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We examine the flows induced by horizontally modulated, vertically confined (or guided), internal wavepackets in a stratified, Boussinesq fluid. The wavepacket induces both an Eulerian flow and a Stokes drift, which together determine the Lagrangian transport of passive tracers. We derive equations describing the wave-induced flows in arbitrary stable stratification and consider four special cases: a two-layer fluid, symmetric and asymmetric piecewise constant (‘top-hat’) stratification and, more representative of the ocean, exponential stratification. In a two-layer fluid, the Stokes drift is positive everywhere with the peak value at the interface, whereas the Eulerian flow is negative and uniform with depth for long groups. Combined, the net depth-integrated Lagrangian transport is zero. If one layer is shallower than the other, the wave-averaged interface displaces into that layer making the Eulerian flow in that layer more negative and the Eulerian flow in the opposite layer more positive so that the depth-integrated Eulerian transports are offset by the same amount in each layer. By contrast, in continuous stratification the depth-integrated transport due to the Stokes drift and Eulerian flow are each zero, but the Eulerian flow is singular if the horizontal phase speed of the induced flow equals the group velocity of the wavepacket, giving rise to a single resonance in uniform stratification (McIntyre, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 60, 1973, pp. 801–811). In top-hat stratification, this single resonance disappears, being replaced by multiple resonances occurring when the horizontal group velocity of the wavepacket matches the horizontal phase speed of higher-order modes. Furthermore, if the stratification is not vertically symmetric, then the Eulerian induced flow varies as the inverse squared horizontal wavenumber for shallow waves, the same as for the asymmetric two-layer case. This ‘infrared catastrophe’ also occurs in the case of exponential stratification suggesting significant backward near-surface transport by the Eulerian induced flow for modulated oceanic internal modes. Numerical simulations are performed confirming these theoretical predictions.
We examine the wave-induced flow of small-amplitude, quasi-monochromatic, three-dimensional, Boussinesq internal gravity wavepackets in a uniformly stratified ambient. It has been known since Bretherton (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 36 (4), 1969, pp. 785–803) that one-, two- and three-dimensional wavepackets induce qualitatively different flows. Whereas the wave-induced mean flow for compact three-dimensional wavepackets consists of a purely horizontal localized circulation that translates with and around the wavepacket, known as the Bretherton flow, such a flow is prohibited for a two-dimensional wavepacket of infinite spanwise extent, which instead induces a non-local internal wave response that is long compared with the streamwise extent of the wavepacket. One-dimensional (horizontally periodic) wavepackets induce a horizontal, non-divergent unidirectional flow. Through perturbation theory for quasi-monochromatic wavepackets of arbitrary aspect ratio, we predict for which aspect ratios which type of induced mean flow dominates. We compose a regime diagram that delineates whether the induced flow is comparable to that of one-, two- or compact three-dimensional wavepackets. The predictions agree well with the results of fully nonlinear three-dimensional numerical simulations.
Tail docking of pigs is commonly performed to reduce the incidence of unwanted tail-biting behaviour. Two docking methods are commonly used: blunt trauma cutting (i.e. using side clippers), or cutting and concurrent cauterisation using a hot cautery iron. A potential consequence of tail amputation is the development of neuromas at the docking site. Neuromas have been linked to neuropathic pain, which can influence the longer-term welfare of affected individuals. To determine whether method of tail docking influences the extent of neuroma formation, 75 pigs were allocated to one of three treatments at birth: tail docked using clippers; tail docked using cautery iron; tail left intact. Tail docking was performed at 2 days of age and pigs were kept under conventional conditions until slaughter at 21 weeks of age. Tails were removed following slaughter and subjected to histological examination. Nerve histomorphology was scored according to the following scale: 1=discrete well-organised nerve bundles; 2=moderate neural proliferation and disorganisation affecting more than half of the circumference of the tail; 3=marked neural proliferation to form almost continuous disorganised bundles or non-continuous enlarged bundles compressing the surrounding connective tissue. Scores of 2 or 3 indicated neuroma formation. Scores were higher in docked pigs than undocked pigs (P<0.001), but did not differ between pigs docked using clippers and those docked using cautery (P=0.23). The results indicate that tail docking using either clippers or cautery results in neuroma formation, thus having the potential to affect long-term pig welfare.
Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for livEstoCk and food safety (REFLECT) statement using examples from the animal welfare science literature. A total of 52 studies from 40 articles were evaluated using a modified REFLECT statement. No single study reported all REFLECT checklist items. Seven studies reported specific objectives with testable hypotheses. Six studies identified primary or secondary outcomes. Randomization and blinding were considered to be partially reported in 21 and 18 studies, respectively. No studies reported the rationale for sample sizes. Several studies failed to report key design features such as units for measurement, means, standard deviations, standard errors for continuous outcomes or comparative characteristics for categorical outcomes expressed as either rates or proportions. In the discipline of animal welfare science, authors, reviewers and editors are encouraged to use available reporting guidelines to ensure that scientific methods and results are adequately described and free of misrepresentations and inaccuracies. Complete and accurate reporting increases the ability to apply the results of studies to the decision-making process and prevent wastage of financial and animal resources.
We report upon laboratory experiments and numerical simulations examining the evolution of an interfacial internal solitary wave incident upon a triangular ridge whose peak lies below the interface. If the ridge is moderately large, the wave is observed to shoal and break similar to solitary waves shoaling upon a constant slope, but interfacial waves are also observed to transmit over and reflect from the ridge. In laboratory experiments, by measuring the interface displacement as it evolves in time, we measure the relative transmission and reflection of available potential energy after the incident wave has interacted with the ridge. The numerical simulations of laboratory- and ocean-scale waves measure both the available potential and kinetic energy to determine the partition of incident energy into that which is transmitted and reflected. From shallow-water theory, we define a critical amplitude,
, above which interfacial waves are unstable. The transmission is found to decrease from one to zero as the ratio of the incident wave amplitude to
increases from less than to greater than one. Empirical fits are made to analytic curves through measurements of the transmission and reflection coefficients.
Gem minerals at Lava Plains, northeast Queensland, offer further insights into mantle-crustal gemformation under young basalt fields. Combined mineralogy, U-Pb age determination, oxygen isotope and petrological data on megacrysts and meta-aluminosilicate xenoliths establish a geochemical evolution in sapphire, zircon formation between 5 to 2 Ma. Sapphire megacrysts with magmatic signatures (Fe/Mg ∼100–1000, Ga/Mg 3–18) grew with ∼3 Ma micro-zircons of both mantle (δ18O 4.5–5.6%) and crustal (δ18O 9.5–10.1‰) affinities. Zircon megacrysts (3±1 Ma) show mantle and crustal characteristics, but most grew at crustal temperatures (600–800°C). Xenolith studies suggest hydrous silicate melts and fluids initiated from amphibolized mantle infiltrated into kyanite+sapphire granulitic crust (800°C, 0.7 GPa). This metasomatized the sapphire (Fe/Mg ∼50–120, Ga/Mg ∼3–11), left relict metastable sillimanite-corundum-quartz and produced minerals enriched in high field strength, large ion lithophile and rare earth elements. The gem suite suggests a syenitic parentage before its basaltic transport. Geographical trace-element typing of the sapphire megacrysts against other eastern Australian sapphires suggests a phonolitic involvement.
The advance of the front of a dense gravity current propagating in a rectangular channel and V-shaped valley both horizontally and up a shallow slope is examined through theory, full-depth lock–release laboratory experiments and hydrostatic numerical simulations. Consistent with theory, experiments and simulations show that the front speed is relatively faster in the valley than in the channel. The front speed measured shortly after release from the lock is 5–22 % smaller than theory, with greater discrepancy found in upsloping V-shaped valleys. By contrast, the simulated speed is approximately 6 % larger than theory, showing no dependence on slope for rise angles up to
. Unlike gravity currents in a channel, the current head is observed in experiments to be more turbulent when propagating in a V-shaped valley. The turbulence is presumably enhanced due to the lateral flows down the sloping sides of the valley. As a consequence, lateral momentum transport contributes to the observed lower initial speeds. A Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin like theory predicting the deceleration of the current as it runs upslope agrees remarkably well with simulations and with most experiments, within errors.
Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to ‘scan the horizon’ to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consultation was a fundamental principle for the development of a collective, international view of the most important future directions in Antarctic science. From the many possibilities, the horizon scan identified 80 key scientific questions through structured debate, discussion, revision and voting. Questions were clustered into seven topics: i) Antarctic atmosphere and global connections, ii) Southern Ocean and sea ice in a warming world, iii) ice sheet and sea level, iv) the dynamic Earth, v) life on the precipice, vi) near-Earth space and beyond, and vii) human presence in Antarctica. Answering the questions identified by the horizon scan will require innovative experimental designs, novel applications of technology, invention of next-generation field and laboratory approaches, and expanded observing systems and networks. Unbiased, non-contaminating procedures will be required to retrieve the requisite air, biota, sediment, rock, ice and water samples. Sustained year-round access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean will be essential to increase winter-time measurements. Improved models are needed that represent Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Earth System, and provide predictions at spatial and temporal resolutions useful for decision making. A co-ordinated portfolio of cross-disciplinary science, based on new models of international collaboration, will be essential as no scientist, programme or nation can realize these aspirations alone.
Feedback provided by relativistic jets may be effective in shaping the galaxy luminosity function. The quenching mode (quasar mode) at redshifts ~2-3 potentially disperses gas in star-forming galaxies. The maintenance mode (radio mode) heats the gas in galaxy clusters counteracting cooling flows. A number of authors have examined the effect of relativistic jets in dispersing clouds in the kpc-scale inhomogeneous interstellar medium of evolving galaxies. We have also investigated a particular case of maintenance-mode feedback in our simulation of the iconic radio galaxy / cooling flow cluster Hydra A. Modelling of the knots produced by the jets in the inner 10 kpc provides an estimate of 0.8 – 0.9 c for the velocities of the jets in agreement with other velocity estimates for FR1 jets. The addition of jet precession provides realistic simulations of the morphology of the Hydra A radio source and raises interesting questions as to the role of black hole and disk precession, in general, in galaxy formation.
Piglets reared in swine production in the USA undergo painful procedures that include castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and identification with ear notching or tagging. These procedures are usually performed without pain mitigation. The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in 1- to 28-day-old piglets undergoing these procedures. The National Pork Board funded project to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in piglets. Recommendation development followed a defined multi-step process that included an evidence summary and estimates of the efficacies of interventions. The results of a systematic review of the interventions were reported in a companion paper. This manuscript describes the recommendation development process and the final recommendations. Recommendations were developed for three interventions (CO2/O2 general anesthesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and lidocaine) for use during castration. The ability to make strong recommendations was limited by low-quality evidence and strong certainty about variation in stakeholder values and preferences. The panel strongly recommended against the use of a CO2/O2 general anesthesia mixture, weakly recommended for the use of NSAIDs and weakly recommended against the use of lidocaine for pain mitigation during castration of 1- to 28-day-old piglets.
Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP-S), developed by HAO/NCAR, has been introduced to regular operation at the Lomnicky Peak Observatory (High Tatras in northern Slovakia, 2633 m a.s.l.) of the Astronomical Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences. We present here the technical parameters of the current version of the instrument and its potential for observations of prominences in the visual and near-IR spectral regions. The first results derived from observations of prominences in the Hα emission line taken during a coordinated observing campaign of several instruments in October 2012 are shown here.
A heuristic greedy algorithm is developed for efficiently tiling spatially dense redshift surveys. In its first application to the Galaxy and MassAssembly (GAMA) redshift survey we find it rapidly improves the spatial uniformity of our data, and naturally corrects for any spatial bias introduced by the 2dF multi-object spectrograph. We make conservative predictions for the final state of the GAMA redshift survey after our final allocation of time, and can be confident that even if worse than typical weather affects our observations, all of our main survey requirements will be met.
