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The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
This paper describes the epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Northern Ireland (NI) between 26 February 2020 and 26 April 2020, and analyses enhanced surveillance and contact tracing data collected between 26 February 2020 and 13 March 2020 to estimate secondary attack rates (SAR) and relative risk of infection among different categories of contacts of individuals with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Our results show that during the study period COVID-19 cumulative incidence and mortality was lower in NI than the rest of the UK. Incidence and mortality were also lower than in the Republic of Ireland (ROI), although these observed differences are difficult to interpret given considerable differences in testing and surveillance between the two nations. SAR among household contacts was 15.9% (95% CI 6.6%–30.1%), over 6 times higher than the SAR among ‘high-risk’ contacts at 2.5% (95% CI 0.9%–5.4%). The results from logistic regression analysis of testing data on contacts of laboratory-confirmed cases show that household contacts had 11.0 times higher odds (aOR: 11.0, 95% CI 1.7–70.03, P-value: 0.011) of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared to other categories of contacts. These results demonstrate the importance of the household as a locus of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and the urgency of identifying effective interventions to reduce household transmission.
With the growing interest in scale-resolving simulations of spatially evolving boundary layers, synthetic turbulence generation (STG) has become a valuable tool for providing unsteady turbulent boundary conditions through a sum over a finite number of spatio-temporal Fourier modes with amplitude, direction and phase determined by a random number set. Recent developments of STG methods are designed to match target profiles for anisotropic and inhomogeneous Reynolds stresses. In this paper, it is shown that, for practical values of the number of modes, a given set of random numbers may produce Reynolds stress profiles that are 30 % off their target. To remedy this situation, the error in the STG stress prediction is decomposed into a steady-state bias and a purely unsteady part affecting the time convergence. Direct relationships between the random number vectors and both types of error are developed, allowing large collections of random number sets to be rapidly scanned and the best performers selected for a much improved agreement with the target. The process is verified for the inflow to a direct numerical simulation of a flat plate at $Re_\theta = 1000$. This paper demonstrates sufficient time convergence over a few flow-through times as well as a correction of the method's biases.
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a group of diseases characterized by an abnormal glycosylation of proteins or lipids. It is estimated that more than half of all proteins in our body are glycosylated . Defined as all the sugar chains (glycans) that an organism makes, the glycome is estimated to be 102–104 times larger than the proteome . Given this complexity, it is not surprising that about 2% of our genes encode for proteins that are currently known to participate in glycosylation reactions . CDGs are classified according to the deficient glycosylated substrates, which can include proteins, lipids, or multiple substrates.
This article reviews the advancements and prospects of liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and analysis methods in understanding the nucleation, growth, etching, and assembly dynamics of nanocrystals. The bonding of atoms into nanoscale crystallites produces materials with nonadditive properties unique to their size and geometry. The recent application of in situ liquid cell TEM to nanocrystal development has initiated a paradigm shift, (1) from trial-and-error synthesis to a mechanistic understanding of the “synthetic reactions” responsible for the emergence of crystallites from a disordered soup of reactive species (e.g., ions, atoms, molecules) and shape-defined growth or etching; and (2) from post-processing characterization of the nanocrystals’ superlattice assemblies to in situ imaging and mapping of the fundamental interactions and energy landscape governing their collective phase behaviors. Imaging nanocrystal formation and assembly processes on the single-particle level in solution immediately impacts many existing fields, including materials science, nanochemistry, colloidal science, biology, environmental science, electrochemistry, mineralization, soft condensed-matter physics, and device fabrication.
Insights into the dynamics of electrochemical processes are critically needed to improve our fundamental understanding of electron, charge, and mass transfer mechanisms and reaction kinetics that influence a broad range of applications, from the functionality of electrical energy-storage and conversion devices (e.g., batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors), to materials degradation issues (e.g., corrosion and oxidation), and materials synthesis (e.g., electrodeposition). To unravel these processes, in situ electrochemical scanning/transmission electron microscopy (ec-S/TEM) was developed to permit detailed site-specific characterization of evolving electrochemical processes that occur at electrode–electrolyte interfaces in their native electrolyte environment, in real time and at high-spatial resolution. This approach utilizes “closed-form” microfabricated electrochemical cells that couple the capability for quantitative electrochemical measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution imaging, spectroscopy, and diffraction. In this article, we review the state-of-the-art instrumentation for in situ ec-S/TEM and how this approach has resulted in new observations of electrochemical processes.
