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The main aim of the current study was to present the abilities of widely used crop models to simulate four different field crops (winter wheat, spring barley, silage maize and winter oilseed rape). The 13 models were tested under Central European conditions represented by three locations in the Czech Republic, selected using temperature and precipitation gradients for the target crops in this region. Based on observed crop phenology and yield from 1991 to 2010, performances of individual models and their ensemble were analyzed. Modelling of anthesis and maturity was generally best simulated by the ensemble median (EnsMED) compared to the ensemble mean and individual models. The yield was better simulated by the best models than estimated by an ensemble. Higher accuracy was achieved for spring crops, with the best results for silage maize, while the lowest accuracy was for winter oilseed rape according to the index of agreement (IA). Based on EnsMED, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) for yield was 1365 kg/ha for winter wheat, 1105 kg/ha for spring barley, 1861 kg/ha for silage maize and 969 kg/ha for winter oilseed rape. The AQUACROP and EPIC models performed best in terms of spread around the line of best fit (RMSE, IA). In some cases, the individual models failed. For crop rotation simulations, only models with reasonable accuracy (i.e. without failures) across all included crops within the target environment should be selected. Application crop models ensemble is one way to increase the accuracy of predictions, but lower variability of ensemble outputs was confirmed.
DNA methylation of the elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 2 (ELOVL2) was suggested as a biomarker of biological aging, while childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with accelerated biological aging. We investigated the association of age and CM experiences with ELOVL2 methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Furthermore, we investigated ELOVL2 methylation in the umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UBMC) of newborns of mothers with and without CM. PBMC and UBMC were isolated from 113 mother–newborn dyads and genomic DNA was extracted. Mothers with and without CM experiences were recruited directly postpartum. Mass array spectrometry and pyrosequencing were used for methylation analyses of ELOVL2 intron 1, and exon 1 and 5′ end, respectively. ELOVL2 5′ end and intron 1 methylation increased with higher age but were not associated with CM experiences. On the contrary, overall ELOVL2 exon 1 methylation increased with higher CM, but these changes were minimal and did not increase with age. Maternal CM experiences and neonatal methylation of ELOVL2 intron 1 or exon 1 were not significantly correlated. Our study suggests region-specific effects of chronological age and experienced CM on ELOVL2 methylation and shows that the epigenetic biomarker for age within the ELOVL2 gene does not show accelerated biological aging years after CM exposure.
Unlike well-known global patterns of plant species richness along altitudinal gradients, in the mountainous areas of the Brazilian Caatinga, species richness and diversity reach their maxima near mountain tops. The causes of this unusual pattern are not well understood, and in particular the role of edaphic factors on plant community assembly along these gradients has not been investigated. Our goal was to assess the role of edaphic factors (fertility and soil texture) on plant community composition and structure on two mountains of the Brazilian semi-arid region. In 71 plots (Bodocongó site, twenty-one 200-m2 plots, 401–680 m asl; Arara site, fifty 100-m2 plots, 487–660 m asl) we recorded 3114 individuals representing 61 plant species; in addition, at each plot we collected composite soil samples from 0–20 cm depth. Significant altitude-related changes were observed both for community structure and composition, and edaphic variables. A canonical correspondence analysis allowed the distinction of two groups of plots according to species abundances, indicating a preferential habitat distribution of species depending both on altitude and soil variables. Although soil fertility was lowest at the highest altitudes, these areas had high richness and diversity. Conversely, the more fertile foothills were characterized by the dominance of generalist pioneer species. Despite the relatively short altitudinal range that characterizes the studied mountains, this study elucidates the role of edaphic factors on the floristic composition and species richness patterns on the mountains of the Brazilian semi-arid region.