There is an increased appreciation of the need for horizon scanning: the identification and assessment of issues that could be serious in the future but have currently attracted little attention. However, a process is lacking to identify appropriate responses by policy makers and practitioners. We thus suggest a process and trial its applicability. Twelve environmental conservation organizations assessed each of 15 previously identified horizon scanning issues for their impact upon their organization and the urgency with which they should consider the issue. They also identified triggers that would result in changes in their scoring of the likely urgency and impact of the issues. This process enables organizations to identify priority issues, identify issues they can ignore until there are further developments, benchmark priorities across organizations and identify cross-organizational priorities that warrant further attention, so providing an agenda for collation of evidence, research and policy development. In this trial the review of responses by other organizations resulted in the upgrading of response by a substantial proportion of organizations for eight of the 15 issues examined. We suggest this approach, with the novel components of collaborative assessment and identification of triggers, could be adopted widely, both within conservation organizations and across a wider range of policy issues.
The relationship between black hole mass and bulge mass (Magorrian et al. 1998; Gebhardt et al. 2000a) indicates a symbiotic relationship between the formation of supermassive black holes and galaxy formation. Silk and Rees (1998) indicated how an isotropic wind from a black hole may interact with the infalling gas in a forming galaxy to provide a natural relationship between black hole mass and bulge mass. Saxton et al. (2005) also showed that jets propagating through an inhomogeneous interstellar medium generate an energy-driven, more or less spherical bubble, different from the bipolar structure that is usually associated with classical radio galaxies. Thus, from our viewpoint, when we consider the interaction between jets and the interstellar medium we naturally think of gigahertz peak spectrum (GPS) and compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies as well as high redshift radio galaxies. These sources appear to be radio galaxies in the early stages of their evolution in which there is abundant evidence for strong jet–ISM interaction in the form of shock-excited emission lines and anomalous gas velocities. Given that jet power and momentum can be isotropically distributed by an inhomogeneous medium, an important issue to address is the detailed interaction between clouds and outflows in such a medium. The nature of this interaction and in particular the momentum imparted to the gas surrounding the active nucleus is going to be quite different from that envisaged by Silk and Rees (1998) and many other papers since.
Hyperacute surgical evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with a high rebleeding rate. The peri-operative administration of rFVIIa to patients with intracerebral hemorrhage may decrease the frequency of post-operative hemorrhage, and improve outcome.
Patients receiving recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIA) therapy immediately prior to acute surgery were collected at two centres. The intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) score and ICH Grading Scale were determined, as was long-term outcome using the modified Rankin Scale. Residual/ recurrent clot was evaluated by comparing pre-operative to post-operative CT scans.
Fifteen patients with intracerebral hemorrhage received 40-90 μg/kg of rFVIIa and underwent surgical hematoma evacuation at a median time of five hours following symptom onset. Median pre-operative clot volume was 60 ml, decreasing to 2 ml post-operatively. There were no thromboembolic adverse events. Thirteen patients survived, 11 (73%) were independent, and two (13%) had a moderate to severe disability. These outcomes were significantly better than expected based on the median ICH score (40% mortality) and based on median ICH Grading Scale (18% good outcome).
The pre or peri-operative administration of rFVIIa resulted in minimal residual or recurrent hematoma volume and may be an important adjunct to surgery in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.
