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The use of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) options for the analysis of in vitro ruminal fermentation gas production profiles is illustrated. Because of the different variances and covariance structures among profile observations, ordinary ANOVA for more than two-time points is not recommended. To mitigate this problem, the Greenhouse–Geisser epsilon correction can be applied to reduce the degrees of freedom, inflated by violation of the sphericity assumption, for F ratio probability calculations. After this correction, the Box–Greenhouse–Geisser ANOVA (modified ANOVA) layout appears similar to the layout of a split-plot design ANOVA with whole plots divided into subplots (incubation time). Any F tests in the main plot part are valid but F tests involving the time factor from the subplot part need modification because time factor, by its very nature, cannot be allocated at random. Application of multivariate ANOVA, distance multivariate ANOVA, ante-dependence and mixed model analysis are also considered. All these options lend themselves to wide application in the applied biological sciences.
As the feature size of crystalline materials gets smaller, the ability to correctly interpret geometrical sample information from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data becomes more important. This paper uses the notion of transition curves, associated with line scans across grain boundaries (GBs), to correctly account for the finite size of the excitation volume (EV) in the determination of the geometry of the boundary. Various metrics arising from the EBSD data are compared to determine the best experimental proxy for actual numbers of backscattered electrons that are tracked in a Monte Carlo simulation. Consideration of the resultant curves provides an accurate method of determining GB position (at the sample surface) and indicates a significant potential for error in determining GB position using standard EBSD software. Subsequently, simple criteria for comparing experimental and simulated transition curves are derived. Finally, it is shown that the EV is too shallow for the curves to reveal subsurface geometry of the GB (i.e., GB inclination angle) for most values of GB inclination.
Childhood trauma is strongly associated with poor health outcomes. Although many studies have found associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), a well-established indicator of childhood trauma and diet-related health outcomes, few have explored the relationship between ACEs and diet quality, despite growing literature in epidemiology and neurobiology suggesting that childhood trauma has an important but poorly understood relationship with diet. Thus, we performed a cross-sectional study of the association of ACEs and adult diet quality in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a largely low-income and racially diverse population in the southeastern United States. We used ordinal logistic regression to estimate the association of ACEs with the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-10) score among 30 854 adults aged 40–79 enrolled from 2002 to 2009. Having experienced any ACE was associated with higher odds of worse HEI-10 among all (odds ratio (OR) 1⋅22; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1⋅17, 1⋅27), and for all race–sex groups, and remained significant after adjustment for adult income. The increasing number of ACEs was also associated with increasing odds of a worse HEI-10 (OR for 4+ ACEs: 1⋅34; 95 % CI 1⋅27, 1⋅42). The association with worse HEI-10 score was especially strong for ACEs in the household dysfunction category, including having a family member in prison (OR 1⋅34; 95 % CI 1⋅25, 1⋅42) and parents divorced (OR 1⋅25; 95 % CI 1⋅20, 1⋅31). In summary, ACEs are associated with poor adult diet quality, independent of race, sex and adult income. Research is needed to explore whether trauma intervention strategies can impact adult diet quality.
In April 2019, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released its recovery plan for the jaguar Panthera onca after several decades of discussion, litigation and controversy about the status of the species in the USA. The USFWS estimated that potential habitat, south of the Interstate-10 highway in Arizona and New Mexico, had a carrying capacity of c. six jaguars, and so focused its recovery programme on areas south of the USA–Mexico border. Here we present a systematic review of the modelling and assessment efforts over the last 25 years, with a focus on areas north of Interstate-10 in Arizona and New Mexico, outside the recovery unit considered by the USFWS. Despite differences in data inputs, methods, and analytical extent, the nine previous studies found support for potential suitable jaguar habitat in the central mountain ranges of Arizona and New Mexico. Applying slightly modified versions of the USFWS model and recalculating an Arizona-focused model over both states provided additional confirmation. Extending the area of consideration also substantially raised the carrying capacity of habitats in Arizona and New Mexico, from six to 90 or 151 adult jaguars, using the modified USFWS models. This review demonstrates the crucial ways in which choosing the extent of analysis influences the conclusions of a conservation plan. More importantly, it opens a new opportunity for jaguar conservation in North America that could help address threats from habitat losses, climate change and border infrastructure.
