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Depressive symptoms are a common feature of schizophrenia (SCH) and define bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD). Their emergence is related to altered neurotransmission at the serotonin receptors and potentially at dopamine D3 receptors.
The aim of this analysis was to examine the efficacy of cariprazine (CAR) in treating depressive symptoms in SCH, bipolar depression (BD) and MDD.
Clinical trials with randomised, double-blind, placebo (PLB)-controlled designs were included in these analyses. Data from 3 SCH [NCT00694707, NCT01104766, NCT01104779; 1.5-9 mg/d] and 3 BD [NCT01396447, NCT02670538, NCT02670551; 1.5-3 mg/d] studies were pooled. In MDD, add-on CAR to antidepressant treatment was evaluated against PLB in two studies [NCT03738215: 1.5 and 3 mg/d; NCT01469377: 1-2 mg/d and 2-4.5 mg/d).
Least square (LS) mean changes were analysed using Mixed Model Repeated Measures: from baseline (BL) to Week 6 in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)-derived Marder anxiety/depression factor items (schizophrenia); from BL to Week 6 in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total scores (bipolar depression); and from BL to Week 6 [NCT03738215] and Week 8 [NCT01469377] in MADRS total score (major depressive disorder).
Altogether, 1466 SCH (PLB=442, CAR=1024) patients were included in the pooled analysis. In the BD analysis, data from 1383 (PLB=460, CAR=923) patients were pooled. In the MDD trials, there were 502 CAR (1.5mg/d=250, 3 mg/d=252) and 249 PLB-treated patients [NCT03738215], and 544 CAR (1-2 mg/d=273, 2-4.5 mg/d=271) and 264 PLB patients in the other study [NCT01469377]. In SCH, CAR achieved significantly greater reductions than PLB on the Marder anxiety/depression factor domain (LS mean change: PLB= -2.66, CAR= -3.26, p<0.01): the effect was driven by 3 out of 4 items. In BD, CAR yielded significantly greater improvement on the MADRS compared to PLB (LS mean change: PLB= -12.05, CAR= -14.69, p<0.001), which was driven by 9 out of 10 items. In MDD [NCT03738215], CAR 1.5 mg/d add-on significantly alleviated depressive symptoms compared to PLB (LS mean change: PLB= -11.5, CAR 1.5mg/d= -14.1, p<0.01), while in the other MDD trial [NCT01469377], CAR 2-4.5 mg/d add-on produced significantly greater reductions than PLB (LS mean change: PLB= -12.5, CAR 2-4.5 mg/d= -14.6, p<0.01).
These findings indicate that CAR is an effective treatment option for the treatment of depressive symptoms independent of disease (in SCH, BD and MDD), being a transdiagnostic broad-spectrum treatment option.
Disclosure of Interest
R. McIntyre Grant / Research support from: CIHR/GACD/National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Milken Institute, Consultant of: Lundbeck, Janssen, Alkermes, Neumora Therapeutics, Boehringer Ingelheim, Sage, Biogen, Mitsubishi Tanabe, Purdue, Pfizer, Otsuka, Takeda, Neurocrine, Sunovion, Bausch Health, Axsome, Novo Nordisk, Kris, Sanofi, Eisai, Intra-Cellular, NewBridge Pharmaceuticals, Viatris, Abbvie, Gedeon Richter, Recordati, Atai Life Sciences, Speakers bureau of: Lundbeck, Janssen, Alkermes, Neumora Therapeutics, Boehringer Ingelheim, Sage, Biogen, Mitsubishi Tanabe, Purdue, Pfizer, Otsuka, Takeda, Neurocrine, Sunovion, Bausch Health, Axsome, Novo Nordisk, Kris, Sanofi, Eisai, Intra-Cellular, NewBridge Pharmaceuticals, Viatris, Abbvie, Gedeon Richter, Recordati, Atai Life Sciences, R. Csehi Employee of: Gedeon Richter Plc., G. Németh Employee of: Gedeon Richter Plc.
To investigate the effect of cariprazine on cognitive symptom change across bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia.
Post hoc analyses of 3- to 8-week pivotal studies in bipolar I depression and mania were conducted; one schizophrenia trial including the Cognitive Drug Research System attention battery was also analyzed. Outcomes of interest: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS], Functioning Assessment Short Test [FAST], Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]). LSMDs in change from baseline to end of study were reported in the overall intent-to-treat population and in patient subsets with specified levels of baseline cognitive symptoms or performance.
