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Temperature may regulate seed dormancy and germination and determine the geographical distribution of species. The present study investigated the thermal limits for seed germination of Polygonum ferrugineum (Polygonaceae), an aquatic emergent herb distributed throughout tropical and subtropical America. Seed germination responses to light and temperature were evaluated both before (control) and after stratification at 10, 15 and 20°C for 7, 14 and 28 d. Germination of control seeds was ~50% at 10 and 15°C, and they did not germinate from 20 to 30°C. The best stratification treatment was 7 d at 10°C, where seed germination was >76% in the dark for all temperatures, except at 30°C, and < 60% in light conditions. A thermal time approach was applied to the seed germination results. Base temperature (Tb) was 6.3°C for non-dormant seeds and optimal temperature (To) was 20.6°C, ceiling temperature (Tc (<50)) was 32.8°C, and thermal time requirement for 50% germination was 44.4°Cd. We concluded that a fraction of P. ferrugineum seeds is dormant, has a narrow thermal niche to germinate (10 and 15°C) and that cold stratification (10°C) alleviated dormancy and amplified the thermal range permissive for germination of the species. Consequently, P. ferrugineum is expected to occur in colder environments, for example, at high altitudes. Higher temperatures decrease the probabilities of alleviate dormancy and the ability of their seeds to germinate.
Spontaneous abortion is considered a public health problem having several causes, including infections. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the vaginal microbiota and Ureaplasma parvum have been associated with abortion, but their participation needs to be further elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Mollicutes on the development of spontaneous abortion. Women who underwent spontaneous abortion and those with normal birth (control) were studied. Samples of cervical mucus (CM) and placental tissue were collected to identify Mollicutes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Eighty-nine women who had a miscarriage and 20 women with normal pregnancies were studied. The presence of Mollicutes in placental tissue increased the chance of developing miscarriage sevenfold. The prevalence of U. parvum in women who experienced spontaneous abortion was 66.3% in placental tissue. A positive association was observed between the detection of U. parvum in samples of placental tissue and abortion. There was a significant increase in microbial load in placental tissue for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum compared to the control group. Detection of U. parvum in CM in pregnant women can ascend to the region of the placental tissue and trigger a spontaneous abortion.
Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has been associated with a more rapid decline in lung function, increased hospitalisation and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clonal relationships among 116 MRSA isolates from 12 chronically colonised CF pediatric patients over a 6-year period in a Rio de Janeiro CF specialist centre. Isolates were characterised by antimicrobial resistance, SCCmec type, presence of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes and grouped according to DNA macrorestriction profile by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and spa gene type. High resistance rates were detected for erythromycin (78%) and ciprofloxacin (50%) and SCCmec IV was the most common type (72.4%). Only 8.6% of isolates were PVL positive. High genetic diversity was evident by PFGE (39 pulsotypes) and of nine that were identified spa types, t002 (53.1%) and t539 (14.8%) were the most prevalent. We conclude that the observed homogeneity of spa types within patients over the study period demonstrates the persistence of such strain lineages throughout the course of chronic lung infection.
Guidelines produced for management of Bipolar Disorder illustrate change in evidence-base for treatment of acute and maintenance phases of illness. Our Pan-European Research Group assessed clinical practice and desired treatments amongst amongst Psychiatry trainees.
A semi-structured survey was piloted, and homogenous sample size (at least 50) agreed upon from each country, with 50% minimum response rate. It was distributed via web-link, questioning preference of mood stabiliser for patients, trainees themselves and factors influencing choice.
Tables 1 summarise choices.
Lithium and Sodium Valproate
2nd Generation Atypical antipsychotics
[Choice of mood stabiliser for patient/themselves]
Factors influencing decision-making mapped onto cost, efficacy and side-effect profile (less than 4% other reasons). 66% (n=538) of respondents felt efficacy most important, 25% (n=202) felt side-effect profile most important and 3% (n=24) considered cost of most importance.
No clear difference exists in choice of mood stabiliser for European trainees and their patients, and decisions based on perceived efficacy are generally in keeping with established guidelines.
There is growing concern about the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on psychiatric teaching and psychiatric professionalism as a whole. As a consequence, several national and international medical and psychiatric associations have issued guidelines to regulate the interactions between physicians and industry.