Introduction: With the increasing volume of medical literature published each year, it is difficult for clinicians to translate the latest research into practice. Awareness is the first step of knowledge translation and journals have begun using social media to increase the dissemination and awareness of their publications. Infographics can describe research findings visually, are shared broadly on social media, and may be a more effective way to convey information. We hypothesized that infographic abstracts would increase the social media dissemination and online readership of research articles relative to traditional abstracts. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 24 original research articles were chosen from the six issues of the Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine (CJEM) published between July 2016 and May 2017 (4 articles per issue). Half were randomized to the infographic and control groups within each issue. Infographic articles were promoted using a visual infographic outlining the findings of the article. Control articles were promoted using a screen capture image of each articles abstract. Both were disseminated through the journals social media accounts (Twitter and Facebook) along with the link to the selected article. Infographics were also published on CanadiEM.org. Abstract views, full text views, and the change in Altmetric score were tracked for 30 days and compared between groups. Unpaired two-tailed t-tests were used to detect significant differences. Results: Abstract views (mean, SD) were significantly higher for infographic articles (378.9, 162.0) than control articles (175.5, 69.2, p<0.001). Mean Altmetric scores were significantly higher for infographic articles (26.4, 13.8) than control articles (3.4, 1.7, p<0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in full-text views between infographic (49.7, 90.4) and control articles (25.3, 12.3). Conclusion: CJEM articles promoted on social media using infographics had higher abstract viewership and Altmetric scores than those promoted with traditional abstracts. Although there was no difference in full-text readership, our results suggest that infographic abstracts may have a role in increasing the dissemination of medical literature.
Research has shown both production and health benefits for the use of chicory (Cichorium intybus) within ruminant diets. Despite this, little was known about the effects of this forage, containing differing fatty acid profiles and secondary plant compounds compared with ryegrass, on beef stability, fatty acid composition or sensory properties. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether the inclusion of chicory in the diet of grazing beef steers would alter these three properties in the M. Longissimus muscle when compared with beef steers grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Triplicate 2 ha plots were established with a chicory (cv. Puna II)/perennial ryegrass mix or a perennial ryegrass control. A core group of 36 Belgian Blue – cross steers were used within a 2-year beef finishing experiment (n=6/replicate plot). In the 2nd grazing year, steers were slaughtered as they reached a target fat class of 3. Muscle pH was checked 2 and 48 h post-slaughter. A section of the hindloin joint containing the M. Longissimus lumborum muscle was removed and a 20 mm-thick steak was cut and muscle samples were taken for analysis of vitamin E and fatty acid analysis. The remaining section of the loin was vacuum packed in modified atmosphere packs and subjected to simulated retail display. A section of the conditioned loin was used for sensory analysis. Data on pH, vitamin E concentration and colour stability in a simulated retail display showed there were no effects of including chicory in the diet of grazing beef steers on meat stability. There were also no differences found in the fatty acid composition or the overall eating quality of the steaks from the two treatments. In conclusion, there were no substantive effects of including chicory in the swards of grazing beef cattle on meat stability, fatty acid composition or sensory properties of the M. Longissimus muscle when compared with beef steers grazing ryegrass-only swards.
