To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
We study the spreading of viscous fluid injected under an elastic sheet, which is driven by gravity and by elastic bending and tension forces and resisted by viscous forces. The injected fluid forms a large blister and spreads outwards analogously to a viscous gravity current or a capillary droplet. The relative strengths of the three driving forces are determined by how the horizontal length scales of the system compare with three key transition length scales. Bending is dominant on small length scales, tension is dominant on intermediate length scales and gravity is dominant on large length scales. We show how to use the method of matched asymptotic expansions to predict the spreading rate and thickness profile of the blister of fluid in the seven possible asymptotic regimes, for both two-dimensional and axisymmetric geometries. Consideration of different physical effects at the fluid front increases the number of regimes yet further.
Diet has direct and indirect effects on health through inflammation and the gut microbiome. We investigated total dietary inflammatory potential via the literature-derived index (Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®)) with gut microbiota diversity, composition and function. In cancer-free patient volunteers initially approached at colonoscopy and healthy volunteers recruited from the medical centre community, we assessed 16S ribosomal DNA in all subjects who provided dietary assessments and stool samples (n 101) and the gut metagenome in a subset of patients with residual fasting blood samples (n 34). Associations of energy-adjusted DII scores with microbial diversity and composition were examined using linear regression, permutational multivariate ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate associations of species and pathways with DII and circulating inflammatory markers. Across DII levels, α- and β-diversity did not significantly differ; however, Ruminococcus torques, Eubacterium nodatum, Acidaminococcus intestini and Clostridium leptum were more abundant in the most pro-inflammatory diet group, while Akkermansia muciniphila was enriched in the most anti-inflammatory diet group. With adjustment for age and BMI, R. torques, E. nodatum and A. intestini remained significantly associated with a more pro-inflammatory diet. In the metagenomic and fasting blood subset, A. intestini was correlated with circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, a pro-inflammatory marker (rho = 0·40), but no associations remained significant upon correction for multiple testing. An index reflecting overall inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with specific microbes, but not overall diversity of the gut microbiome in our study. Findings from this preliminary study warrant further research in larger samples and prospective cohorts.
Medication non-compliance is common in the treatment of depression, particularly in Asia.
1) To describe the frequency and factors associated with medication non-compliance. 2) To study the influence of non-compliance on treatment outcomes.
Nine hundred and nine in- and out-patients from Asia presenting with a new or first episode of major depressive disorder were enrolled in a 3-month prospective observational study. Clinical severity and quality of life were assessed, using Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17), Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S), and EuroQoL measures (EQ-5D and EQ-VAS). Medication compliance was also assessed by the investigator and patient. Linear and logistic multiple regression models were used to analyze the consequences of non-compliance.
The proportion of non-compliant patients as assessed by the investigator was 16%. Sociodemographic factors and clinical severity were not associated with compliance at baseline. Regression models showed that medication non-compliance was associated with worse depression severity (difference in HAMD-17 -3.98; 95% CI -5.10, -2.87) and overall clinical severity (CGI-S difference -0.46; 95%CI -0.68, -0.24) at three months. Medication non-compliance was also associated with lower quality of life at three months (EQ-VAS difference -7.47; 95%CI -11.13, - 3.82) and EQ-5D score difference -0.08; 95%CI -0.1, -0.04)). Compliant patients had higher odds of response (odds ratio (OR) 3.18; 95% CI 1.98, 5.10) and remission (OR 3.94; 95% CI 2.42, 6.43) compared with non-compliant patients.
Patients non-compliant with medication had worse 3-month outcomes in terms of depression severity, quality of life, and response and remission rates, compared with compliant patients.
The analysis of medication discontinuation may allow the comparison of the effectiveness of different medications and may help us understand treatment patterns in depression. Clinical guidelines recommend at least six months of antidepressant maintenance treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD).
To determine the duration of antidepressant treatment in Asian patients treated with antidepressants for a major depressive episode and to understand the reasons and factors associated with discontinuation.
Nine hundred and nine in- and out-patients from Asia, of which 569 started an antidepressant medication at the baseline visit, presenting with a new or first episode of MDD were enrolled in a 3-month prospective observational study. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox models were used to estimate discontinuation rates and factors associated with discontinuation. Survival analysis with competing risks was used to analyze the influence of different reasons for discontinuation.
Of the 569 patients included in the study, 430 (75.6%) were evaluated at three months and analyzed. Of them, 242 (56%) discontinued the treatment during the three months follow-up and 188 maintained it. Of the overall sample, half of the patients discontinued the medication within 70 days. The most frequent reason for discontinuation was inadequate response (n=155, 64%), followed by adequate response (n=62, 26%). A relatively high proportion of patients with adequate response (30% at 130 days) discontinued the medication. Country and type of antidepressant were associated with medication discontinuation.