Pelagic seabird populations have declined strongly worldwide. In the North Atlantic there was a huge reduction in seabird populations following the European colonization of the Azores, Madeira and Canary archipelagos but information on seabird status and distribution for the subtropical region of Cabo Verde is scarce, unavailable or dispersed in grey literature. We compiled and compared the historical and current distribution of all seabird species breeding in the Cabo Verde archipelago, updated their relative abundance, investigated their inland habitat preferences, and reviewed their threats. Currently, the breeding seabird community in Cabo Verde is composed of Bulwer’s Petrel Bulweria bulwerii, White-faced Storm-petrel Pelagodroma marina aedesorum, Cape Verde Shearwater Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Storm-petrel Hydrobates jabejabe, Cape Verde Petrel Pterodroma feae, Boyd's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri boydi, Brown Booby Sula leucogaster, and Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus. One breeding species is currently extinct, the Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens. The relative abundance of Cape Verde Shearwater, Boyd’s Shearwater, Cape Verde Petrel, and Cape Verde Storm-petrel was determined from counts of their nocturnal calls in Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santa Luzia, Branco, Raso and São Nicolau. Cape Verde Petrel occurred only on mountainous islands (Santo Antão, São Nicolau, Santiago, and Fogo) from mid-to high elevations. Larger species such as the Cape Verde Shearwater and Boyd’s Shearwater exhibited a wider distribution in the archipelago, occurring close to the coastline but at lower densities on populated islands. Small procellariforms such as the Cape Verde Storm-petrel occurred at high densities only on rat-free islets and in steep areas of main islands where introduced cats and rats are unlikely to occur. The main threats to seabird populations in Cabo Verde range from predation by introduced predators, habitat alteration or destruction, and some residual human persecution.
To elucidate mechanisms across family function, home environment and eating behaviours within sociocultural context among Hispanic youth.
Two models tested via path analysis (youth fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption; empty energy consumption) using data from the Study of Latino Youth (2011–2013).
Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; Bronx, NY; San Diego, CA.
Youth (8–16-year-olds), n 1466.
Youth ate 2·4 servings of FV per d and received 27 % of total energy from empty energies. Perceiving higher acculturative stress was indirectly associated with lower FV consumption via a pathway of low family function and family support for FV (β = −0·013, P < 0·001) and via lower family closeness and family support (β = −0·004, P = 0·004). Being >12-year-olds was indirectly associated with lower FV consumption via lower family closeness and family support (β = −0·006, P < 0·001). Household food security was indirectly associated with greater FV consumption via family closeness and family support (β = 0·005, P = 0·003). In contrast, perceiving higher acculturative stress was indirectly associated with higher empty energy consumption (via family closeness and family support: β = 0·003, P = 0·028 and via low family function and low family support: β = 0·008, P = 0·05). Being older was associated with higher consumption of empty energies via family closeness (related to family support: β = 0·04, P = 0·016; parenting strategies for eating: β = 0·002, P = 0·049).
Findings suggest pathways of influence across demographic and sociocultural context, family dynamics and home environment. The directionality of these associations needs confirmation using longitudinal data.
Implementation of genome-scale sequencing in clinical care has significant challenges: the technology is highly dimensional with many kinds of potential results, results interpretation and delivery require expertise and coordination across multiple medical specialties, clinical utility may be uncertain, and there may be broader familial or societal implications beyond the individual participant. Transdisciplinary consortia and collaborative team science are well poised to address these challenges. However, understanding the complex web of organizational, institutional, physical, environmental, technologic, and other political and societal factors that influence the effectiveness of consortia is understudied. We describe our experience working in the Clinical Sequencing Evidence-Generating Research (CSER) consortium, a multi-institutional translational genomics consortium.
A key aspect of the CSER consortium was the juxtaposition of site-specific measures with the need to identify consensus measures related to clinical utility and to create a core set of harmonized measures. During this harmonization process, we sought to minimize participant burden, accommodate project-specific choices, and use validated measures that allow data sharing.
Identifying platforms to ensure swift communication between teams and management of materials and data were essential to our harmonization efforts. Funding agencies can help consortia by clarifying key study design elements across projects during the proposal preparation phase and by providing a framework for data sharing data across participating projects.