Introduction: The CJEM Social Media Team was created in 2014 to assist the journal with the dissemination of its research online. It consists of two Social Media Editors (Junior and Senior) and a team of volunteer medical students and residents to assist their work. Collaborative promotional agreements were developed to promote CJEM articles on the Skeptics’ Guide to Emergency Medicine (SGEM) podcast through the ‘Hot off the Press’ (HOP) series and the CanadiEM blog through an infographic series. Methods:CJEM papers were selected for promotion by the Team based on their perceived interest to the online community of emergency physicians. Altmetric scores, which are a measure of online dissemination derived from a weighted algorithm of social media metrics, were collated for articles promoted using the SGEM HOP or CanadiEM blogs. A control group was created using the articles with the top two Altmetric scores in each CJEM issue in 2015 and 2016. Erratum, Letters, and articles written by the social media editors were excluded from the control groups. The success of the social media promotion was quantified through the measurement of Altmetric scores as of January 1, 2017. Unpaired two-tailed t-tests with unequal variance were used to test for significant differences. Results: 106 and 82 eligible articles were published in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Four articles in 2015 and two articles in 2016 were excluded from the control groups because they were written by the social media editors. SGEM HOP podcasts promoted one article in 2015 and five articles in 2016. CanadiEM infographics promoted three articles in 2015 and eight articles in 2016. No articles were promoted in both series. The average Altmetric score was higher for SGEM HOP (61.0) than CanadiEM Infographics (31.5, p<0.04), 2015 controls (15.8, p<0.01), and 2016 controls (13.6, p<0.01). The average Altmetric score for CanadiEM Infographics was higher than 2015 controls (p<0.04) and 2016 controls (p<0.02). There was no significant difference between the control groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that collaborating with established social media websites to promote CJEM articles using podcasts and infographics increases their social media dissemination. Given the nonrandomized design of these results, causative conclusions cannot be drawn. A randomized study of the impact of social media promotion on readership is underway.
Invasive nonnative grasses pose a significant threat to rangelands of the Northern Great Plains. Long-term data from a grazing experiment near Mandan, ND (46°46′11.43″N, 100°54′55.16″W) revealed the invasion of native prairie by Kentucky bluegrass, an exotic grass. We hypothesized that bluegrass invasion altered soil 13C and 15N levels, tracking the increased abundance of invasive cool-season grass aboveground. In 2014, soil samples were collected to depths of 0 to 7.6 cm and 7.6 to 15.2 cm in pastures grazed similarly since 1916. Samples were analyzed for total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and 13C and 15N isotopes and compared against archived samples from 1991. Vegetation change from native to exotic grasses changed the isotopic composition of soil C. The soil δ13C at the 0- to 7.6-cm depth became more negative between 1991 and 2014. Soil δ13C became less negative with increasing stocking rate at both soil depths. Soil δ15N values at the 0- to 7.6-cm depth decreased between 1991 and 2014. Soil δ15N increased with increasing stocking rate at the 0- to 7.6-cm depth in 2014. Soil C and N concentrations at 0 to 7.6 cm increased by 35% (12 g C kg−1) and 27% (0.9 g N kg−1), respectively, from 1991 to 2014; however, concentrations at the 7.6- to 15.2-cm depth did not change. The shift from native C4 to invasive C3 grass did not reduce soil C storage in the long-term prairie pastures. The more deleterious effect of invasion, however, may have been the buildup of dead biomass, which alters vegetation structure and may reduce native species’ diversity and abundance.
Sleep disturbances are a common issue for those who provide informal care to someone with a life-limiting condition. The negative consequences of poor sleep are well documented. The purpose of the present study was to determine the sleep patterns of caregivers of patients with advanced cancer.
An extensive systematic review of studies reporting empirical sleep data was undertaken in 2015 in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. A total of eight electronic databases were searched, with no date restrictions imposed. Additionally, a search of the bibliographies of the studies identified during the electronic search was conducted. Search terms included: “sleep,” “insomnia,” “sleep disturbance,” “circadian rhythm,” “caregiver,” “carer,” “advanced cancer,” “palliative cancer,” and MESH suggestions. The inclusion criteria required studies to be in English and to report primary qualitative and/or quantitative research that examined sleep in caregivers of patients with advanced cancer. Unpublished studies, conference papers, and dissertations were excluded.
Overall, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Two major findings emerged from the data synthesis. First, at least 72% of caregivers reported moderate to severe sleep disturbance as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Second, objective measurement of caregivers' sleep identified that some caregivers experienced up to a 44% reduction in their total sleep time compared to the recommended eight hours.