Medication discontinuation in Asian patients with depression is high, even for patients who respond adequately to treatment.
The aims of this study were to determine the presence of painful physical symptoms (PPS) and its impact on depression outcomes in different gender and age groups.
Three hundred in- and out-patients from China presenting with a new or first episode of major depressive disorder were enrolled in a 3- month prospective observational study from Asia (N=909). Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17), Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S), EuroQoL and the pain-related items of the Somatic Symptom Inventory were administered. Patients were classified into three age groups (<40, n=119; =40-<60, n=133; =60, n=48). Linear and logistic regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between PPS at baseline and outcomes.
Older patients had higher HAMD-17 severity at baseline. HAMD score was 25.9 (SD 6.1) in =60 vs. 22.5 (SD 5.0) in <40 and 24.8 (SD 5.2) in =40-<60. There were no statistically significant differences in the proportion of patients with PPS across gender and age groups. During follow-up, depression severity improved. There were no statistically significant differences in the degree of improvement by gender, but there were differences by age group. Mean change in HAMD was -16.4 (95%CI -17.7;-15.1) for those <40, -19.9 (95%CI -21.1;-18.7) in 40-60 and - 20.3 (95%CI -22.6;-17.9) in >60. PPS positive patients had worse clinical and quality of life outcomes across genders and age groups.
The presence of painful physical symptoms is associated with a lower improvement in depression outcomes and a lower quality of life in patients with major depression across different gender and age groups.
This paper focuses on the problem of skin corrosion on the upper wing surfaces of rib-stiffened aircraft. For maritime and military transport aircraft this often results in multiple co-located repairs. The common approach to corrosion damage in operational aircraft is to blend out the corrosion and rivet a mechanical doubler over the region. In particular this paper describes the results of a combined numerical and experimental investigation into the ability of the additive metal technology, Supersonic Particle Deposition (SPD), to restore the load-carrying capacity of rib-stiffened wing planks with simulated skin corrosion. The experimental results reveal that unrepaired skin corrosion can result in failure by yielding. The experimental results also reveal that SPD repairs to skin corrosion can restore the stress field in the structure, and can ensure that the load-carrying capability of the repaired structure is above proof load.
Intelligent control of friction and adhesion has attracted much attention for use in soft robotics, human-sensor interfaces, and bionics. Here we introduce a shape memory photonic crystal (SMPC) polymer that can be programmed and recovered by solvent to realize switchable surface friction. Micro sliding test show that the friction coefficient on this SMPC in the programmed and recovered state can vary by three times. We also show that the mechanism behind this switchable friction coefficient is the surface roughness related adhesion.
Thin, roughly horizontal low-permeability layers are a common form of large-scale heterogeneity in geological porous formations. In this paper, the dynamics of a buoyancy-driven plume in a two-dimensional layered porous medium is studied theoretically, with the aid of high-resolution numerical simulations. The medium is uniform apart from a thin, horizontal layer of a much lower permeability, located a dimensionless distance
below the dense plume source. If the dimensionless thickness
of the low-permeability layer are small, the effect of the layer is found to be well parameterized by its impedance
. Five different regimes of flow are identified and characterized. For
, the layer has no effect on the plume, but as
is increased the plume widens and spreads over the layer as a gravity current. For still larger
, the flow becomes destabilized by convective instabilities both below and above the layer, until, for
, the spread of the plume is dominated by convective mixing and buoyancy is transported across the layer by diffusion alone. Analytical models for the spread of the plume over the layer in the various different regimes are presented.
The present study aimed to investigate whether dietary choline can regulate lipid metabolism and suppress NFκB activation and, consequently, attenuate inflammation induced by a high-fat diet in black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii). An 8-week feeding trial was conducted on fish with an initial weight of 8·16 ± 0·01 g. Five diets were formulated: control, low-fat diet (11 %); HFD, high-fat diet (17 %); and HFD supplemented with graded levels of choline (3, 6 or 12 g/kg) termed HFD + C1, HFD + C2 and HFD + C3, respectively. Dietary choline decreased lipid content in whole body and tissues. Highest TAG and cholesterol concentrations in serum and liver were recorded in fish fed the HFD. Similarly, compared with fish fed the HFD, dietary choline reduced vacuolar fat drops and ameliorated HFD-induced pathological changes in liver. Expression of genes of lipolysis pathways were up-regulated, and genes of lipogenesis down-regulated, by dietary choline compared with fish fed the HFD. Expression of nfκb and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver and intestine was suppressed by choline supplementation, whereas expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines was promoted in fish fed choline-supplemented diets. In fish that received lipopolysaccharide to stimulate inflammatory responses, the expression of nfκb and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, intestine and kidney were all down-regulated by dietary choline compared with the HFD. Overall, the present study indicated that dietary choline had a lipid-lowering effect, which could protect the liver by regulating intrahepatic lipid metabolism, reducing lipid droplet accumulation and suppressing NFκB activation, consequently attenuating HFD-induced inflammation in A. schlegelii.
