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• To describe personality characteristics in personality disorders (PDs) patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) comorbidity.
• Data on demographic, family, and clinical factors were gathered among subjects admitted to our dual diagnosis unit who met DSM-IV criteria for PDs and had comorbidity with SUDs.
• To explore the psychometric characteristics we used the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R).
• Overall, 32 subjects were assessed (72% males; mean age 38,4±7,3). Mean length of admission was 17,6 ± 7,5 days. Suicide attempt/ideation (50%) and behaviour disruption (19%) were main symptoms at admittance. Main drugs were alcohol (59,4%) and cocaine (15,6%); 24% had polydrug dependence (3 or more SUDs).
• TCI results showed a profile characterized by low self-directness (78,1%), low cooperativeness (46,9%) and high novelty seeking (31,3%).
• Sedative SUDs group (including alcohol, cannabis, and benzodiacepines SUDs) showed higher scores in asthenia (70,6 ± 2 vs. 57,52 ± 3,2; p=0,002), and locus of control (44,8 ± 4,1 vs. 31,4 ± 32,6; p=0,039) than stimulant SUDs group (including cocaine and amphetamine-like SUDs).
• Polydrug dependence group had higher scores in spiritual acceptance (63,6 ± 4,2 vs. 49,9 ± 2; p=0,003).
• The older group (38 thru highest) had higher scores in cooperativeness (44,8 ±3,2 vs. 35,7 ± 3,1; p=0,05) and compassion (47,9 ± 3,7 vs. 36,2 ± 3,8; p=0,03).
• We found a profile characterized by low scores in self-directness and cooperativeness as seen in previous surveys.
• The older patients seems attenuate some maladaptative personality characteristics.
Early onset of substances use disorders (SUD) has been related to some personality characteristics and a higher prevalence of social, psychiatric and organic problems.
To describe personality differences in early onset of alcohol use (EO, age≤ 15) subjects and late onset of alcohol use (LO, age≥16), both affected of acute non-substance use psychiatric disorders (Non-SUD) and alcohol related substance use disorders (alcohol SUD).
Data on sociodemographic and clinical factors were gathered among subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria of alcohol SUD. Psychometric characteristics were explored with TCI-R.
The whole sample (N = 188; age 36,8 ± 9,2; 71,4% male) showed mainly hallucinations/delusions (37,7%) at admittance and personality disorders (50,3%) as a most prevalent non-SUD. Most common comorbid SUD were alcohol (59,5%).
EO subjects (N = 103) had more prevalence of legal problems (51,4% vs. 15,9%), sedatives misuse (73,8% vs. 54,1%), polydrug abuse (2 ± 1,1 vs. 1,6 ± 1,0) and higher score in ASI psychopathology (5,8 ± 1,3 vs. 4,8 ± 1,8). Most frequent dual diagnosis in EO subjects were psychosis+cannabis SUD (8,7%).
EO group was characterized by higher impulsiveness (102,9 ± 16,4 vs 97,0 ± 14,5), disorderliness (127,6 ± 19,2 vs. 117,4 ± 21,7), harm avoidance (30,7 ± 4,9 vs. 28 ± 7,6), eagerness of effort (34,7 ± 7,5 vs. 31,6 ± 8,0), ambitious (19,2 ± 4,6 vs. 17,9 ± 3,1), perfectionist (29,8 ± 5,9 vs. 27,8 ± 6,2), responsibility (30,5 ± 6,9 vs. 27,9 ± 7,7), resourcefulness (25,9 ± 6,3 vs. 23,2 ± 6,8), enlightened second nature (17,7 ± 3,9 vs. 13,9 ± 4,6), social acceptance (32,0 ± 5,8 vs. 29,4 ± 7,1) and lower anticipatory worry (71,7 ± 18,5 vs. 79,8 ± 17,9), dependence (54,5 ± 12,4 vs. 59,2 ± 14,9).
EO was characterized by higher scores in impulsiveness, disorderliness, and self-directedness and showed more severity on social, psychopathologic and substance problems.
Describe the distinguishing characteristics between patients with early onset of alcohol use (EARLY, age < 15) and late onset of alcohol use (LATE, age > 16), both affected of acute non-substance use psychiatric disorders (non-SUD) and any substance use disorder admitted in a dual diagnosis unit.
Material and methods
Data on demographic, family, and clinical factors were gathered among subjects admitted to our dual diagnosis unit along three years, all of them meeting DSM-IV criteria of any non-substance related Axis I or II disorder and comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS program.
We show results of 748 patients (437 of EARLY group and 311 of LATE group). Predominantly male (73,53%) with a mean age of 39,60 ± 9,7 years. Most prevalent non-SUD psychiatric disorders were psychotic disorder (39,97%) and personality disorder (39,30%). In our sample, most common substances of abuse were Alcohol (45,05%) and Cocaine (30,35%). EARLY patients had an earlier first contact all substances as well as an earlier age of problematic consumption of cocaine, alcohol, opioids and nicotine; they also had major prevalence of opioid SUD, sedatives SUD and amphetamines SUD (see Tables 1, 2 and 3).
Patients who began earlier their consumptions of alcohol had major prevalence of opioid, sedatives and amphetamine use. They also had earlier consumptions of other substances and earlier problematic consumptions of cocaine, alcohol, opioids and nicotine, what probably means greater severity of drug addiction in the long run.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
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