The EFPT-PRIRS study aims to provide the lacking data on the extent and nature of these interactions among psychiatric trainees across Europe.
Study objectives were determined by the EFPT research group (EFPT-RG), after discussion with national and international experts. A survey was then devised compiling previously published questionnaires extending them by questions with specific relevance to psychiatric trainees. The resulting questionnaire was piloted amongst members of the EFPT-RG, modified accordingly and subsequently distributed to the national study coordinators. All 24 EFPT member countries were invited to participate in the study and data collection is currently ongoing.
Preliminary analysis reveals the vast differences in industry - trainee relationships across European countries as well as major differences in personal attitudes towards these interactions.
EFPT-PRIRS will potentially have an impact on the regulation of the interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and psychiatric trainees.
Now-a-days, obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) became a matter of concern in Schizophrenia, due to their potential relation with atipical antypsychotics. The high prevalence of CVRF in schizophrenic patients is a consensual issue, but there are only a few studies in Portugal.
This is an observational transversal study thats aims to evaluate the presence of CVRF, and to establish the relationship between these ones and anthropometric measurements evaluating global and regional adiposity, in a population of schizophrenic patients.
Material and Methods:
The authors studied a population of 25 schizophrenic patients followed at our Department of Psychiatry. These instruments were used: PANSS (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale), and a semi-structured interview, with sociodemografic data, and information about life style, medication and schizophrenia. These informations were completed according to the clinical process. The following measurements were recorded: weight, height, abdominal circunference, lipidic and glicemic values, and blood pressure.
The high frequency of CVRF in the population of this study confirms the importance of regular medical evaluations, in every patients with Schizophrenia, to allow early diagnosis/monitorization of CVRF. However, our results dont confirm the benefit of anthropometric measurements as screening methods, possibly due to our small sample. Curiously, we found a week correlation bettween CVRF and environment factors (as medication or life style), what can reforce the hold ideia of Schizophrenic susceptibility to CVRF.
Despite recent recent evidence and subsequent guidelines that have suggested factors such as side-effect profile and cost should be taken into account when prescribing antidepressant medication, relatively little evidence exists on decision-making in clinical practice.
Our Pan-European Research Group looked at clinical practice regarding antidepressants amongst Psychiatry trainees, treatments trainees would desire themselves, and factors influencing decision-making.
A semi-structured survey was constructed from recent literature, was piloted, and a homogenous sample size of at least 50 agreed upon from each country, with 50% the minimum response rate. It was distributed via web-link, questioning preference of antidepressant for patients, and factors influencing choice. Trainees were asked for their preference should they develop a moderate to severe depressive episode, and require medication.
Treatment choices are summarised in Table 1. 79% of trainees would prescribe similar antidepressants for themselves as for patients.
Factors influencing decision-making mapped onto three main domains: cost, efficacy and side-effect profile (5% other reasons). 86% (n = 548) of those who responded felt efficacy most important, 38% (n = 237) felt side-effect profile most important and 6% (n = 33) considered cost of most importance.
Some differences exist in choice of antidepressant for European trainees and their patients, and factors affecting choice conflict with evidence base and guideline suggestions.
Deficits in social functioning are a core feature of schizophrenia and are influenced by both symptomatic and neurocognitive variables.
In the present study we aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the Portuguese version of the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale, and possible correlations with measures of cognitive functioning.
One-hundred and four community and inpatients with schizophrenia were assessed using measures of social functioning and symptom severity alongside measures of executive function, processing speed and verbal memory.
The reliability of the PSP was found to be satisfactory, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.789. Inter-rater reliability in the four domains of the PSP varied from 0.430 to 0.954. Low-functioning patients (PSP < 70) were older, had longer duration of illness, were more symptomatic and had worse cognitive performances, as compared to high-functioning patients (PSP ≥ 70). In a regression model, deficits in social functioning were strongly predicted both by symptomatic and neurocognitive variables; these together accounted for up to 62% of the variance.
The present study supports the reliability and validity of the Portuguese language version of the PSP and further supports the original measure. The co-administration of brief cognitive assessments with measures of functioning may lead to more focused interventions, possibly improving outcomes in this group.