In patients with bipolar depression and at least mild cognitive symptoms, LSMDs were statistically significant for cariprazine vs placebo on MADRS item 6 (3 studies; 1.5 mg=−0.5 [P<.001]; 3 mg/d=−0.2 [P<.05]) and on the FAST Cognitive subscale (1 study; 1.5 mg/d=−1.4; P=.0039). In patients with bipolar mania and at least mild cognitive symptoms, the LSMD in PANSS Cognitive subscale score was statistically significant for cariprazine vs placebo (3 studies; −2.1; P=.001). In patients with schizophrenia and high cognitive impairment, improvement in power of attention was observed for cariprazine 3 mg/d vs placebo (P=.0080), but not for cariprazine 6 mg/d; improvement in continuity of attention was observed for cariprazine 3 mg/d (P=.0012) and 6 mg/d (P=.0073).
These post hoc analyses provide preliminary evidence of greater improvements for cariprazine vs placebo across cognitive measures in patients with bipolar I depression and mania, and schizophrenia, suggesting potential benefits for cariprazine in treating cognitive symptoms.
Background: CT-angiography is an ancillary test used to diagnose death by neurological criteria (DNC), notably in cases of unreliable neurological examinations due to clinical confounders. We studied whether clinical confounders to the neurological examination modified CT-angiography diagnostic accuracy. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies including deeply comatose patients undergoing DNC ancillary testing. We estimated pooled sensitivities and specificities using a Bayesian hierarchical model, including data on CT-angiography (4-point, 7-point, 10-point scales, and no intracranial flow), and performing a subgroup analysis on clinical confounders to the reference neurological examination. Results: Of 40 studies included in the meta-analysis, 7 involve CT-angiography (n=586). There was no difference between subgroups (Table). The degree of uncertainty involving sensitivity estimates was high in both subgroups. Conclusions: Statistical uncertainty in diagnostic accuracy estimates preclude any conclusion regarding the impact of clinical confounders on CT-angiography diagnostic accuracy. Further research is required to validate CT-angiography as an accurate ancillary test for DNC.
Table. Pooled sensitivities and specificities of CT-angiography for death by neurological criteria
Pooled sensitivities and specificities of CT-angiography for death by neurological criteria
Ancillary test (radiological criteria) [number of patients pooled]
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents an unprecedented threat to mental health. Herein, we assessed the impact of COVID-19 on subthreshold depressive symptoms and identified potential mitigating factors.
Participants were from Depression Cohort in China (ChiCTR registry number 1900022145). Adults (n = 1722) with subthreshold depressive symptoms were enrolled between March and October 2019 in a 6-month, community-based interventional study that aimed to prevent clinical depression using psychoeducation. A total of 1506 participants completed the study in Shenzhen, China: 726 participants, who completed the study between March 2019 and January 2020 (i.e. before COVID-19), comprised the ‘wave 1’ group; 780 participants, who were enrolled before COVID-19 and completed the 6-month endpoint assessment during COVID-19, comprised ‘wave 2’. Symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia were assessed at baseline and endpoint (i.e. 6-month follow-up) using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), respectively. Measures of resilience and regular exercise were assessed at baseline. We compared the mental health outcomes between wave 1 and wave 2 groups. We additionally investigated how mental health outcomes changed across disparate stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, i.e. peak (7–13 February), post-peak (14–27 February), remission plateau (28 February−present).
COVID-19 increased the risk for three mental outcomes: (1) depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–1.62); (2) anxiety (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.16–1.88) and (3) insomnia (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.07–1.77). The highest proportion of probable depression and anxiety was observed post-peak, with 52.9% and 41.4%, respectively. Greater baseline resilience scores had a protective effect on the three main outcomes (depression: OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.19–0.37; anxiety: OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.14–0.33 and insomnia: OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.11–0.28). Furthermore, regular physical activity mitigated the risk for depression (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.79–0.99).
The COVID-19 pandemic exerted a highly significant and negative impact on symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia. Mental health outcomes fluctuated as a function of the duration of the pandemic and were alleviated to some extent with the observed decline in community-based transmission. Augmenting resiliency and regular exercise provide an opportunity to mitigate the risk for mental health symptoms during this severe public health crisis.
