI(44.4,73.9); E = 55.4%,95%CI(44.1,74.0); P = 51.7%; 17: S = 55.1%,95%CI(40.2,70.1); E = 57.8%,95%CI(46.6,69.1); P = 48.3%.
The HCL-32 has a high sensitivity but a low specificity as screening instrument. This might explain the high proportion of hypomania found in this study. The difference with previous studies is that our sample was heterogeneous, unstable and serious. This suggests that the HCL-32 is not valid for any psychiatric sample. Future research should develop more specific instruments with better external validity.
N-acetil-aspartate (NAA) is located inside the soma and dendrites. Its believed to be an indirect indicator of the metabolic activity of these cells. Phosphomonoesters (PME) are involved in synthesis of neuronal membranes and phosphodiesters (PDE) in its degradation. Glutamine, an aminoacid produced by glial cells, is transported into the neurone for its transformation into glutamate and gamma aminobutyric acid.
Review clinical trials performed on schizophrenic patients with SF-MRI, with 31P y 1H, to measure concentration of NAA, PME, PDE and glutamine.
Detecting chemichal alterations that could be used as indicators in schizophrenia.
NAA concentration in temporal and frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients, are significantly lower than in healthy controls. In other trials, differences in NAA concentration (measured in prefrontal cortex) have not been found, comparing patients during their first psychotic episode and healthy controls. Lowered concentrations of PME and increased ones of PDE in prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients have been found. Glutamine levels are increased in schizophrenic patients, being directely correlated with the duration of the process. These levels are reduced when antipsychotic drugs are used.
The decrease on NAA levels at schizophrenia onset and on healthy relatives remark its value as an endophenotypical indicator, but not as an illness indicator. Changes on PME and PDE concentrations cannot be used as illness indicators. The increase on glutamine synthesis could be due to glutamatergic hypofunction in schizophrenic patients, but there are other factors that may cause it, so it cannot be used as an indicator.
It is established the presence of seasonal variations in decompensation of patients with bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study is to assess whether other environmental factors such as Moon lighting or the distance between the Moon and Earth are associated with decompensation of this group of disorders.
Material and Methods:
We collected all the attention made ??to the Emergency Department of the Hospital de León for one year (July 2012 to June 2013). We identified patients diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder (F31.x). Consultations were correlated with the following astronomical data: Moon lighting, Moon Phase, Earth-Moon distance and growing or waning moon. Main variables to study were number of emergency consultations and income in hospitalization. It was used for analysis SPSS v20.
From a total of 1405 emergency consultations 96 patients were diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder, of whom 60 required hospitalization. The mean ratio of total number of consultations / total days in a particular moon phase was 0.2858 (95% CI: 0.2313 to 0.3403) with significant variations in the different phases. The mean ratio of total hospitalizations / total days in a particular moon phase was 0.1728 (95% CI: 0.1095 to 0.2361). The comparison of the mean lunar illumination between patients who required admission (mean = 56.7 + / -32.08) and those who were discharged (mean = 43.69 + / -32.39) was found near statistical significance (p = 0.058). There were no significant differences in the Earth-Moon distance or the waxing or waning state of the Moon.
No association was found between the Earth-Moon distance and the number of visits or hospitalizations in bipolar patients. The lunar illumination is higher in cases that required hospitalization and it is necessary conduct a study with a greater potency to establish or definitely reject this finding.
The HDP care structures are intermediate in nature providing an active heatlth care, multidimensional, structured and intensive medical care, aimed at patients with severe and complex system of partial hospitalization in pathology, as well as those patients who do not require, at a given time, income to total time, but are not subject to appropriate outpatient therapeutic gains.
- To analyze the profile of psychotic patients admitted to HDP.
- To know the effectiveness of the intervention in HDP on psychotic patients.
Material and Methods
Prospective naturalistic study of psychotic patients (F2X.XX) entering HDP for 24 months. As main outcome variables use: PANSS score, GAF score and CASH for insight. These scales are passed on valuation and the day of discharge device.