Epidemiological studies have reported that the increased risk of developing psychosis in cannabis users is dose related. In addition, experimental research has shown that the active constituent of cannabis responsible for its psychotogenic effect is Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Murray et al, 2007). Recent evidence has suggested an increased in potency (% TCH) in the cannabis seized in the UK (Potter et al, 2007).
We predicted that first episode psychosis patients are more likely to use higher potency cannabis and more frequently than controls.
We collected information concerning socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and cannabis use (age at first use, frequency, length of use, type of cannabis used) from a sample of 191 first-episode psychosis patients and 120 matched healthy volunteers. All were recruited as part of the Genetic and Psychosis (GAP) study which studied all patients who presented to the South London and Maudsley Trust.
There was no significant difference in the life-time prevalence of cannabis use or age at first use between cases and controls. However, cases were more likely to be regular users (p=0.05), to be current users (p=0.04) and to have smoked cannabis for longer (p=0.01). Among cannabis users, 86.8% of 1st Episode Psychosis Patients preferentially used Skunk/Sinsemilla compared to 27.7% of Controls. Only 13.2 % of 1st Episode psychosis Patients chose to use Resin/Hash compared to 76.3% of controls. The concentration of TCH in these in South East London, ranges between 8.5 and 14 % (Potter et al, 2007). Controls (47%) were more likely to use Hash (Resin) whose average TCH concentration is 3.4% (Potter et al, 2007).
Patients with first episode psychosis have smoked higher potency cannabis, for longer and with greater frequency, than healthy controls.
Verbal fluency (VF) involves complex processes and has been a good marker of cognitive decline. However, the literature is inconsistent concerning to witch factors are associated with VF.
Our aims are to analyze the relationship between both phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) and sociodemographic and psychopathological variables, and explore which emerge as significant predictors.
A subsample of 429 of healthy institutionalized elderly from the Aging Trajectories at Coimbra Council Project were surveyed (60 to 100 years; mean age = 80.38 ± 7.24), the majority was women (76.9%), without a partner (82.2%), without education or with less than four years of education (85.7%), manual occupation (90.1%), and attending day care centers. We evaluated VF phonetically (letters P, M, R) and semantically (animals and food), anxiety symptoms through the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), depressive symptoms through Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and feelings of loneliness through Loneliness Scale (UCLA).
PVF was significantly related with education, occupation, GAI, and GDS. SVF was significantly associated with age, education, occupation, and GDS. Furthermore, SVF scores were worse in elderly men and in those living in night care center, and PVF scores were lower in those with high levels of anxiety symptomatology. In logistic regression analysis none of the variables accounted for the variance in PVF. The only predictor of SVF was sex. In conclusion, this study allowed us to elucidate the only key factor underlying verbal fluency. Being a man may affect SVF performance in institutionalized elderly.
Executive functions (EF) are associated to frontal lobes and cognitive decline (CD) with worse results on EF tests.
Analyze if the Frontal Assessment Battery/FAB assessing EF discriminates elders with CD (vs. with no CD; Montreal Cognitive Assessment/MoCA), and if the results obtained with the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure Test/ROCF (copy's quality, immediate, and delayed memory) are associated with the CD presence/absence. Moreover, we wanted to assess if copy's quality and 3 minutes memory test are associated with FAB results, since these two tests are supposedly associated with EF and with frontal lobes assessed by the FAB, contrarily to the 20 minutes memory (supposedly related to the temporal area).
556 institutionalized elders (age: M ± SD =80.2 ± 5.23; range=60-100) filled in voluntarily a sociodemographic questionnaire, ROCF, MoCA and FAB.
FAB and all ROCF tests were associated with the absence/presence of CD. Regarding variables stratified by age and education, FAB was associated with immediate memory but not with copy's quality nor with delayed memory. With no stratified ROCF and FAB, correlations confirmed the previous associations, but also between FAB and copy's quality.
Results follow the literature regarding the association between immediate memory and EF (associated to frontal lobes), in contrast to the long-term memory which is associated with the temporal area and that was not associated with FAB. Results concerning copy's quality (ROCF) are not consensual.