Patients with bipolar disorder experience a wide range of depressive and manic symptoms. Only 2 drugs are FDA-approved to treat episodes of both mania and depression in patients with bipolar disorder, highlighting the need for treatments with proven efficacy at opposite poles of the bipolar spectrum. Cariprazine, a dopamine D3-preferring D3/D2 receptor partial agonist and serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, is approved in the US for the treatment of both bipolar depression and manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. Cariprazine has previously demonstrated broad efficacy in patients with bipolar mania, with significantly greater improvement in favor of cariprazine vs placebo (PBO) across all individual symptom domains (P<.001) measured by the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Additionally, cariprazine has demonstrated efficacy vs PBO in 3 phase II/III clinical studies in patients with depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (NCT01396447, NCT02670538, NCT02670551). To further assess the broad efficacy of cariprazine in patients with bipolar I disorder, we performed post hoc analyses to evaluate the range of depressive symptoms comprising the individual items of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in patients from the bipolar depression studies.
Data from the 3 randomized, double-blind, PBO-controlled trials in patients with bipolar depression were pooled. Least squares (LS) mean change from baseline to week 6 in MADRS individual items was assessed in the pooled cariprazine 1.5 and 3 mg/d groups vs PBO using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population.
There were 1383 patients in the ITT population (placebo=460; cariprazine 1.5-3 mg/d=923). At week 6, LS mean change from baseline was significantly greater for cariprazine 1.5-3 mg/d vs PBO on 9 of 10 individual MADRS items: Apparent Sadness (-2.0 vs -1.6, P<.0001); Reported Sadness (-2.0 vs -1.6, P<.0001); Reduced Sleep (-1.6 vs -1.4, P=.0357); Reduced Appetite (-1.2 vs -1.0, P=.0001); Concentration Difficulties (-1.5 vs -1.2, P=.0002); Lassitude (-1.7 vs -1.4, P=.0003); Inability To Feel (-1.7 vs -1.5, P=.0009); Pessimistic Thoughts (-1.4 vs -1.2, P=.0054) and Suicidal Thoughts (-0.3 vs -0.2, P=.0383); differences between cariprazine and PBO on the Inner Tension item were not significant.
Significant improvement in most MADRS single items suggests broad efficacy in depressive symptoms for cariprazine 1.5-3 mg/d vs PBO in patients with bipolar depression. Coupled with broad efficacy in manic symptoms as demonstrated by significant improvement in all YMRS individual items in patients with bipolar mania or mixed episodes, cariprazine appears be effective across the range of symptoms that affect patients with bipolar disorder.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) results in substantial numbers of hospitalisations and deaths in older adults. There are known lifestyle and medical risk factors for pneumococcal disease but the magnitude of the additional risk is not well quantified in Australia. We used a large population-based prospective cohort study of older adults in the state of New South Wales (45 and Up Study) linked to cause-specific hospitalisations, disease notifications and death registrations from 2006 to 2015. We estimated the age-specific incidence of CAP hospitalisation (ICD-10 J12-18), invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) notification and presumptive non-invasive pneumococcal CAP hospitalisation (J13 + J18.1, excluding IPD), comparing those with at least one risk factor to those with no risk factors. The hospitalised case-fatality rate (CFR) included deaths in a 30-day window after hospitalisation. Among 266 951 participants followed for 1 850 000 person-years there were 8747 first hospitalisations for CAP, 157 IPD notifications and 305 non-invasive pneumococcal CAP hospitalisations. In persons 65–84 years, 54.7% had at least one identified risk factor, increasing to 57.0% in those ⩾85 years. The incidence of CAP hospitalisation in those ⩾65 years with at least one risk factor was twofold higher than in those without risk factors, 1091/100 000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1060–1122) compared with 522/100 000 (95% CI 501–545) and IPD in equivalent groups was almost threefold higher (18.40/100 000 (95% CI 14.61–22.87) vs. 6.82/100 000 (95% CI 4.56–9.79)). The CFR increased with age but there were limited difference by risk status, except in those aged 45 to 64 years. Adults ⩾65 years with at least one risk factor have much higher rates of CAP and IPD suggesting that additional risk factor-based vaccination strategies may be cost-effective.
Our principle objective was to examine the personal and professional impact of service user (SU) suicide on mental health professionals (MHPs). We also wished to explore putative demographic or clinical factors relating to SUs or MPHs that could influence the impact of SU suicide for MHPs and explore factors MHPs report as helpful in reducing distress following SU suicide.
A mixed-method questionnaire with quantitative and thematic analysis was utilised.
Quantitative data indicated SU suicide was associated with personal and professional distress with sadness (79.5%), shock (74.5%) and surprise (68.7%) particularly evident with these phenomena lasting less than a year for more than 90% of MHPs. MHPs also reported guilt, reduced self-confidence and a fear of negative publicity. Thematic analysis indicated that some MHPs had greater expertise when addressing SU suicidal ideation and in supporting colleagues after experiencing a SU suicide. Only 17.7% of MHPs were offered formal support following SU suicide.
