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Hippocampal abnormalities have been demonstrated in schizophrenia. It is
unclear whether these abnormalities worsen with age, and whether they
affect cognition and function.
To determine whether hippocampal abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia
are associated with age, cognition and socio-occupational function.
Using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging we scanned 100 persons aged 19–82
years: 51 were out-patients with stable schizophrenia at least 2 years
after diagnosis and 49 were healthy volunteers matched for age and
gender. Automated analysis was used to determine hippocampal volume and
There were differential effects of age in the schizophrenia and control
samples on total hippocampal volume (group×age interaction:
F(1,95) = 6.57, P = 0.012), with steeper
age-related reduction in the schizophrenia group. Three-dimensional shape
analysis located the age-related deformations predominantly in the
mid-body of the hippocampus. In the schizophrenia group similar patterns
of morphometric abnormalities were correlated with impaired cognition and
poorer socio-occupational function.
Hippocampal abnormalities are associated with age in people with chronic
schizophrenia, with a steeper decline than in healthy individuals. These
abnormalities are associated with cognitive and functional deficits,
suggesting that hippocampal morphometry may be a biomarker for cognitive
decline in older patients with schizophrenia.
Este estudio investiga tres funciones de control inhibidoras diferentes en pacientes con trastorno obsesivo compulsivo (TOC). La inhibición selectiva de la respuesta motora se investigó con un paradigma GO/NO-GO, la inhibición de una respuesta motora desencadenada con el paradigma STOP y la capacidad de inhibir la interferencia cognitiva con el paradigma motor STROOP.
Se aplicaron los tests GO/NO-GO (ejecución-no ejecución), STOP y STROOP a 27 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios del DSM-IV para TOC y 25 sujetos de control sanos apareados por edad, lateralidad y CI.
Los pacientes con TOC tuvieron un rendimiento significativamente peor que los controles en la inhibición selectiva de las respuestas (GO/NO-GO) y en la inhibición de la interferencia cognitiva (STROOP) y también tuvieron peor rendimiento en la inhibición de respuestas motoras previamente desencadenadas (STOP).
Los pacientes con TOC tienen deficiencias en los mecanismos inhibidores motores y cognitivos. Los resultados coinciden con los modelos psicobiológicos y neuropsicológicos de TOC que sugieren que existe un deterioro en los circuitos frontoestriatales que regulan las funciones de control inhibidor.
The present study investigates different three inhibitory control functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Selective motor response inhibition was tested in a GO/NO-GO paradigm, the inhibition of a triggered motor response in a STOP paradigm and the ability to inhibit cognitive interference in a motor STROOP paradigm.
27 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD and 25 age, handedness and IQ-matched healthy control subjects were tested in the GO/NO-GO, STOP and motor STROOP tasks.
OCD patients performed significantly worse than controls in the selective inhibition of their motor responses (GO/NO-GO) and in the inhibition of cognitive interference (STROOP), and also showed worse performance in suppressing previously triggered motor responses (STOP).
Patients with OCD are impaired in motor and cognitive inhibitory mechanisms. The findings are consistent with psychobiological and neuropsychological models of OCD suggesting impairment of frontostriatal circuitries that mediate functions of inhibitory control.
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