We identified 81 patients that have been hospitalized after an acute event (67, 82.7%). From the initial sample, 22 cases were first psychotic episodes (27.2%), 46 males (56.8%) and 35 women (43.2%), Discharge statistically significant improvement in PANSS score (p objective <0.001) in the GAF score (p> o, o, o, 1) and in CASH to awareness of illness score (p <0,0,0,1).
Intervention in day Hospital on psychotic patients improves psychotic symptoms, functionality and insight.
In the absence of biological measures, diagnostic long-term stability provides the best evidence of diagnostic validity.Therefore,the study of diagnostic stability in naturalistic conditions may reflect clinical validity and utility of current schizophrenia diagnostic criteria.
Describe the diagnostic evolution of schizophrenia in clinical settings.
We examined the stability of schizophrenia first diagnoses (n=26,163) in public mental health centers of Madrid (Spain).Probability of maintaining the diagnosis of schizophrenia was calculated considering the cumulative percentage of each diagnosis per month during 48 months after the initial diagnosis of schizophrenia.
65% of the subjects kept the diagnosis of schizophrenia in subsequent assessments (Figure 1). Patients who changed (35%) did so in the first 4-8 months. After that time gap the rates of each diagnostic category remained stable. Diagnostic shift from schizophrenia was more commonly toward the following diagnoses: personality disorders (F60), delusional disorders (F22), bipolar disorder (F31), persistent mood disorders (F34), acute and transient psychotic disorders (F23) or schizoaffective disorder (F25).
Once it is confirmed, clinical assessment repeatedly maintains the diagnosis of schizophrenia.The time lapse for its confirmation agrees with the current diagnostic criteria in DSM-IV. We will discuss the implications of these findings for the categorical versus dimensional debate in the diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Because of the interest about the physical health in psychiatric patients was made this study, to analyze, in a sample of patients with schizophrenia, the possible occurrence of metabolic disorders, their relationship with treatment, and the interventions need in this regard.
Check if patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics have metabolic disorders
Check if the introduction of information about metabolic disorders influences the habits of life.
A 6 months prospective study with patients followed up in the Day Hospital with an atypical antipsychotic.
The results describe a young population with 59% of males, without adequate dietary habits and with a low activity level. Most patients showed overweight or obesity.
On the other hand the presence of metabolic syndrome was higher in patients with olanzapine and risperidone long-acting injectable, although it was not statistically significant.
In the sample has been found the influence of certain doses of these antipsychotics and their influence on weight. Of note is the decrease in weight with olanzapine, usually associated with antipsychotic drug weight gain and that this study gives an opposite result that may be related to psycho-educational interventions on healthy lifestyles and the consequent change in the behavior in this regard and that received the most study patients.
There are metabolic disorders and overweight problems that are need to investigate into the possible mechanisms of control and early detection. This problems also be likely to be influenced of a healthy lifestyle, which could be the subject of a psycho-educational treatment.
Psychotherapy Focused on Psychic Representation (PFPR) is a new time limited dynamic psychotherapy for the treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. It is a manualized psychodynamic technique based on brief psychoanalytic psychotherapies principles and designed to be applied in the framework of public care services. A randomized and controlled study with a sample of 53 patients was conducted to assess PFPR's efficacy. We are reporting the final results at the end of treatment and at the 6 and 12 months of follow up.
Both groups, the experimental (n=25) and control group (n=28) received treatment as usual. The experimental group received 20 additional PFPR sessions performed by four therapists with homogenous characteristics, specifically trained in this technique. The main outcome variables measures were: Severity global index of SCL-90-R, Barrat Impulsivity Scale scores and Social Adaptation (SASS score). Baseline and conditions at the end of treatment and at the 6 and 12 months of follow up period were compared.
Results and Conclusions:
Results showed significantly better outcomes for the experimental group in all main variables and in most of the secondary ones at the end of treatment. At 6 months follow up, the significant differences remain in level of impulsivity and some other secondary variables. At 12 months follow up the experimental group shows better results in all variables but only depressive symptoms measurement remains significant.