In summary, time and resources must be devoted to developing and implementing collaborative practices as preparatory work at the beginning of project timelines to improve the effectiveness of research consortia.
Nowadays several authors defend the existence of an obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum in which eating disorders (ED), especially anorexia nervosa, would be include. We investigated the presence of OC symptoms in bulimic and anorexic patients and its relationships with personality traits.
The Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire (MOCQ) and the revised version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) were administered to patients and healthy controls.
Patients show higher scores than controls in the global punctuation of de MOCQ, and in the checking and doubt subscales. Cases also score higher in harm avoidance (dimension associated with personality disorders of cluster C) and in its subscale anticipatory worry. No differences were found between patients subgroups.
Restricting Anorexia Nervosa (RAN, n = 21)
Binging-Purging Anorexia Nervosa (BPAN, n = 29)
Bulimia Nervosa (BN, n = 34)
Control (C, n = 52)
RAN, BPAN, BN > C
Checking subscale (MOCQ)
BPAN, BN > C
RAN, BPAN, BN > C
Harm avoidance (TCI-R)
BPAN, BN > C
Anticipatory worry vs optimism (TCI-R)
RAN, BPAN, BN > C
Patients present more OC behaviours in comparison with healthy population but measures of obsessivity do not differ between the types of ED. Traits of personality characteristically associated to cluster C and to anxiety disorders seem to be also common features. These results do not support a separated classification of RAN into the OC spectrum.
Ever since Hippocrates that it is acknowledged that post-partum represents a period of vulnerability for a number of psychiatric conditions in women, including postpartum psychosis.
In this poster, following a discussion of a clinical case of postpartum psychosis, we make a revision of the issue, with historical background, discussion of classification and nosologic status within international classification systems, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis.
The method used consisted in revision of literature, research of scientific articles on medline, consultation of gynecology clinical file and inpatient obstetrics and psychiatry clinical files.
From our research, we emphasize that postpartum psychosis is accountable for a small fraction of psychiatric morbidity in post-partum, occurring more frequently in primiparas, and women with similar psychiatric antecedents. Even thought there may be different clinical presentations, affective symptoms, state of conscience fluctuations and mood congruent delusions are typical. Several studies suggest that most cases are associated to bipolar disease.
Postpartum psychosis is a medical emergence. Fast identification and evaluation are crucial to implement multidisciplinary obstetrics and psychiatric care, involving family and providing adequate social support.
To determine the clinical profile of patients diagnosed of delusional disorder (DD) admitted to a psychiatric ward.
Retrospective chart review of inpatients with diagnoses of delusional disorder (DD) according ICD-10 criteria admitted to a psychiatric ward (Hospital de Conxo, Santiago de Compostela) between January 1998 and December 2008. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected, with special attention to comorbidity and presumed risk factors.
The sample consisted in 56 inpatients (30 women, mean age 54 ± 11). 64.3% were single including never married (33.9%), divorced, separated and widowed and 33.9% lived alone. The most frequent type of DD was persecutory (67%) followed by mixed type (16%). 16.1% presented hallucinations (most frequent auditory). In comparison with the other types, patients with persecutory delusions usually lived alone (p < 0.05). Most frequent comorbidities were substance abuse and affective disorders. Familiar background of psychoses was recorded in 21.4% and history of emigration in 12.5%. 5.4% suffered deafness. During the period studied 53.6% were admitted two or more times. After the most recent admission 32.1% were on depot antipsychotic.
In concordance with other previous reports, DD seemed to be more prevalent in women in middle or late adulthood and persecutory were the most frequent delusions. In our sample, most patients were not married and high prevalence of family antecedents of psychoses was found. It could be related with its hospital origin; then it could be hypothesized living alone and having familiar background of psychoses to be risk factors of hospitalization.