Chitosan (CHI) is a natural biopolymer with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and digestive modulatory effects, which can be used in the ruminant diet to replace antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CHI on lamb growth traits, nutrients digestibility, muscle and fatty deposition, meat fatty acid (FA) profile, meat quality traits and serum metabolome. Thirty 30-month-old male lambs, half Suffolk and half Dorper, with an average BW of 21.65 ± 0.86 kg, were fed in a feedlot system for a total of 70 days. The lambs were separated into two groups according to the diet: the control (CON) group which received the basal diet and the CHI group which received the basal diet with the addition of CHI as 2 g/kg of DM in the diet. Lambs supplemented with CHI had a greater (P < 0.05) final BW, DM intake, final body metabolic weight (P < 0.05) and lower residual feed intake than the CON group. Animals fed CHI had a greater (P < 0.05) starch digestibility at 14 and 28 days, average daily gain at 14, 42 and 56 days, greater feed efficiency at 28 days and feed conversation at 14 and 42 days in feedlot. Most of the carcass traits were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatment; however, the CHI supplementation improved (P < 0.05) dressing and longissimus muscle area. The treatments had no effect (P > 0.05) on the meat colour and other quality measurements. Meat from the CHI-fed lambs had a greater concentration (P < 0.05) of oleic-cis-9 acid, linoleic acid, linolenic-trans-6 acid, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. According to the variable importance in projection score, the most important metabolites to differentiate between the CON and the CHI group were hippurate, acetate, hypoxanthine, arginine, malonate, creatine, choline, myo-inositol, 2-oxoglutarate, alanine, glycerol, carnosine, histidine, glutamate and 3-hydroxyisobutyrate. Similarly, fold change (FC) analysis highlighted succinate (FC = 1.53), arginine (FC = 1.51), hippurate (FC = 0.68), myo-inositol (FC = 1.48), hypoxanthine (FC = 1.45), acetate (FC = 0.73) and malonate (FC = 1.35) as metabolites significantly different between groups. In conclusion, the present data showed that CHI changes the muscle metabolism improving muscle mass deposition, the lamb’s performance and carcass dressing. In addition, CHI led to an alteration in the FA metabolism, changes in the meat FA profile and improvements in meat quality.
Affectivity is related to cognitive impairment, but it is not known whether positive affect and negative affect increase/decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. In this study, we sought to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment, and the potential role of positive and negative affectivity on cognitive functioning in institutionalized portuguese elderly, controlling the potential role of demographic and emotional factors.
A cross sectional investigation has been conducted with a portuguese institutionalized sample at Coimbra’s Council. We inquired 412 healthy elderly with a mean age of 80.38 years (SD = 7.24) using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI). Demographic (76.9% women, 14.3% > 4 years of education, 99.1% manual occupation, 82.2% without partner) and other self-reported related factors were taken into consideration (GDS mean 14.30 ± 6.31; GAI mean = 12.49 ± 5.93).
The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 66.6% (youngest-old: 1.4%; young-old: 24.7%, old-old: 36.5%, oldest-old: 3.9%). We found that only the positive affect was significantly related with the MMSE (r = 0.22). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that positive affect predicted impairment in cognitive performance (OR = 0.96, CI 95% = 0.93-0.98; p < 0.001). These relationships were significant even after controlling for depression and anxiety status, age, education, and occupation.
These findings suggest that positive affect is a variable to attend to when evaluating cognitive functioning in institutionalized elderly.
Studies about the association between parental rearing styles and self-criticism/self-compassion focus in adult´s perception about their parent´s rearing styles, their own levels of self-criticism/self-compassion and psychopathology (possibly associated with that styles). Our objectives were to: evaluate parent´s perception about their own parental rearing styles and levels of self-criticism/self-compassion; explore associations between these variables and between these variables and sociodemographic variables.
114 parent´s (women = 71.9%; mean age = 41.3/SD = 6.29) answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the EMBU-PARENTS, the Forms of Self-Criticizing and Reassuring Scale/FSCRS and the Self-Compassion Scale/SELFCS.