Significance of Results:
Reduction in total sleep time appears to be the biggest issue facing caregivers' sleep. Future studies need to explore the specific factors that cause these sleep disturbances and thus help to identify interventions to optimize sleep.
Fusulinacean foraminifera have been described from several localities and horizons within the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian of the North American midcontinent (Beede, 1916; Dunbar and Condra, 1927; Skinner, 1931; Newell, 1934; Newell and Keroher, 1937; Merchant and Keroher, 1939; Dunbar and Henbest, 1942; Burma, 1942; Thompson, 1954, 1957; Thompson et al., 1956; Douglass, 1962; King, 1988; Sanderson and Verville, 1988), but surprisingly, a comprehensive account of fusulinacean biostratigraphy of the stratotype of the Upper Pennsylvanian Virgilian Stage has never been published. This report summarizes fusulinacean biostratigraphic data from the Virgilian section in the stratotype region of southeastern Kansas. The publication of this dataset is particularly important because of the current efforts to standardize global Pennsylvanian chronostratigraphy (Metcalfe, 1997), and related efforts and debates concerning the definition and correlation of stages in the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian succession of North America.
In this chapter, we address the biophysical impacts of climate change, and the consequent impacts on socio-economic systems. Modelling the impacts associated with future climate change provides important information for society’s mitigation and adaptation responses. It also presents significant challenges for Earth system science. We discuss the ways in which uncertainty in impact modelling arises and how it can be managed.
Changes in climate, including those arising as a consequence of anthropogenic perturbations of the climate system, can result in a wide variety of impacts on Earth’s ecosystems and the human activities that depend on them. There are two good practical reasons why it is important to understand the processes involved and assess the possible magnitudes of impacts.
First, an assessment of the extent to which continued anthropogenic climate change could inflict damage is needed in order that well-informed decisions can be made about the reduction of human influences on climate. Our understanding of Earth system behaviour alerts us to the fact that action to mitigate climate change through reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions is not without consequences; so decisions to pursue mitigation options need to be weighed up on the basis of reliable estimates of the costs, risks and benefits of different courses of action.
Secondly, the increase in atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations since the Industrial Revolution means that further climate change is inevitable even if greenhouse-gas emissions were to be reduced soon ( Figure 6.1 ). It is therefore necessary for society to adapt to unavoidable changes. Since adaptation action is also not without consequences, it is important that adaptive action addresses credible risks , and represents an efficient allocation of resources.
Global coverage of infant Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination has increased considerably during the past decade, partly due to GAVI Alliance donations of the vaccine to low-income countries. In settings where large numbers of children receive only one or two vaccine doses rather than the recommended three doses, dose-specific efficacy estimates are needed to predict impact. The objective of this meta-analysis is to determine Hib vaccine efficacy against different clinical outcomes after receiving one, two or three doses of vaccine. Studies were eligible for inclusion if a prospective, controlled design had been used to evaluate commercially available Hib conjugate vaccines. Eight studies were included. Pooled vaccine efficacies against invasive Hib disease after one, two or three doses of vaccine were 59%, 92% and 93%, respectively. The meta-analysis provides robust estimates for use in decision-analytical models designed to predict the impact of Hib vaccine.
Curcumin is the active ingredient of turmeric. It is widely used as a kitchen spice and food colorant throughout India, Asia and the Western world. Curcumin is a major constituent of curry powder, to which it imparts its characteristic yellow colour. For over 4000 years, curcumin has been used in traditional Asian and African medicine to treat a wide variety of ailments. There is a strong current public interest in naturally occurring plant-based remedies and dietary factors related to health and disease. Curcumin is non-toxic to human subjects at high doses. It is a complex molecule with multiple biological targets and different cellular effects. Recently, its molecular mechanisms of action have been extensively investigated. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. Under some circumstances its effects can be contradictory, with uncertain implications for human treatment. While more studies are warranted to further understand these contradictions, curcumin holds promise as a disease-modifying and chemopreventive agent. We review the evidence for the therapeutic potential of curcumin from in vitro studies, animal models and human clinical trials.