In our work we propose to use the adult developmental eye movement test (A-DEM) of Gene Sampedro et al, for the study of saccadic movements in schizophrenia.
To study the importance of saccades and attention in a sample of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia in a Unit of Psychosocial Rehabilitation.
Sample formed by 30 people.15 patients and 15 controls. 15 patients were corresponding to all the schizophrenic patients admitted in January, 2009 in a Unit of Psycosocial Rehabilitation of Conxo's Psychiatric Hospital. The 15 of the group control were selected of random form between sanitary personnel without psychiatric pathology, homogenizing the variables chronological age and sex with regard to the group of investigation.
The A-DEM vertical half to 44.37 seconds in the control group versus 59.54 seconds in the sample of patients. Regarding the results of the horizontal A-DEM obtained an average score of 47.07 seconds compared to control group obtained 60.68 seconds in the group of patients. The schizophrenic patients are characterized for having an attention diminished in 87 %, opposite to 47 % of the group control that they have a normal attention and 40 % increased. These differences of saccadic movements and of the attention are statistically significant.
Schizophrenic patients have few saccades both horizontally and vertically slower than normal people.
Schizophrenic patients show a marked deficit of attention to the normal population.
The aim of this study is to assess the personality traits in a sample of Spanish anorexic and bulimic outpatients.
The revised version of the Temperament and Character Inventory was administered to 76 women attended in an Eating Disorders Unit and to 46 healthy controls. Both groups were matched by gender, age and instruction.
Diagnoses in the sample were distributed as follows: bulimia nervosa (BN) 33, binging-purging type anorexia nervosa (BPAN) 23 and restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN) 18. RAN patients were significantly younger (21.6 vs. 26.3 p < 0.01). Differences in the harm avoidance, persistence and selfdirectedness subscales of the TCI were found (see table).
BPAN, BN > C
RAN > C
C > RAN, BPAN, BN
In concordance with previous reports, compared with healthy controls, patients show lower scores in self-directedness. Persistence seems to be associated with restricting behaviours, whereas harm avoidance with binging and purging. RAN trends to have low scores in novelty seeking items and BN shows lower reward dependence, but this differences are not statistically significant, perhaps because of sample size.
To compare the efficacy and safety of the intramuscular formulations of ziprasidone and haloperidol in treating agitation in schizophrenic patients attended in an emergency room.
Consecutive patients were alternatively assigned to receive 20 mg of IM ziprasidone or 10 mg of IM haloperidol. Efficacy measures were improvement in Behavioral Activity Rating Scale (BARS), in the sum of five items of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale that focused on agitation (PANSS-A) and scores on the Clinical Global Impression improvement scale (CGI-I), obtained 45 minutes and 2 hours after the IM medication. Tolerability assessments included changes in ECG, monitoring of vital signs and register of adverse events.
Finally 18 patients (13 men, mean age 40.8 ±10.2) were included in the analysis of data. At arrival in the emergency room, there were no differences between ziprasidone (Z) and haloperidol (H) groups in age, mean QTc length, mean BARS and mean PANSS-A scores. Analyzing the global sample there was an improvement in agitation scores. No significant differences were found between the groups in change of BARS and PANSS-A scores, in CGI-I scores or in the variation of the length of QTc interval at two hours. No serious adverse events were reported.
In spite of the small sample size, both treatments ziprasidone IM and haloperidol IM seems to be similarly effective for the management of psychotic agitation in the emergency room. Both were well tolerated. Lengthening of QTc interval due to ziprasidone IM had not been found in our sample.
Brief Psychotic Disorder (BPD) is a disease characterized by sudden onset of psychotic symptoms. This disturbance lasts at least 1 day but less than 1 month, and the subject fully recovered premorbid level. In the literature there are few data on its prevalence, established between 4-10% of all psychotic disorders. Although a female preponderance has been postuled, gender differences have not been well studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examined sex differences in brief psychotic disorder.