The regulation of lipogenesis and lipolysis mechanisms related to consumption of lipid has not been studied in swimming crab. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, enzymes activities and expression of genes of lipid metabolism in hepatopancreas of juvenile swimming crab. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain crude lipid levels at 5·8, 9·9 and 15·1 %. Crabs fed the diet containing 15·1 % lipid had significantly lower growth performance and feed utilisation than those fed the 5·8 and 9·9 % lipid diets. Crabs fed 5·8 % lipid had lower malondialdehyde concentrations in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas than those fed the other diets. Highest glutathione peroxidase in haemolymph and superoxide dismutase in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 5·8 % lipid. The lowest fatty acid synthase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 15·1 % lipid, whereas crabs fed 5·8 % lipid had lower carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity than those fed the other diets. Crabs fed 15·1 % lipid showed lower hepatopancreas expression of genes involved in long-chain-PUFA biosynthesis, lipoprotein clearance, fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, lipid anabolism and lipid catabolism than those fed the other diets, whereas expression of some genes of lipoprotein assembly and fatty acid oxidation was up-regulated compared with crabs fed 5·8 % lipid. Overall, high dietary lipid level can inhibit growth, reduce antioxidant enzyme activities and influence lipid metabolic pathways to regulate lipid deposition in crab.
This paper presents the design of an elliptical shape ultra-wide band antenna for imaging of wood. The antenna is constructed comprising an elliptical shape of patch loaded by a stub to resonate at lower bands, strip loading at the back, and chamfered ground. Despite having miniaturized dimensions of 20 mm × 20 mm, the proposed antenna shows better results compared to recent studies. The simulation results depict a good ultra-wide bandwidth from 2.68 to 16 GHz, and 18.2–20 GHz. Besides, the proposed antenna has two low-frequency bands at 0.89–0.92 and 1.52–1.62 GHz, maximum gain of 5.48 dB, and maximum directivity of 6.9 dBi. The measurement outcomes are performed in air, plywood, and high-density wood and show a good agreement with the simulated results done using electromagnetic simulator CST. In addition to that, the measurement results of S-parameters, transmitted and received signals show a good agreement with the simulated results. Besides, the measured results illustrate a good isolation and uniform illumination among arrays as well as the received signals' shapes do not change in different environments, but only the amplitude. Hence, the proposed antenna seems to be adequate for microwave imaging of wood.
We study the mechanisms affecting the viscous-fingering instability in an elastic-walled Hele-Shaw cell by considering the stability of steady states of unidirectional peeling-by-pulling and peeling-by-bending. We demonstrate that the elasticity of the wall influences the steady base state but has a negligible direct effect on the behaviour of linear perturbations, which thus behave like in the ‘printer’s instability’ with rigid walls. Moreover, the geometry of the cell can be very well approximated as a triangular wedge in the stability analysis. We identify four distinct mechanisms – surface tension acting on the horizontal and the vertical interfacial curvatures, kinematic compression in the longitudinal base flow, and the films deposited on the cell walls – that each contribute to stabilizing the system. The vertical curvature is the dominant stabilizing mechanism for small capillary numbers, but all four mechanisms have a significant effect in a large region of parameter space.
Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Pythium aphanidermatum Edson cause cabbage seedling damping-off, resulting in severe yield losses. The current study demonstrates the production of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by two strains of Bacillus mycoides and the evaluation of a potential use of B. mycoides as a biocontrol agent to control cabbage damping-off. Two VOCs, dimethyl disulphide and ammonia, were found to reduce radial growth, cause hyphal deformation and result in organelle degeneration in both R. solani and P. aphanidermatum. Pathogen hyphae, after being exposed to VOCs, showed poor rigidity, shrinkage, curling and swelling. The amount of VOCs produced by B. mycoides and the antagonistic activity against plant pathogens varied, depending on the type of medium used to culture bacteria. Application of B. mycoides cell suspensions to cultivation medium promotes growth of five different plant species tested. Experiments conducted in greenhouses revealed that B. mycoides did not reduce damping-off incidence caused by R. solani. However, B. mycoides reduced damping-off incidence induced by P. aphanidermatum by as much as 45% on cabbage seedlings. The results provide valuable information on the feasibility of utilizing B. mycoides as a biocontrol agent in controlling cabbage damping-off.