Endocannabinoid system has been highlighted as one of the most relevant research topics by neurobiologists, pharmacists, basic scientists and clinicians. The association between endocannabinoids and its congeners and mood disorders is relatively recent. However, evidence from both clinical and preclinical studies is increasing and many researchers point out endocannabinoid system and particularly endocannabinoids and congeners as promising pharmacological targets.
Aims and objectives
The main objective of this study is to compare the plasma concentrations of endocannabinoids and congeners between a sample of patients with depression and a sample of control subjects, and the influence of variables such as age, body mass index, gender, severity of symptoms, and antidepressant medication.
Plasma concentrations of endocannabinoids and congeners will be analyzed in 69 patients with depression from primary care and 47 controls using mass spectrometry analysis.
Statistically significant differences in 2-arachidonoylglycerol and monoacylglycerols were found between both samples. Somatic symptoms of depression seems to be more related to these compounds that to cognitive-affective symptoms. In addition, differences between mildly and moderately depressed patients were found in concentrations of AEA, LEA, DGLEA and POEA. Patients with antidepressant medication showed higher levels of 2-AG, DGLEA and OEA.
The results of this study provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that in depression there is a dysregulation of the inflammatory signaling and, consequently the immune system. The results of this study could also support the realization of translational research to better understand the mechanisms of this widely distributed system.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Endocannabinoid System (ECS) has been highlighted as one of the most relevant research topics by neurobiologists, pharmacists, basic scientists and clinicians (Skaper and Di Marzo, 2012). Recent work has associated major depressive disorder with the ECS (Ashton and Moore, 2011). Despite the close relationship between depression and bipolar disorders, as far as we know, there is no characterization of ECS and congeners in a sample of patients with bipolar disorders.
Aims and objectives
The objective of this work is to characterize the plasma levels of endocannabinoids and congeners in a sample of patients with bipolar disorders.
The clinical group was composed by 19 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorders using SCID-IV (First et al., 1999). The control group was formed by 18 relatives of first- or second-degree of the patients.
The following endocannabinoids and congeners were quantified: N-palmitoleoylethanolamide (POEA), N-palmitolylethanolamide (PEA), N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA), N-stearoylethanolamide (SEA), N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), N-dihomo-γ-linolenoylethanolamide (DGLEA), N-docosatetraenoylethanolamide (DEA), N-linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), N-docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), 2-linoleoylglycerol (2-LG), and 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG).
The result showed statistically significant lower levels of AEA, DEA and DHEA in clinical sample. Previous research also identified lower levels of AEA in depressed women (Hill et al., 2008, 2009). Until date, it is unknown if DEA and DHEA have some effect on EC receptors, and whether they have some direct effects on endocannabinoids.
It would be necessary to carry our other research with a larger sample, which could allow the control of potential confounding variables.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
After Emil Kraepelin's division of psychoses into a group of dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity, the classification of psychoses with atypical symptoms, which could not be assigned in this dichotomy created a debate, that lasts until our days. These “atypical psychoses” had been described under many terms and concepts in different countries.
In 1926, Kleist coined the term “cycloid psychosis” to describe cases which did not meet the typical presentation shown in Kraepelian's dichotomy. Three decades later, Karl Leonhard established the concept of cycloid psychosis as a nosologically independent group of endogenous psychosis.
Make an historical review of the concept of cycloid psychosis. Discuss the clinical features and debate the classification of this clinical entity.
A bibliographical review is made of the cycloid psychosis, based on the data published in Pubmed.
According to Leonhard, cycloid psychosis generally present with bipolar, polymorphous clinical symptomatology, and run a phasic course with complete remissions after each episode. Furthermore, Leonhard delineated three subtypes: anxiety-happiness psychosis, confusion psychosis and motility psychosis presenting with different symptoms. In 1981, Perris and Brockington formulated the first set of operational criteria for cycloid psychoses. In recent years, new data about this entity have been acknowledged due to information displayed by different clinical studies and imaging techniques.
The phenomenology and classification of cycloid psychosis still needs more evidence for a greater use in clinical practice. However, this clinical entity can solve the void for the diagnosis of many of the so-called “atypical psychoses”.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.