SU suicide impacts MHPs personally and professionally in both a positive and negative fashion. A culture and clear pathway of formal support for MHPs to ascertain the most appropriate individualised support dependent on the distress they experience following SU suicide would be optimal.
Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced the incidence of infectious ocular diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, the effects of long-term ART and chronic HIV infection on the eye are ill-defined. This study determined the occurrence and severity of ocular diseases among 342 participants in a rural South African setting: HIV-naïve (n = 105), HIV-infected ART-naïve (n = 16), HIV-infected on ART for <12 months (short-term ART; n = 56) and HIV-infected individuals on ART for >36 months (long-term ART; n = 165). More HIV-infected participants presented with an external eye condition, in particular blepharitis, than HIV-naïve individuals (18% vs. 7%; age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2·8, P < 0·05). Anterior segment conditions (particularly keratoconjunctivitis sicca and pterygium) were also more common (50% vs. 27%; aOR = 2·4; P < 0·01). Compared with individuals on short-term ART, participants receiving long-term ART were more likely to have clinically detectable cataract (57% vs. 38%; aOR = 2·2, P = 0·01) and posterior segment diseases, especially HIV retinopathy (30% vs. 11%; aOR = 3·4, P < 0·05). Finally, long-term ART was significantly associated with presence of HIV retinopathy (P < 0·01). These data implicate that ocular disease is more common and of more diverse etiology among HIV-infected individuals, especially those on long-term ART and suggest that regular ophthalmological monitoring of HIV-infected individuals on ART is warranted.
The final effort of the CLIMAP project was a study of the last interglaciation, a time of minimum ice volume some 122,000 yr ago coincident with the Substage 5e oxygen isotopic minimum. Based on detailed oxygen isotope analyses and biotic census counts in 52 cores across the world ocean, last interglacial sea-surface temperatures (SST) were compared with those today. There are small SST departures in the mid-latitude North Atlantic (warmer) and the Gulf of Mexico (cooler). The eastern boundary currents of the South Atlantic and Pacific oceans are marked by large SST anomalies in individual cores, but their interpretations are precluded by no-analog problems and by discordancies among estimates from different biotic groups. In general, the last interglacial ocean was not significantly different from the modern ocean. The relative sequencing of ice decay versus oceanic warming on the Stage 6/5 oxygen isotopic transition and of ice growth versus oceanic cooling on the Stage 5e/5d transition was also studied. In most of the Southern Hemisphere, the oceanic response marked by the biotic census counts preceded (led) the global ice-volume response marked by the oxygen-isotope signal by several thousand years. The reverse pattern is evident in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, where the oceanic response lagged that of global ice volume by several thousand years. As a result, the very warm temperatures associated with the last interglaciation were regionally diachronous by several thousand years. These regional lead-lag relationships agree with those observed on other transitions and in long-term phase relationships; they cannot be explained simply as artifacts of bioturbational translations of the original signals.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
Background: Community stroke rehabilitation teams (CSRTs) provide a community-based, interdisciplinary approach to stroke rehabilitation. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of these teams with respect to client outcomes. Methods: Functional, psychosocial, and caregiver outcome data. were available at intake, discharge from the program, and six-month follow-up. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess patient changes between time points for each outcome measure. Results: A total of 794 clients met the inclusion criteria for analysis (54.4% male, mean age 68.5±13.0 years). Significant changes were found between intake and discharge on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale total score (p=0.017), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Anxiety subscale (p<0.001), Functional Independence Measure (p<0.001), Reintegration to Normal Living Index (p=0.01), Bakas Caregiver Outcomes Scale (p<0.001), and Caregiver Assistance and Confidence Scale assistance subscale (p=0.005). Significant gains were observed on the strength, communication, activities of daily living, social participation, memory, and physical domains of the Stroke Impact Scale (all p<0.001). These improvements were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. No significant improvements were observed upon discharge on the memory and thinking domain of the Stroke Impact Scale; however, there was a significant improvement between admission and follow-up (p=0.002). All significant improvements were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions: Results indicate that the community stroke rehabilitation teams were effective at improving the functional and psychosocial recovery of patients after stroke. Importantly, these gains were maintained at 6 months postdischarge from the program. A home-based, stroke-specific multidisciplinary rehabilitation program should be considered when accessibility to outpatient services is limited.