Based on the data from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS), we statistically study the photometric properties of globular clusters (GCs), ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) and dwarf nuclei in the Virgo core (M87) region. We found an obvious negative color (g - z) gradient in GC system associate with M87, i.e. GCs in the outer regions are bluer. However, such color gradient does not exist in UCD system, neither in dwarf nuclei system around M87. In addition, we found that many UCDs are surrounded by extended, low surface brightness envelopes. The dwarf nuclei and UCDs show different spatial distributions from GCs, with dwarf nuclei and UCDs (especially for the UCDs with visible envelopes) lying at larger distances to the Virgo center. These results support the view that UCDs (at least for a fraction of UCDs) are more tied to dwarf nuclei than to GCs.
Be/X-ray binaries are a major subclass of high mass X-ray binaries. Two different X-ray outbursts are displayed in the X-ray light curves of such systems. It is generally believed that the X-ray outbursts are connected with the neutron star periastron passage of the circumstellar disk around the Be star. The optical emission of the Be star should be very important to understand the X-ray emission of the compact object. We have monitored several Be/X-ray binaries photometrically and spectroscopically in the optical band. The relationship between the optical emission and X-ray activity is described, which is very useful to explain the X-ray outbursts in Be/X-ray binaries.
We study the viscous-fingering instability in a radial Hele-Shaw cell in which the top boundary has been replaced by a thin elastic sheet. The introduction of wall elasticity delays the onset of the fingering instability to much larger values of the injection flow rate. Furthermore, when the instability develops, the fingers that form on the expanding air–liquid interface are short and stubby, in contrast with the highly branched patterns observed in rigid-walled cells (Pihler-Puzović et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, 074502). We report the outcome of a comprehensive experimental study of this problem and compare the experimental observations to the predictions from a theoretical model that is based on the solution of the Reynolds lubrication equations, coupled to the Föppl–von-Kármán equations which describe the deformation of the elastic sheet. We perform a linear stability analysis to study the evolution of small-amplitude non-axisymmetric perturbations to the time-evolving base flow. We then derive a simplified model by exploiting the observations (i) that the non-axisymmetric perturbations to the sheet are very small and (ii) that perturbations to the flow occur predominantly in a small wedge-shaped region ahead of the air–liquid interface. This allows us to identify the various physical mechanisms by which viscous fingering is weakened (or even suppressed) by the presence of wall elasticity. We show that the theoretical predictions for the growth rate of small-amplitude perturbations are in good agreement with experimental observations for injection flow rates that are slightly larger than the critical flow rate required for the onset of the instability. We also characterize the large-amplitude fingering patterns that develop at larger injection flow rates. We show that the wavenumber of these patterns is still well predicted by the linear stability analysis, and that the length of the fingers is set by the local geometry of the compliant cell.
We report on a novel processing route to prepare La0.8Ce0.2(Fe0.95Co0.05)11.8Si1.2/Cu bulk composites by low-temperature hot pressing. With increasing copper content, the compressive strength of the composites first decrease and then increase owing to the buffering effect of copper, but the magnetocaloric effect reduces to some extent. Copper addition improves the thermal conductivity of the composites, which compensates for the decrease in thermal conductivity due to porosity. A relatively large entropy change of 5.75–7.19 J/(kg K) at 2 T near the Curie temperature (249 K), good thermal conductivity of 7.51–15.55 W/(m·K), and improved compressive strength of 151.1–248.0 MPa make these composites attractive magnetic refrigeration materials.
This paper reports the measurement of the energy loss of protons at the energy of 100 keV penetrating a partially ionized hydrogen plasma. The plasma of ne ≈ 1015–16 cm−3; Te ≈ 1–2 eV and lifetime of about 8 µs is created by the hydrogen gas discharge. The experimental results show an increase of a factor of 2.8 in the energy loss, which are in good agreement with the Bethe, Standard Stopping Model, Li–Petrasso and Vlasov models’ predictions within the error limit. The Bethe–Bloch Coulomb logarithm term is found to increase by a factor of 4.0 for free electrons as compared with the situation where bound electrons prevail. The potential application of protons energy loss for diagnosing the electron density in plasma is proposed too.