There were no differences, by gender, regarding rearing parental styles and self-criticism dimensions. Women and parent´s with a higher level of education presented higher levels of Human Condition(SELFCS). Married parent´s presented higher levels of Emotional Support. Parent´s with a lower level of education presented higher levels of Control. Inadequate self correlated positively with Rejection and Control; Hated self with Rejection; Reassuring self with Emotional Support. Warmth – Comprehension, Human Condition and Mindfulness correlated positively with Emotional Support; Over identification and Isolation with Rejection and Control.
The results found regarding parent´s perception about their parental rearing styles, their levels of self-criticism/self-compassion show this perception is similar to adult´s perception about their parents rearing styles and levels of self-criticism/self-compassion. We can extrapolate, although in a cross-sectional study, that parent´s parental rearing styles and their levels of self-criticism/self-compassion (influenced by the same variables on their own parents) have impact in the levels of these same variables in their children.
When cognitive decline (CD) is present, attention is one of the impaired mental functions. CD is also associated with anxious/depressive symptoms and with some demographic variables, particularly, age.
Investigate the associations between selective attention (Stroop Test: Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Difference between Stroop_Word and Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word, Stroop Ratio_Color and Difference between Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_ Color) and CD (Montreal Cognitive Assessment/MoCA) in institutionalized elders; explore the predictive value of Stroop variables for CD, controlling anxious/depressive symptoms and sociodemographic variables.
140 institutionalized elders (mean age, M = 78.4, SD = 7.48, range = 60-97) voluntarily answered to sociodemographic questions, the MoCA, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory/GAI, the Geriatric Depression Scale/GDS and Stroop test.
73 elders (52, 1%) had CD. Dichotomized MoCA was associated with Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word, Stroop Ratio_Color, GDS and the sociodemographic variable schooling × profession. Age and education were not tested, since MoCA was stratified according to those variables. GDS, Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color showed to predict CD.
There was an association between Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color and CD, confirming that selective attention is smaller when the elderly reveal CD. GDS and CD were, also, associated. However, there was no association between MoCA dichotomized and differences between the correct answers (Stroop_Word and Stroop_Color) and Ratios (Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color). Selective attention and depressive symptoms predicted CD. It would be important to intervene through cognitive rehabilitation with the elders to improve their attention.
Bupropion is a dual antidepressant, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Its main use is in affective disorders as major depression. Antidepressants have been commonly associated with sexual side effects in the libido, sexual arousal, orgasm and erectile function. Bupropion has negative influence in sexual function, even it could increase the libido. Due to this, it could be a good option in patients with active sexual life and affective disorder.
A 58-year-old female with a long history of depression disorder for 5 years. History of lots of side effects with different treatments, sexual dysfunction with serotonin-antidepressants. Treated with bupropion SR 150 mg/day and alprazolam, she suffered a relapse. The bupropion was increased to 300 mg/day. Three days later she appeared in the consultation room, presented a sense of pre-orgasmic of 72 hours of evolution, high increased libido, tiredness, muscle tension and insomnia. This sense did not improve after the sexual act. It had never happened previously. The side effect improved when the bupropion was reduced to 150 mg/day and disappeared with its withdrawal.
The case made a relationship between the increased of bupropion's dose and the appearance of unusual sexual side effects (increased of libido and pre-orgasmic sense). Not only bupropion is one of the antidepressants that do not cause sexual dysfunction, if not it was reported in some trials that could be a treatment against this dysfunction due to its prosexual effects. The mechanism is unknown but could be related with norepinephrine or dopamine transmission.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Personality plays a crucial role in a person's behavior, emotions and cognitive patterns and shows an important relationship with several variables such as marital status, mental disorders or parenting models. However, little is known about the relation between the parental Big Five personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness) and children psychopathology regardless of the diagnostic of their offspring.
To analyze the correlation between parents’ Big Five personality traits and their children categorical diagnosis and psychopathology score.
The authors recruited 105 children in the outpatient unit of the child and adolescent psychiatry department of the pediatric hospital of Coimbra and their 117 parents. Parents were assessed using the Portuguese version of Neo Five-Factor Inventory and children psychopathology scores were rated by child and adolescent psychiatrists using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children.