It is paramount to understand the epidemiology of chronic hepatitis B to inform national policies on vaccination and screening/testing as well as cost-effectiveness studies. However, information on the national (Scottish) prevalence of chronic hepatitis B by ethnic group is lacking. To estimate the number of people with chronic hepatitis B in Scotland in 2009 by ethnicity, gender and age, the test data from virology laboratories in the four largest cities in Scotland were combined with estimates of the ethnic distribution of the Scottish population. Ethnicity in both the test data and the Scottish population was derived using a name-based ethnicity classification software (OnoMAP; Publicprofiler Ltd, UK). For 2009, we estimated 8720 [95% confidence interval (CI) 7490–10 230] people aged ⩾15 years were living with chronic hepatitis B infection in Scotland. This corresponds to 0·2% (95% CI 0·17–0·24) of the Scottish population aged ⩾15 years. Although East and South Asians make up a small proportion of the Scottish population, they make up 44% of the infected population. In addition, 75% of those infected were aged 15–44 years with almost 60% male. This study quantifies for the first time on a national level the burden of chronic hepatitis B infection by ethnicity, gender and age. It confirms the importance of promoting and targeting ethnic minority groups for hepatitis B testing.
Obesity is increasingly prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD) but data about the impact of elevated body mass index (BMI) on brain white-matter integrity in BD are sparse. Based on extant literature largely from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, we hypothesize that increased BMI is associated with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain regions early in the course of BD.
A total of 26 euthymic adults (12 normal weight and 14 overweight/obese) with remitted first-episode mania (FEM) and 28 controls (13 normal weight and 15 overweight/obese) matched for age, handedness and years of education underwent structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging scans.
There are significant effects of diagnosis by BMI interactions observed especially in the right parietal lobe (adjusted F1,48 = 5.02, p = 0.030), occipital lobe (adjusted F1,48 = 10.30, p = 0.002) and temporal lobe (adjusted F1,48 = 7.92, p = 0.007). Specifically, decreased FA is found in the right parietal (F1,23 = 5.864, p = 0.023) and occipital lobes (F1,23 = 4.397, p = 0.047) within overweight/obese patients compared with normal-weight patients with FEM. Compared with overweight/obese controls, decreased FA is observed in right parietal (F1,25 = 6.708, p = 0.015), temporal (F1,25 = 10.751, p = 0.003) and occipital (F1,25 = 9.531, p = 0.005) regions in overweight/obese patients with FEM.
Our findings suggest that increased BMI affects temporo-parietal-occipital brain white-matter integrity in FEM. This highlights the need to further elucidate the relationship between obesity and other neural substrates (including subcortical changes) in BD which may clarify brain circuits subserving the association between obesity and clinical outcomes in BD.
We used data from BioSense, a national electronic surveillance system, to describe pneumonia in hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness (ILI). Ninety-five hospitals from 20 states reported ICD-9-CM-coded inpatient final diagnosis data during the study period of September 2007 to February 2010. We compared the characteristics of persons with and without pneumonia among those with ILI-related hospitalizations. BioSense captured 26 987 ILI-related inpatient hospitalizations; 8979 (33%) had a diagnosis of pneumonia. Analysis of trends showed highest counts of pneumonia during the 2007–2008 season and the second 2009 pandemic wave. Pneumonia was more common with increasing age. Microbiology and pharmacy data were available for a subset of patients; 107 (5%) with pneumonia had a bloodstream infection and 17% of patients were prescribed antiviral treatment. Our findings demonstrate the potential utility of electronic healthcare data to track trends in ILI and pneumonia, identify risk factors for disease, identify bacteraemia in patients with pneumonia, and monitor antiviral use.
Polarization fatigue with repeated electric cycles in ferroelectric thin films is a major degradation problem in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. However, the origin of this phenomenon is still not properly understood. The fatigue mechanism of a ferroelectric perovskite in a multilayer ferroelectric PbTiO3 thin film material has been investigated here using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Z-contrast images of the interfaces show that the ferroelectric PbTiO3 layer has partly decomposed into a single crystal PbTiO3 layer and an amorphous layer. Nanometer-sized precipitates are present near the Pt electrode. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis reveals that the amorphous layer is a Ti-rich phase between TiO2 and PbTiO3. The precipitates are determined to be a Pt-Pb rich crystalline phase. It is suggested that the formation of the structure-distorted intermediate layer and precipitates may be associated with the ferroelectric degradation process by acting as a passive layer in a ferroelectric capacitor. In addition, the formation of the Pt-Pb rich precipitates may cause an interruption of the consistent Pt electrode, which may result in failure of the device.