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First published in 1973, this influential work discusses Einstein's General Theory of Relativity to show how two of its predictions arise: first, that the ultimate fate of many massive stars is to undergo gravitational collapse to form 'black holes'; and second, that there was a singularity in the past at the beginning of the universe. Starting with a precise formulation of the theory, including the necessary differential geometry, the authors discuss the significance of space-time curvature and examine the properties of a number of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations. They develop the theory of the causal structure of a general space-time, and use it to prove a number of theorems establishing the inevitability of singularities under certain conditions. A Foreword contributed by Abhay Ashtekar and a new Preface from George Ellis help put the volume into context of the developments in the field over the past fifty years.
Echinoderms have evolved diverse and disparate morphologies throughout the Phanerozoic. Among them, blastozoans, an extinct group of echinoderms that were an important component of Paleozoic marine ecosystems, are primarily subdivided into groups based on the morphology of respiratory structures. However, systematic and phylogenetic research from the past few decades have shown that respiratory structures in blastozoans are not group-defining and they have re-evolved throughout echinoderm evolution. This Element provides a review of the research involving blastozoan respiratory structures, along with research concerning the morphology, paleoecology, and ontogeny of each of the major groupings of blastozoans as it relates to their corresponding respiratory structures. Areas of future research in these groups are also highlighted.
Laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of disorders such as urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse is evolving rapidly with few resources available for clinicians. This text will act as a gold standard reference in the field of laparoscopic urogynaecological surgery. The introductory section covers the basics of laparoscopy, including patient selection, surgical set up and the prevention and management of complications. Further sections focus on different “gold standard” techniques and the procedural steps needed to perform the surgery, including chapters on colposuspension, paravaginal repair, laparoscopic hysterectomy as well as apical suspensory surgery such as sacrocolpopexy and sacrohysteropexy. The final section includes debates and opinion pieces on newer techniques as well as discussion on the use of mesh in treating pelvic organ prolapse. There is also a section addressing the current rise in robotic surgery. The editors and contributors are all experts in the field, providing an authoritative and global view on techniques. Highly illustrated, with videos demonstrating the techniques, this is an eminently practical guide to the use of laparoscopy in urogynaecology.
Language is one of the most remarkable developmental accomplishments of childhood and a tool for life. Over the course of childhood and adolescence, language and literacy develop in dynamic complementarity, shaped by children’s developmental circumstances. Children’s developmental circumstances include characteristics of the child, their parents, family, communities and schools, and the social and cultural contexts in which they grow up. This chapter uses data collected in Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) that was linked to Australia’s National Assessment of Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) to quantify the effects of multiple risk factors on children’s language and literacy development. Latent class analysis and growth curve modelling are used to identify children’s developmental circumstances (i.e. risk profiles) and quantify the effects of different clusters of risk factors on children’s receptive vocabulary growth and reading achievement from age 4 to 15. The developmental circumstances that gave rise to stark inequalities in language and literacy comprise distinct clustering of sociodemographic, cognitive and non-cognitive risk factors. The results point to the need for cross-cutting social, health and education policies and coordinated multi-agency interventions efforts to address social determinants and break the cycle of developmental disadvantage.
Stigma serves as the mechanism through which an individual is disqualified from full social acceptance because they exhibit an attitude, a behavior, or a characteristic that is regarded as socially unacceptable. For men, this is most often experienced when they violate the socialized male gender role, often in the form of appearing feminine, weak, suffering from psychological distress, or asking for psychological help. Men subsequently adjust their behaviors to conform to the socialized traditional male gender role regardless of the interpersonal and/or psychological consequences. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the predominant theories of masculinity and articulate the linkages between those theories and the current understanding of mental health stigma. An overview of the small (but growing) body of literature linking mental health stigma to men, masculinity, and a variety of outcomes is then provided. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of the broader implications these concepts have for mental health stigma research as well as the psychology of men and areas needing further research.