Forty-nine children (46.7%) were male and 56 (53.3%) were female, with a mean age of 12.5 ± 3.2 and 13.6 ± 2.9, respectively. Twenty parents (17.1%) were male and 97 (82.9%) were female, with a mean age of 45.8 ± 4.1 and 41.2 ± 5.4, respectively. After excluding children diagnosed with Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders and intellectual developmental disorder, Pearson's correlation coefficients were significant between: parents’ neuroticism and children Uncooperativeness (0.211), Manipulativeness (0.238), Hallucinations (0.257), Sleep difficulties (0.296) and Disorientation (0.204); parents’ agreeableness and children hostility (−0.228); and parent's conscientiousness and children disorientation (−0.231), all P < 0.05.
These preliminary results suggest that parental personality traits may influence psychopathological outcomes in their children. Data are still being collected to clarify the nature of this relationship.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Trauma experiences during childhood and adolescence (Gibb, 2002; Ansel et al., 2011; Musliner et Singer, 2014; Hopwood et al., 2015), the experience of shame (Rubeis et al., 2008; Cunha et al., 2012; Rosso et al., 2014; Stuewig et al., 2015) and gender (English et al., 2004; Rosso et al., 2014) had been considered as predictors of depressive symptoms.
To observe intra-indidual variability of trauma, external shame, gender (as predictors) and depressive symptoms (as dependent variable).
To test the predictive value of trauma, external shame and gender on depressive symptoms at 6 months, in adolescents.
A sample of 325 adolescents (ages ranging from 12–18) completed the Child Depression Inventory, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Other as Shamer, adolescents version. The results were analysed by the hierarchical multiple regression method (SPSS Inc., 22).
The model – shame (b = 0.63; P < 0.001); affective abuse (b = 0.15, P = 0.001), gender (b = 0.12; P = 0.001), sexual abuse (b = 0.12, P = 0.002), and emotional neglect (b = 0.10; P = 0.013) – explained 63% of depressive symptoms variance.
The data indicate that the higher the level of shame and trauma, the higher the level of depressive symptoms at 6 months. The present study can add important information that sheds light to the role of mechanisms underlying the vulnerability to depressive symptoms and that might have impact in the existing therapeutic interventions.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Excitable temperament disrupts physiological events required for reproductive development in cattle, but no research has investigated the impacts of temperament on growth and puberty attainment in Bos indicus females. Hence, this experiment evaluated the effects of temperament on growth, plasma cortisol concentrations and puberty attainment in B. indicus heifers. A total of 170 Nelore heifers, weaned 4 months before the beginning of this experiment (days 0 to 91), were managed in two groups of 82 and 88 heifers each (mean ± SE; initial BW=238±2 kg, initial age=369±1 days across groups). Heifer temperament was evaluated via exit velocity on day 0. Individual exit score was calculated within each group by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning heifers with a score from 1 to 5 (1=slowest; 5=fastest heifer). Heifers were classified according to exit score as adequate (ADQ, n=96; exit score⩽3) or excitable temperament (EXC, n=74; exit score>3). Heifer BW, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were obtained on days 0, 31, 60 and 91. Heifer exit velocity and score were recorded again on days 31, 60 and 91. Ovarian transrectal ultrasonography was performed on days 0 and 10, 31 and 41, 60 and 70, 81 and 91 for puberty evaluation. Heifer was declared pubertal at the first 10-day interval in which a corpus luteum was detected. Exit velocity and exit score obtained on day 0 were correlated (r⩾0.64, P<0.01) with evaluations on days 31, 60 and 91. During the experiment, ADQ had greater (P<0.01) mean BCS and BW gain, and less (P<0.01) mean plasma cortisol concentration compared with EXC heifers. Temperament × time interactions were detected (P<0.01) for exit velocity and exit score, which were always greater (P<0.01) in EXC v. ADQ heifers. A temperament × time interaction was also detected (P=0.03) for puberty attainment, which was delayed in EXC v. ADQ heifers. At the end of the experiment, a greater (P<0.01) proportion of ADQ were pubertal compared with EXC heifers. In summary, B. indicus heifers classified as EXC had reduced growth, increased plasma cortisol concentrations and hindered puberty attainment compared to ADQ heifers. Moreover, exit velocity may serve as temperament selection criteria to optimize development of B. indicus replacement heifers.