We conducted a retrospective study to estimate the gender differences in an inpatient psychiatric sample. This sample (n=39) included acute patients admitted in a psychiatry ward with diagnosis of brief psychotic disorder. The clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were analysed for males and females separately.
Of a total of 39 patients with BPD, 74.4% were women (n = 29) and 25.6% male (n = 10). Mean age at diagnosis was 33 +/- 8.65 years. Of the clinical variables studied, none was significantly different between male and female. Men had a higher consumption of alcohol (p< 0’05); there were no differences in axis II. Males had more psychiatric family history (70% vs 48.3%), although not statistically significant. Women had more frequent family history of mood disorders and men of psychotic disorders (p < 0.05).
We found higher prevalence of BPD in women. Males had more family history (mostly psychotic) and more toxic dependence. Further studies are needed with larger samples to determine the existence of sex differences.
The TaqIA polymorphism linked to the DRD2 gene has been associated with alcoholism. The aim of this work is to study attention and inhibitory control as per the continuous performance test and the stop task in a sample of 50 Spanish male alcoholic patients split into two groups according to the presence of the TaqIA1 allele in their genotype. Our results show that alcoholics carrying the TaqIA1 allele present lower sustained attention and less inhibitory control than those patients without such allele.
Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a prevalence up to 4% of the general adult population, however in Spain adult ADHD is underdiagnosed. Screening instruments can help clinicians to detect adult ADHD. The World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-Version 1.1 (ASRS v1.1) is a 6-question scale designed to screen for adult ADHD.
A validation of Spanish version of the ASRS v1.1 was performed.
A case control study was carry out (adult ADHD vs non ADHD) in the Adult ADHD Program of the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona). ADHD evaluation was performed using Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID-Part II) and the diagnosis was compared with the ASRS v1.1 responses. Logistic regression study was made to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV). Kappa coefficient of classification accuracy and area under curve (AUC) were calculated.
Sample consisted of 90 adult ADHD and 90 controls. Average age was 31.6 (SD=10.09) and 57.8% of subjects were men (there were no significant differences between the two groups). Logistic regression analysis showed that the score model proposed by the authors of scale is significant (c2 =129.36, p=.0005): Sensitivity (82.2%), specificity (95.6%), PPV (94.8%), NPV (84.3%), Kappa coefficient 0.78 and AUC 0.89.
The Spanish version of the ASRS v1.1 6-question shows adequate psychometric characteristics and it is a valid scale to screen ADHD for adults in a clinical setting.
Co-morbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Substance Use Disorders (SUD) is considered to be about 25–50% in adults. Several studies show vulnerability factors to later SUD to be associated with childhood ADHD features, such as conduct problems, untreated ADHD and maltreatment.
To define childhood ADHD associated factors that predispose to SUD.
Specifically, comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), temperamental traits, academic failure, familial SUD history, childhood maltreatment and subtype, severity and age of treatment of ADHD symptoms.
A comparative study was carried out in a sample of ADHD adults from the Department of Psychiatry H.U. Vall d’Hebron. Both groups, ADHD and ADHD+SUD subjects underwent the following assessment protocol: Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID-I & II), Wender Utath Rating Scale (WURS), SCID-I, SCID-II and K-SDAS.
The total sample (n = 305) consisted of 201 men (66%) with age between 18–61 years. Two groups were compared: 162 ADHD subjects and 143 ADHD+SUD subjects. The ADHD+SUD group had significantly higher rates of comorbidity with ODD and CD, temperamental traits (obstinacy, bad temper, impulsive behavior), maladaptive behaviors at school, familial SUD history, childhood maltreatment, and major severity of the childhood ADHD symptoms. Neither ADHD subtype nor the non-treatment of ADHD during childhood were associated with later SUD.
An important percentage of ADHD children develop a SUD during their lifespan. This study shows that there are childhood factors that are strongly associated with SUD in ADHD subjects.