As the breadth and scope of primate cognition research continues to evolve, it remains essential that the ethical considerations of such work do so as well. The evaluation of ethics is shaped by time and place and centers on a variety of factors, including the questions being asked, the methods used, the setting, and the species studied. Here, we take a pragmatic approach in examining ethical considerations as they relate to cognitive research with primates in both captive and wild settings. We encourage primatologists to consider how primates’ lives are impacted prior to, during, and following the research. In addition, we highlight the importance of considering how such research activities interface with the people who work or live alongside the primates. Thus, we aim to help guide those studying and working with primates to plan and conduct ethically sound research.
This article is a clinical guide which discusses the “state-of-the-art” usage of the classic monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressants (phenelzine, tranylcypromine, and isocarboxazid) in modern psychiatric practice. The guide is for all clinicians, including those who may not be experienced MAOI prescribers. It discusses indications, drug-drug interactions, side-effect management, and the safety of various augmentation strategies. There is a clear and broad consensus (more than 70 international expert endorsers), based on 6 decades of experience, for the recommendations herein exposited. They are based on empirical evidence and expert opinion—this guide is presented as a new specialist-consensus standard. The guide provides practical clinical advice, and is the basis for the rational use of these drugs, particularly because it improves and updates knowledge, and corrects the various misconceptions that have hitherto been prominent in the literature, partly due to insufficient knowledge of pharmacology. The guide suggests that MAOIs should always be considered in cases of treatment-resistant depression (including those melancholic in nature), and prior to electroconvulsive therapy—while taking into account of patient preference. In selected cases, they may be considered earlier in the treatment algorithm than has previously been customary, and should not be regarded as drugs of last resort; they may prove decisively effective when many other treatments have failed. The guide clarifies key points on the concomitant use of incorrectly proscribed drugs such as methylphenidate and some tricyclic antidepressants. It also illustrates the straightforward “bridging” methods that may be used to transition simply and safely from other antidepressants to MAOIs.
Psilocybin is a tryptamine alkaloid found in some mushrooms, especially those of the genus Psilocybe. Psilocybin has four metabolites including the pharmacologically active primary metabolite psilocin, which readily enters the systemic circulation. The psychoactive effects of psilocin are believed to arise due to the partial agonist effects at the 5HT2A receptor. Psilocin also binds to various other receptor subtypes although the actions of psilocin at other receptors are not fully explored. Psilocybin administered at doses sufficient to cause hallucinogenic experiences has been trialed for addictive disorders, anxiety and depression. This review investigates studies of psilocybin and psilocin and assesses the potential for use of psilocybin and a treatment agent in neuropsychiatry. The potential for harm is also assessed, which may limit the use of psilocybin as a pharmacotherapy. Careful evaluation of the number needed to harm vs the number needed to treat will ultimately justify the potential clinical use of psilocybin. This field needs a responsible pathway forward.
The rift setting of eastern Africa preserves exceptional records of mammalian (including hominin) fossils and archeology. The Afar region is host to multiple deposits with sediments ranging in age from>9 Ma to the present (Chorowicz, 2005; Katoh et al., 2016) and plays a major role in our understanding of human origins. The Gona project area contains fossiliferous deposits that span ca. 6.3 to <0.15 Ma (Quade et al., 2008); the duration of this record means that it can make a distinct contribution to understanding the environmental context for human evolution within the Afar and in eastern Africa (Figures 17.1 and 17.2). The primary units at Gona include the late Miocene Adu-Asa Formation, which contains fossils of Ardipithecus kaddaba; the early Pliocene Sagantole Formation with fossils of Ardipithecus ramidus; the mid- to late-Pliocene Hadar Formation; and the Busidima Formation (ca. 2.7 Ma to <0.15 Ma), which contains a record of the earliest Oldowan stone tools, fossils of Homo erectus, and Acheulean artifacts (Figure 17.2).