We assessed the importance of potential sources of mortality for the Vulnerable southern pudu Pudu puda in southern Chile using the clinical records of wildlife rehabilitation centres, necropsies of animals found in the field and a review of the diet of potential predators. To assess whether the identified mortality sources operate in nominally protected areas, we conducted a camera-trap survey in two areas to determine the presence of pudus and their potential predators. Predation by domestic dogs Canis lupus familiaris and car collisions were the commonest causes of pudu admissions to rehabilitation centres (35 of 44) and of deaths of animals encountered opportunistically in the field (seven of 14). Field data suggest that poaching could also be an important threat to pudus. Pudus were detected in both areas surveyed, accounting for 15.6% of mammal detections. Dogs accounted for 47.8% of all detections of potential predator species, followed by pumas Puma concolor (17.4%), guignas Leopardus guigna (17.4%) and chilla foxes Lycalopex griseus (17.4%). The literature survey implicated only pumas as important pudu predators among native carnivores. Our data suggest that, aside from forest loss, dogs, road kills and probably poaching are important concerns for pudu conservation. Our frequent detections of free-ranging dogs associated with roads within nominally protected areas suggest that long-term efforts to conserve pudu will require not only the protection of remnant native forest but also substantive environmental education to modify dog management near protected areas.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a major source of morbidity in children and adults. Its incidence is rising, particularly in young people. IBD carries a lifelong risk of cancer, which is proportional to disease duration. Drug and surgical treatments rarely offer cure and often carry a high side effect burden. Dietary therapy is highly effective in Crohn's disease. For these reasons, there is much interest in developing novel dietary treatments in IBD. Curcumin, a component of the spice turmeric, and an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent, shows preclinical and clinical potential in IBD. Its mechanisms of action are unknown. Our aim was to assess the effect of curcumin on key disease mediators p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), IL-1β, IL-10 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in the gut of children and adults with IBD. Colonic mucosal biopsies and colonic myofibroblasts (CMF) from children and adults with active IBD were cultured ex vivo with curcumin. p38 MAPK, NF-κB and MMP-3 were measured by immunoblotting. IL-1β and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. We show reduced p38 MAPK activation in curcumin-treated mucosal biopsies, enhanced IL-10 and reduced IL-1β. We demonstrate dose-dependent suppression of MMP-3 in CMF with curcumin. We conclude that curcumin, a naturally occurring food substance with no known human toxicity, holds promise as a novel therapy in IBD.
The following is a report on the Cœlenterate plankton taken off the Northumbrian Coast in 1924 during cruises of the Evadne of the Dove Marine Laboratory, Cullercoats, Northumberland. The work has been carried out under the supervision of Professor A. D. Peacock to whom I am indebted for much helpful advice. I must thank Professor A. Meek of Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, for so kindly providing the material, and Miss M. Yeats for the use of her notes on the 1924 surface medusae. Mr. P. L. Kramp of Copenhagen was so good as to check my identifications of certain specimens hitherto unnoted from Northumberland, and for this service I express my obligation. Dr. Allen, Director of the Plymouth Marine Biological Laboratory, and Capt. Totton of the British Museum, have also been kind enough to assist in questions of nomenclature. My own work consisted of the investigation of middle and bottom water samples and Miss Yeats' results on surface samples have also been incorporated here to make the yearly report complete.
This study of Silurian volcanism considers three small intrusions near Bishop's Castle, Salop, as possible volcanic feeders. Acid magma intrusive into Silurian calcareous siltstones has resulted in microgranite dykes, hornsfelsed country rock and metasomatized breccia. The intrusions are of late Wenlock age or younger, but they are relatable to other Wenlock igneous rocks in the area, and are in contrast to nearby Carboniferous basaltic rocks.
Geological survey, electron microprobe analyses of clinopyroxenes and isotopic age determinations have revealed that the intrusive dolerites and basic–intermediate lavas of the Shelve Ordovician Inlier are part of a co-magmatic suite which show transitional affinities between tholeiites and alkali basalts. The ages of most of the intrusives are shown to be mid-Ordovician.