This article addresses recent advances in liquid phase transmission electron microscopy (LPTEM) for studying nanoscale synthetic processes of carbon-based materials that are independent of the electron beam—those driven by nonradiolytic chemical or thermal reactions. In particular, we focus on chemical/physical formations and the assembly of nanostructures composed of organic monomers/polymers, peptides/DNA, and biominerals. The synthesis of carbon-based nanomaterials generally only occurs at specific conditions, which cannot be mimicked by aqueous solution radiolysis. Carbon-based structures themselves are also acutely sensitive to the damaging effects of the irradiating beam, which make studying their synthesis using LPTEM a unique challenge that is possible when beam effects can be quantified and mitigated. With new direct sensing, high frame-rate cameras, and advances in liquid cell holder designs, combined with a growing understanding of irradiation effects and proper experimental controls, microscopists have been able to make strides in observing traditionally problematic carbon-based materials under conditions where synthesis can be controlled, and imaged free from beam effects, or with beam effects quantified and accounted for. These materials systems and LPTEM experimental techniques are discussed, focusing on nonradiolytic chemical and physical transformations relevant to materials synthesis.
The chapter explores the styles of self-promotion available to elite Romans, ranging from frugal self-restraint and material sobriety to prodigial acts of civic generosity, and analyses the debates over and constraints on luxury and encouragement of frugality with respect to building projects and expensive heirlooms, not least those made of silver, from the late republic to the early imperial period. The chronologically and thematically wide-ranging investigation foregrounds in particular the enhanced social mobility that civil war and autocracy introduced into Roman society, including a discussion of why provincial newcomers such as Tacitus and Pliny the Younger affected particular enthusiasm for frugality and disapproved of luxury, as a way of positioning themselves as new arrivals within the ruling class of Rome.
Despite remission being the primary objective following the first episode of schizophrenia, clinically stabilised patients are rarely studied.
To assess the extent and fluctuation of low-level positive symptoms in patients who are in remission following their first episode of schizophrenia, and consider whether symptoms displayed are similar to those exhibited in the prodromal population.
Eleven patients who had recovered for at least six months following one episode of schizophrenia and subsequently fulfilled remission criteria were interviewed four times over the course of three months. Interviews were based on the Structured Interview of Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), an in-depth assessment of low-level symptoms that is widely used in the prodromal group. Data was compared to equivalent results from the prodromal population (with data provided by the local ED:IT service).
Over the course of the interviews 73% of participants displayed attenuated positive symptoms, predominantly unusual thought content and suspiciousness. 18% experienced brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS). Analysis with Friedman's test revealed no significant fluctuation in positive symptoms, indicating that they are stable over time. Furthermore, the symptoms exhibited in the sample were closely comparable to those in the prodromal group in the ED:IT service.
The majority of patients in remission are experiencing a form of ‘postdrome’, which appears to be an enduring state. the presence of these symptoms may put patients at an increased risk of relapse. Larger-scale research is required to follow-up this novel preliminary study.
In the European Prediction of Psychosis Study (EPOS) a large sample of young patients at high risk of psychosis (HR) were examined and their conversion rate to psychosis during 18 months follow-up was estimated. This presentation describes quality of life (QoL) and its changes in patients at risk of psychosis who did or did not convert to psychosis.
In all, 245 young HR patients were recruited and followed for 9 and 18 months. Risk of psychosis was defined by occurrence of basic symptoms (BS), attenuated psychotic symptoms (ATP), brief, limited or intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS) or familial risk plus reduced functioning (FR-RF). QoL was assessed at baseline and at 9 and 18 months’ follow-ups, and analysed in the HR-patients who converted (HR-P; n = 40) or did not converted to psychosis (HR-NP; n = 205).
There were no differences in the course of QoL between the HR-P and HR-NP patients. Of the inclusion criteria, only BS associated with poor QoL at baseline. Among HR-NP subjects, depressive symptoms associated with QoL at baseline and predicted poor QoL at 9 and 18 month follow-ups.
QoL of the HR-NP patients is as poor as that of the HR-P. From the QoL point of view, all HR patients require intensive treatment intervention from the first contact on. Especially, depressive disorders need to be treated vigorously.
The association between parental severe mental illness (SMI) and depression in offspring may be due to genetic liability or adverse environments. We investigated the effect of parental SMI, SES, and adversity on depression in a sample of youth enriched for familial risk of mental illness.
We assessed 217 youth (mean age 11.95, SD 4.14, range 6–24), including 167 (77%) offspring of parents with SMI. We measured exposure to childhood maltreatment and bullying with the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) and Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse (CECA) interview.
In total, 13.36% participants reported significant bullying and 40.76% had a history of childhood maltreatment. Rates of bullying and maltreatment were similar in offspring of parents with and without SMI. Maltreatment likelihood increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. Exposure to bullying (OR = 3.11, 95%CI 1.08–8.88, P = 0.03) predicted depression in offspring more strongly than family history of SMI in parents.