The effects of an established Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection on amino acid (AA) absorption from the small intestine and their availability to other tissues were determined in lambs 48 days post infection. The lambs were fed fresh Lucerne (Medicago sativa; ∼800 g dry matter (DM)/day) and dosed with 6000 L3 T. colubriformis larvae for 6 days (n = 5) or kept as parasite free controls (n = 6). Faecal egg production was monitored every second day from day 22 to day 48. A nitrogen (N) balance was conducted on days 35 to 43 after infection, and digesta flow and AA concentration measurements were made on day 44. On day 48 after infection, blood was continuously collected from the mesenteric artery and vein, plasma harvested and AA concentrations measured. Faecal egg production peaked on the 26th day after infection (P < 0.001) and intestinal worm burdens on day 48 were greater (P < 0.001) in the infected lambs. Feed intake and liveweight gain were similar (P > 0.10) between control and infected lambs. Digestibility and flow of DM and N through the digestive tract were also unaffected (P > 0.10) by parasite infection. Despite a trend towards higher abomasal AA flux in the parasitised lambs (P < 0.10), apparent AA absorption from the small intestine and AA availability to other tissues were unaffected (P > 0.10) by infection. These results suggest that an established parasite infection had little effect on the intestinal absorption and availability of AA to other tissues in lambs fed fresh Lucerne.
The Giant Panda Biomedical Survey sought to establish a baseline of scientific information on giant pandas living in Chinese zoos and breeding centres as a first step towards establishing a self-sustaining captive population (Zheng et al., 1997; see also Chapter 2). To produce the most information that would allow an understanding of the health and reproductive status of the extant population, we chose an interdisciplinary approach to examine as many health and reproductive traits as possible. What was crucial was the trusting relationship that developed early in the process between the Chinese and American teams which led to a thorough understanding of giant panda biology – information that not only was fascinating from a scholarly perspective but also valuable to improving ex situ management.
This chapter provides detailed methods and medical findings following the assessment of more than 60% of the living Chinese population of giant pandas (as existed in 1996 when the need for a Biomedical Survey was recognised). The results in this chapter address issues ranging from disease conditions to reproductive compromise, all of which ultimately allowed classifying each animal as to its usefulness in achieving the goal of population self-sustainability. The practices and reference values described here will also be useful to those who are interested in closely studying and managing giant pandas in the future.
We present results of a self-consistent model of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of starburst galaxies. Two parameters control the IR SED, the mean pressure in the ISM and the destruction timescale of molecular clouds. Adding a simplified AGN spectrum provides mixing lines on IRAS color : color diagrams. This reproduces the observed colors of both AGNs and starbursts.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
The study of genetic diversity in malaria populations is expected to provide new insights for the deployment of control measures. Plasmodium falciparum diversity in Africa and Asia is thought to reflect endemicity. In comprehensive epidemiological surveys reported here the genetic and antigenic structure of P. falciparum in the Venezuelan Amazon were studied over a 2-year period. DNA polymorphisms in glutamate-rich protein (GLURP), merozoite-surface protein 1 (MSP1) and MSP2 genes, in a multicopy element (PfRRM), all showed low diversity, 1 predominant genotype, and virtually no multi-clonal infections. Moreover, linkage disequilibrium was seen between GLURP, MSP1 and MSP2. Specific antibody responses against MSP1 and MSP2 recombinant antigens reflected the low genetic diversity observed in the parasite population. This is unexpected in a mesoendemic area, and suggests that the low diversity here may not only relate to endemicity but to other influences such as a bottleneck effect. Linkage disequilibrium and a predominant genotype may imply that P. falciparum frequently propagates with an epidemic or clonal population structure in the Venezuelan Amazon.
We present the preliminary results of a frequency analysis of 1457 fundamental mode RR Lyrae (RR0) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) from MACHO Project photometry. We find the same classes of pulsational behavior as were found in our earlier survey of first overtone RR Lyrae (RR1) stars. Variables whose prewhitened power spectra contain one or two peaks close to the main frequency component in the original power spectra are commonly known as Blazhko-type variables. The present analysis shows the overall frequency of Blazhko-type stars in the total RR0 population analysed to date to be ≈ 10%. This is lower than the often cited Galactic field/globular rate of 20-30% (Szeidl, 1988).
The incidence rate of Blazhko-type variability in the LMC appears to be about three times higher in RR0 stars than in RR1 stars. This puts important constraints on possible models of the Blazhko effect.