Adversity, such as maltreatment and bullying, has a stronger impact on the risk of developing depression than family history of mental illness in parents. These adverse experiences are associated with socioeconomic status rather than parental mental illness.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
− The role of the state as an agent of earth system governance has become more complex, contingent, and interdependent. − Although participatory and collaborative processes have contributed to more effective, equitable, and legitimate environmental governance outcomes in some instances, analyses of these processes should be situated within a broader governance perspective, which recasts questions of policy change around questions of power and justice. −The complexity and normative aspects of agency in earth system governance requires new forms of policy evaluation that account for social impacts and the ability of governance systems to adapt. − Many of the core analytical concepts in ESG–Agency scholarship, such as agency, power, authority, and accountability, remain under-theorized. In addition, some types of actors, including women, labor, non-human agents, those who work against earth system governance, and many voices from the Global South, remain largely hidden. − ESG–Agency scholars need to develop research projects and collaborations in understudied regions while also recruiting and supporting scholars in those regions to engage with this research agenda.
Children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders are at elevated risk for a range of behavioral and emotional problems. However, as the usual reporter of psychopathology in children is the parent, reports of early problems in children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders may be biased by the parents' own experience of mental illness and their mental state.
Independent observers rated psychopathology using the Test Observation Form in 378 children and youth between the ages of 4 and 24 (mean = 11.01, s.d. = 4.40) who had a parent with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or no history of mood and psychotic disorders.
Observed attentional problems were elevated in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia (effect sizes ranging between 0.31 and 0.56). Oppositional behavior and language/thought problems showed variable degrees of elevation (effect sizes 0.17 to 0.57) across the three high-risk groups, with the greatest difficulties observed in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Observed anxiety was increased in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (effect sizes 0.19 and 0.25 respectively) but not in offspring of parents with schizophrenia.
Our results suggest that externalizing problems and cognitive and language difficulties may represent a general manifestation of familial risk for mood and psychotic disorders, while anxiety may be a specific marker of liability for mood disorders. Observer assessment may improve early identification of risk and selection of youth who may benefit from targeted prevention.
The Coneybury ‘Anomaly’ is an Early Neolithic pit located just south-east of Stonehenge, Wiltshire. Excavations recovered a faunal assemblage unique in its composition, consisting of both wild and domestic species, as well as large quantities of ceramics and stone tools, including a substantial proportion of blades/bladelets. We present a suite of new isotope analyses of the faunal material, together with ancient DNA sex determination, and reconsider the published faunal data to ask: What took place at Coneybury, and who was involved? We argue on the basis of multiple lines of evidence that Coneybury represents the material remains of a gathering organised by a regional community, with participants coming from different areas. One group of attendees provided deer instead of, or in addition to, cattle. We conclude that the most likely scenario is that this group comprised local hunter-gatherers who survived alongside local farmers.
The island of Bonaire is a long-established Marine Protected Area (MPA), the reefs of which were extensively mapped in the early 1980s. Satellite remote sensing techniques were used to construct reef maps for 2008–2009. Metrics describing the spatial structure of coral habitat at the landscape scale – including coral cover, fragmentation, patch size and connectivity between patches – were calculated and compared between these two time periods. Changes were evaluated in and out of the MPAs and in areas exposed and sheltered from storm damage. Overall, coral cover has declined during the past three decades, being replaced by sand, but the decline has not been as drastic as elsewhere in the Caribbean. Fragmentation of the reef habitat has occurred, resulting in smaller and more disparate patches, but these changes were not associated with exposure along the coastline. However, total coral cover was maintained in sheltered areas, whereas it declined along exposed shorelines. Human protection of reefs by marine reserves had variable effects on coral cover and fragmentation. One of two no-diving marine reserves showed increases in coral cover accompanied by decreases in the number of patches of coral and an increase in the size of individual patches over the time period, while the second reserve exhibited the opposite trend. Advances in satellite remote sensing techniques allow for a more rapid assessment of changes in reefs at the landscape level, which can be used to identify spatial changes in the reef environment, including areas of coral decline.
Vitamin D deficiency is a common occurrence globally, and particularly so in pregnancy. There is conflicting evidence regarding the role of vitamin D during pregnancy in non-skeletal health outcomes for both the mother and the neonate. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of maternal total 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) with neonatal anthropometrics and markers of neonatal glycaemia in the Belfast centre of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study. Serological samples (n 1585) were obtained from pregnant women in the Royal Jubilee Maternity Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland, between 24 and 32 weeks’ gestation as part of the HAPO study. 25OHD concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography tandem-MS. Cord blood and neonatal anthropometric measurements were obtained within 72 h of birth. Statistical analysis was performed. After adjustment for confounders, birth weight standard deviation scores (SDS) and birth length SDS were significantly associated with maternal total 25OHD. A doubling of maternal 25OHD at 28 weeks’ gestation was associated with mean birth weight SDS and mean birth length SDS higher by 0·05 and 0·07, respectively (both, P=0·03). There were no significant associations with maternal 25OHD and other measures of neonatal anthropometrics or markers of neonatal glycaemia. In conclusion, maternal total 25OHD during pregnancy was independently associated with several neonatal anthropometric measurements; however, this association was relatively weak.